[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:To explore the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway, especially STAT3 acetylation, in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced pro-fibrotic responses in renal tubular epithelial cells.Methods:Rat renal tubular epithelial cell line (NRK-52E) was used. STAT3 acetylation and phosphorylation, as well as the expression of fibronectin, collagen IV and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were examined using Western blotting. The level and localization of STAT3 phosphorylation on Tyr705 were detected with fluorescence immunocytochemistry. The cells were transfected with a plasmid vector carrying p300 gene or siRNA targeting p300 to regulate p300 expression.Results:Overexpression of p300 significantly increased STAT3 acetylation on Lys685, STAT3 phosphorylation on Tyr705, and the expression of TGF-β1, collagen IV and fibronectin in the cells. Treatment of the cells with Ang II (1 μmol/L) significantly increased STAT3 phosphorylation on Tyr705 through JAK2 activation, and dose-dependently increased the expression of fibronectin, collagen IV and TGF-β1. Pretreatment with curcumin, an inhibitor of JAK2 and p300, blocked Ang II-induced effects. Knockdown of p300 significantly decreased STAT3 acetylation on Lys685, and abolished Ang II-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation on Tyr705, whereas pretreatment of the cells with C646, a selective inhibitor of p300, inhibited Ang II-induced STAT3 nuclear translocation and the expression of TGF-β1, collagen IV and fibronectin. Pretreatment of the cells with AG490, a JAK2 inhibitor, markedly inhibited Ang II-induced STAT3 phosphorylation on Tyr705 and fibronectin expression.Conclusion:p300-dependent STAT3 acetylation is necessary for Ang II-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and the consequent pro-fibrotic responses in renal tubular epithelial cells in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:To explore the relationship between the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling and angiotesin II (Ang II)-induced renal fibrosis.Methods:Rat renal tubular epithelial NRK-52E cells were treated with Ang II, nicotinamide (an inhibitor of NAD+-dependent class III protein deacetylases, SIRT1-7), or resveratrol (an activator of SIRT1). Mice underwent unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) were used for in vivo studies. Renal interstitial fibrosis was observed with HE and Masson's trichrome staining. STAT3 acetylation and phosphorylation, fibronectin, collagen I and IV, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) levels were examined using Western blotting.Results:Nicotinamide (0.625-10 mmol/L) dose-dependently increased STAT3 acetylation on Lys685 and phosphorylation on Tyr705 in NRK-52E cells, accompanied by accumulation of fibronectin and collagen IV. Ang II (0.001-10 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased STAT3 phosphorylation on Tyr705 and the expression of fibronectin, collagen IV and α-SMA in the cells. Pretreatment with resveratrol (12.5 μmol/L) blocked Ang II-induced effects in the cells. UUO induced marked STAT3 acetylation and phosphorylation, fibronectin, collagen IV and α-SMA accumulation, and renal interstitial fibrosis in the obstructed kidneys, which were significantly attenuated by daily administration of resveratrol (100 mg/kg, po).Conclusion:STAT3 acetylation plays an important role in Ang II-induced activation of STAT3 signaling pathway and consequent renal fibrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pim-3, a proto-oncogene with serine/threonine kinase activity, is aberrantly expressed in malignant lesions, but not in normal pancreatic tissues. To assess the role of Pim-3 in human pancreatic carcinogenesis in vivo and to determine the underlying Pim-3 signaling regulatory mechanisms, we established MiaPaca-2 cells overexpressing wild-type Pim-3 or Pim-3 kinase dead mutants (K69M-Pim-3) as well as PCI55 cells stably expressing Pim-3 shRNA or scrambled shRNA in a tetracycline-inducible manner. In addition, we conducted studies utilizing a nude mouse tumor xenograft model. Our results demonstrated that cells stably overexpressing wild-type Pim-3 exhibited functionally enhanced phosphorylation of Bad at Ser112 and increased proliferation. In contrast, the stable inactivation of Pim-3 by K69M-Pim-3 or silencing of Pim-3 expression by Pim-3 shRNA resulted in functionally decreased phosphorylation of Bad at Ser112 and higher apoptotic cells. Following subcutaneous injection of these stable cell lines, nude mice injected with Pim-3 overexpressing cells developed 100% subcutaneous tumors, together with increased PCNA-positive cells and enhanced intratumoral CD31-positive vascular areas. On the other