[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sau3AI is a type II restriction enzyme that recognizes the 5'-GATC-3' sequence in double-strand DNA and cleaves at 5' to the G residue. The C-terminal domain of Sau3AI (Sau3AI-C), which contains amino acids from 233 to 489, was crystallized and its structure was solved by using the Multi-wavelength Anomalous Diffraction method. The Sau3AI-C structure at 1.9 A resolution is similar to the structure of MutH, a DNA mismatch repair protein that shares high sequence similarity with the N-terminal Sau3AI domain. The functional analysis shows that Sau3AI-C can bind DNA with one recognition sequence but has no cleavage activity. These results indicate that Sau3AI is a pseudo-dimer belonging to the type IIe restriction enzymes and the Sau3AI-C is the allosteric effector domain that assists DNA binding and cleavage.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2008; 1794(1):118-23. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this report, the effect of flufenamic acid on voltage-activated transient outward K(+) current (I(A)) in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells was investigated. At a concentration of 20 microM to 1 mM, flufenamic acid reversibly inhibited I(A) in a dose-dependent manner. However, flufenamic acid at a concentration of 0.1 to 10 microM significantly increased the current amplitude of I(A). In addition to the current amplitude of I(A), a higher concentration of flufenamic acid had a significant effect on the kinetic parameters of the steady-state activation and inactivation process, suggesting that the binding affinity of flufenamic acid to I(A) channels may be state-dependent. Silencing the K(v)4.2, K(v)4.3, and K(v)1.1 genes of I(A) channels using small interfering RNA did not change the inhibitory effect of flufenamic on I(A), indicating that flufenamic acid did not act specifically on any of the subunits of the I(A)-channel protein. Intracellular application of flufenamic acid could significantly increase the I(A) amplitude but did not alter the inhibited effect induced by extracellular application of flufenamic acid, implying that flufenamic acid may exert its effect from both the inside and outside sites of the channel. Furthermore, the activation of current induced by intracellular application of flufenamic acid could mimic other cyclooxygenase inhibitors and arachidonic acid. Our data are the first that demonstrate how flufenamic acid is able to bidirectionally modulate I(A) channels in neurons at different concentrations and by different methods of application and that two different mechanisms may be involved.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 08/2007; 322(1):195-204. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melatonin (MT) may work as a neuromodulator through the associated MT receptors in the central nervous system. Previously, our studies have shown that MT increased the I(K) current via a G protein-related pathway. In the present study, patch-clamp whole-cell recording, transwell migration assays and organotypic cerebellar slice cultures were used to examine the effect of MT on granule cell migration. MT increased the I(K) current amplitude and migration of granule cells. Meanwhile, TEA, the I(K) channel blocker, decreased the I(K) current and slowed the migration of granule cells. Furthermore, the effects of MT on the I(K) current and cell migration were not abolished by pre-incubation with P7791, a specific antagonist of MT(3)R, but were eliminated by the application of the MT(2)R antagonists K185 and 4-P-PDOT. I(K) current and cell migration were decreased by the application of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP), which was in contrast to the MT effect on the I(K) current and cell migration. Incubation with dbcAMP essentially blocked the MT-induced increasing effect. Moreover, incubation of isolated cell cultures in the MT-containing medium also decreased the cAMP immunoreactivity in the granule cells. It is concluded, therefore, that I(K) current, downstream of a cAMP transduction pathway, mediates the migration of rat cerebellar granule cells stimulated by MT.
Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2007; 102(2):333-44. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we have reported that apoptosis of cerebellar granular neurons induced by incubation in 5 mm K(+) and serum-free medium (LK-S) was associated with an increase in the delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(K)). Here, we show that I(K) associated with apoptotic neurons is mainly encoded by a Kv2.1 subunit. Silencing Kv2.1 expression by small interfering RNA reduces I(K) and increases neuron viability. Forskolin is able to decrease the I(K) amplitude recording from neurons of both the LK-S and control group, and prevents apoptosis of granule cells that are induced by LK-S. Dibutyryl cAMP mimicks the effect of forskolin on the modulation of I(K) and, accordingly, the inhibitor of protein kinase A, H-89, aborts the neuron-protective effect induced by forskolin. Whereas the expression of Kv2.1 was silenced by Kv2.1 small interfering RNA, the inhibition of forskolin on the current amplitude was significantly reduced. Quantitative RT-PCR and whole-cell recording revealed that the expression of Kv2.1 was elevated in the apoptotic neurons, and forskolin significantly depressed the expression of Kv2.1. We conclude that the protection against apoptosis via the protein kinase A pathway is associated with a double modulation on I(K) channel properties and its expression of alpha-subunit that is mainly encoded by the Kv2.1 gene.
Journal of Neurochemistry 03/2007; 100(4):979-91. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compelling evidence indicates that excessive potassium (K+) efflux and intracellular K+ depletion are the key early steps in apoptosis. Previously, we reported that apoptosis of cerebellar granule neurons induced by incubation in low-K+ (5 mM) and serum-free medium was associated with an increase in A-type transient inactivation of K+ channel current (IA) amplitude and modulation of channels' gating properties. Here, we showed that a classic K+ channel blocker, 4-aminopyradine (4-AP), significantly inhibited IA amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner (reduction of current by 10 microM and 10 mM 4-AP was 11.4+/-1.3% and 72.2+/-3.3%, respectively). Moreover, 4-AP modified the steady-state activation and inactivation kinetics of IA channels, such that the activation and inactivation curves were shifted to the right about 20 mV and 17 mV, respectively. Fluorescence staining showed that 4-AP dramatically increased the viability of cells undergoing apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. That is, while 5 mM 4-AP was present, cell viability was 84.9+/-5.2%. Consistent with the cell viability analysis, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis analysis showed that 5 mM 4-AP also protected against neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, 4-AP significantly inhibited cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity induced by low-K+/serum-free incubation. Finally, current-clamp analysis indicated that 5 mM 4-AP did not significantly depolarize the membrane potential. These results suggest that 4-AP has robust neuroprotective effects on apoptotic granule cells. The neuroprotective effect of 4-AP is likely not due to membrane depolarization, but rather that 4-AP may modulate the gating properties of IA channels in an anti-apoptotic manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibitory effect of diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on the voltage-gated inward Na+ current (I(Na)) in cultured rat myoblasts was investigated using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. At concentrations of 10 nM-100 microM, diclofenac produced a dose-dependent and reversible inhibition of I(Na) with an IC50 of 8.51 microM, without modulating the fast activation and inactivation process. The inhibitory effect of diclofenac took place at resting channels and increased with more depolarizing holding potential. In addition to inhibiting the Na+ current amplitude, diclofenac significantly modulated the steady-state inactivation properties of the Na+ channels, but did not alter the steady-state activation. The steady-state inactivation curve was significantly shifted towards the hyperpolarizing potential in the presence of diclofenac. Furthermore, diclofenac treatment resulted in a fairly slow recovery from inactivation of the Na+ channel. The inhibitory effect of diclofenac was enhanced by repetitive pulses and was inflected by changing frequency; the blocking effect at higher frequency was significantly greater than at lower frequency. Both intracellular and extracellular application of diclofenac could inhibit I(Na), indicating that diclofenac may exert its channel inhibitory action both inside and outside the channel sites. Our data directly demonstrate that diclofenac can inhibit the inward Na+ channels in rat myoblasts. Some different inhibitory mechanisms from that in neuronal Na+ channels are discussed.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2006; 346(4):1275-83. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study revealed that 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a specific blocker of A-type current, could also inhibit inward Na+ currents (I(Na)) with a state-independent mechanism in rat cerebellar granule cells. In the present study, we report an inhibitory effect of 4-AP on voltage-gated and tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive I(Na) recorded from cultured rat myoblasts. 4-AP inhibited I(Na) amplitude in a dose-dependent manner between the concentrations of 0.5 and 10 mM without significant alteration in the activation or inactivation kinetics of the channel. By comparison to the 4-AP-induced inhibitory effect on cerebellum neurons, the inhibitory effect on myoblasts was enhanced through repetitive pulse and inflected by changing frequency. Specifically, the lower the frequency of pulse, the higher the inhibition observed, suggesting that block manner is inversely use-dependent. Moreover, experiments adding 4-AP to the intracellular solution indicate that the inhibitory effects are localized inside the cell. Additionally, 4-AP significantly modifies the properties of steady-state activation and inactivation kinetics of the channel. Our data suggest that the K+ channel blocker 4-AP inhibits both neuron and myoblast Na+ channels via different mechanisms. These findings may also provide information regarding 4-AP-induced pharmacological and toxicological effects in clinical use and experimental research.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 10/2005; 207(3):275-82. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has been widely investigated in terms of its pharmacological action, but less is known about its direct effect on ion channels. Here, the effect of diclofenac on voltage-dependent transient outward K+ currents (I(A)) in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells was investigated using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. At concentrations of 10(-5)-10(-3) M, diclofenac reversibly increased the I(A) amplitude in a dose-dependent manner and significantly modulated the steady-state inactivation properties of the I(A) channels, but did not alter the steady-state activation properties. Furthermore, diclofenac treatment resulted in a slightly accelerated recovery from I(A) channel inactivation. Intracellular application of diclofenac could mimic the effects induced by extracellular application, although once the intracellular response reached a plateau, extracellular application of diclofenac could induce further increases in the current. These observations indicate that diclofenac might exert its effects on the channel protein at both the inner and outer sides of the cell membrane. Our data provide the first evidence that diclofenac is able to activate transient outward potassium channels in neurons. Although further work will be necessary to define the exact mechanism of diclofenac-induced I(A) channel activation, this study provides evidence that the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac, may play a novel neuronal role that is worthy of future study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compelling evidence indicates that excessive K+ efflux and intracellular K+ depletion are key early steps in apoptosis. Previously, we reported that apoptosis of cerebellar granular neurons induced by incubation under low K+ (5 mM) conditions was associated with an increase in delayed rectifier outward K+ current (IK) amplitude and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, the melatonin receptor antagonist 4P-PDOT abrogated the effects of 2-iodomelatonin on IK augmentation, caspase-3 activity and apoptosis. Here, we show that incubation under low K+/serum-free conditions for 6 hr led to a dramatic increase in the A-type transient outward K+ current (IA) (a 27% increase; n=31); in addition, fluorescence staining showed that under these conditions, cell viability decreased by 30% compared with the control. Treatment with 2-iodomelatonin inhibited the IA amplitude recorded from control and apoptotic cells in a concentration-dependent manner and modified the IA channel activation kinetics of cells under control conditions. Moreover, 2-iodomelatonin increased the viability of cell undergoing apoptosis. Interestingly, 4P-PDOT did not abrogate the effect of 2-iodomelatonin on IA augmentation under these conditions; in the presence of 4P-PDOT (100 microm), 2-iodomelatonin reduced the average IA by 41+/-4%, which was similar to the effect of 2-iodomelatonin alone. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of 2-idomelatonin are not only because of its antioxidant or receptor-activating properties, but rather that 2-iodomelatonin may inhibit IA channels by acting as a channel blocker.
Journal of Pineal Research 02/2005; 38(1):53-61. · 7.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell migration is mediated by ion channels and transporters, and plays crucial roles in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Previously, our studies have shown that a Ca(2+)-regulated K(+) current exists in B-16 murine melanoma cells, and that endothelin-1 (ET-1) inhibits the K(+) current via a PKC-dependent pathway. In the present study, patch-clamp whole-cell recording and transwell migration assays were used to examine the effects of ET-1 on B-16 murine melanoma cell migration. ET-1 (100 nM in the injection pipette and 10 nM in the incubation medium) decreased the K(+) current amplitude by 33.0 +/- 2.5% and inhibited migration of B-16 cells by 57.4 +/- 9.4%. Similarly, the Ca(2+)-regulated K(+) channel blockers, BaCl(2) and quinidine, decreased the K(+) current by 20.5 +/- 1.0% and 36.6 +/- 1.2%, respectively, and slowed migration of B-16 melanoma cells by 37.1 +/- 8.6% and 42.7 +/- 8.8%, respectively. The effect of ET-1 on the K(+) current and cell migration was simulated by ET-3. In contrast, the K(+) channel opener, diclofenac, increased the K(+) current by 128.8 +/- 11.7%, 257.4 +/- 35.8% at concentrations of 1 and 5 mM, respectively. Likewise, the migration of B-16 murine melanoma cells dramatically increased by 75.6 +/- 12.7% in the presence of 100 microM diclofenac in incubation medium. Furthermore, the ET-1- and ET-3-induced inhibition of K(+) current and migration was abrogated by diclofenac. In the presence of diclofenac, ET-1 only reduced the K(+) current amplitude by 10.6 +/- 1.1%, and slowed B-16 cell migration by only 10.8 +/- 8.9%. The results suggest that the K(+) channel-dependent migration of B-16 melanoma cells is modulated by ET-1. Cell Motil.
Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 07/2004; 58(2):127-36. · 4.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of K(+) current plays a critical role in the control of programmed cell death. In the present study, whole-cell patch-clamp recording, a caspase-3 activity assay, and flow cytometric analysis were used to examine the effects of the MT2 melatonin receptor agonist 2-iodomelatonin on the delayed-rectifier K(+) current (IK) and the prevention of apoptosis. It was found that apoptosis of cerebellar granular neurons induced by low-K(+) (5 mm) incubation was associated with an increase in IK amplitude and caspase-3 activity. After 6 hr of low-K(+) treatment, IK was increased by 45% (n = 86). Flow cytometry showed that the apoptosis rate increased by 333% compared with the control neurons. In addition, exposure of cultured granule cells to low K(+) also resulted in a significant activation of caspase-3, by 466%. 2-Iodomelatonin (10 microm in injection pipette) inhibited the IK amplitude recorded from control cells and from cells undergoing apoptosis. However, 2-iodomelatonin only modified the IK-channel activation kinetics of cells under both conditions. Furthermore, 2-iodomelatonin reduced the rate of apoptosis and caspase-3 activation, by 66 and 64%, respectively. The melatonin receptor antagonist, 4P-PDOT, abrogated the effect of 2-iodomelatonin on the IK augmentation, caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of melatonin are not only because of its function as a powerful antioxidant, but also to its interactions with specific receptors. The effect of 2-iodomelatonin against apoptosis may be mediated by activating a melatonin receptor, which modulates IK channels and reduces K(+) efflux.
Journal of Pineal Research 04/2004; 36(2):109-16. · 7.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibitory effect of the melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole on voltage-activated transient outward K(+) current (I(K(A))) was investigated in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells using the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. At the concentration of 1 microM to 1 mM, luzindole reversibly inhibited I(K(A)) in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition to reducing the current amplitude of I(K(A)),luzindole accelerated the fast inactivation of I(K(A)) channels and shifted the curves of voltage-dependent steady-state activation and inactivation of I(K(A)) by +6.6 mV and -7.0 mV, respectively. The inhibitory effect of luzindole was neither use-dependent nor voltage-dependent, suggesting that the binding affinity of luzindole to I(K(A)) channels is state-dependent. Including luzindole in the pipette solution, or extracellular application of 4 P-PDOT, an antagonist of melatonin receptors, did not change the luzindole-induced inhibitory effect on the I(K(A)) current, indicating that luzindole exerts its channel blocking inhibitory action at the extracellular mouth of the channel, and that the effect is not due to action of the melatonin receptors. Our data are the first demonstration that luzindole is able to block transient outward K(+) channels in rat cerebellar granule cells in a state-dependent manner, likely associated with extracellular interaction of the drug with the I(K(A)) inactivation gate.
Brain Research 05/2003; 970(1-2):169-77. · 2.88 Impact Factor