hand, intratumoral neovascularization and tumor cell proliferation was attenuated in mice injected with Pim-3 kinase inactive cells, eventually reducing tumorigenicity in these mice to 46.6%. Moreover, Pim-3 overexpression upregulated the intratumoral levels of pSTAT3Try705, pSurvivinThr34, HGF, EGF, FGF-2 and VEGF, while the increases were markedly diminished on Pim-3 kinase inactivation. Collectively, the Pim-3 kinase emerges as being involved in accelerating human pancreatic cancer development and in promoting tumor neovascularization and subsequent tumor growth. Targeting Pim-3 may play a dual role in halting tumor progression, by promoting tumor cell death and blocking angiogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Translationally-controlled tumor protein (TCTP/TPT1) was identified from a yeast two-hybrid screen and shown to interact with Pim-3, a member of the proto-oncogene Pim family with serine/threonine kinase activity. TCTP was aberrantly expressed in human pancreatic cancer cells and malignant ductal epithelial cells, but not in normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells adjacent to tumor foci of human pancreatic cancer tissue. Moreover, TCTP co-localized with Pim-3 both in human pancreatic cancer cells and clinical tissues. Mapping studies revealed that the interaction between Pim-3 and TCTP occurred through the C-terminal region of Pim-3 and N-terminal region of TCTP. Although Pim-3 had no effect on TCTP expression or phosphorylation, overexpression of TCTP increased the amount of Pim-3 in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, RNAi-mediated ablation of TCTP expression reduced Pim-3 protein but not mRNA, through a mechanism involving the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation system. As a consequence of Pim-3 instability and subsequent degradation, tumor growth in vitro and in vivo was inhibited by arresting cell cycle progression and enhancing apoptosis. Furthermore, TCTP and Pim-3 expression were significantly correlated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma specimens, and patients with highly expressed TCTP and Pim-3 presented with a more advanced tumor stage. These observations indicate that TCTP enhances Pim-3 stability to simultaneously promote and prevent cell cycle progression and apoptosis, respectively. Hence, TCTP and Pim-3 serve a pivotal role in human pancreatic cancer with important ramifications for clinical diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Implications: The present study provides a new idea and experimental evidence for recognizing TCTP/Pim-3 pathway as a target for therapy in human pancreatic cancer.
Molecular Cancer Research 10/2013; · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidences suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in multi pathological conditions, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). X-box binding protein 1(XBP1), as a key mediator of ER stress, has been proved having the capability of preventing oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of spliced XBP1 (XBP1S), the dominant active form of XBP1, on high glucose (HG)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in cultured renal mesangial cells (MCs) and renal cortex of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Real time PCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein levels respectively. Transfection of recombinant adenovirus vector carrying XBP1S gene (Ad-XBP1S) was used to upregulate XBP1S expression. XBP1S siRNA was used to knockdown XBP1S expression. ROS level was detected by dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescent probe assay. The results showed that HG treatment significantly reduced XBP1S protein and mRNA level in the cultured MCs while no obvious change was observed in unspliced XBP1 (XBP1U). In the mean time, the ROS production, collagen IV and fibronectin expressions were increased. Diphenylene-chloride iodonium (DPI), a NADPH oxidase inhibtor, prevented HG-induced increases in ROS as well as collagen IV and fibronectin expressions. Transfection of Ad-XBP1S reversed HG-induced ROS production and ECM expressions. Knockdown intrinsic XBP1S expression induced increases in ROS production and ECM expressions. Supplementation of supreoxide reversed the inhibitory effect of Ad-XBP1S transfection on ECM synthesis. P47phox was increased in HG-treated MCs. Ad-XBP1S transfection reversed HG-induced p47phox increase while XBP1S knockdown upregulated p47phox expression. In the renal cortex of diabetic rats, the expression of XBP1S was reduced while p47phox, collagen IV and fibronectin expression were elevated. These results suggested that XBP1S pathway of ER stress was involved in HG-induced oxidative stress and ECM synthesis. A downstream target of XBP1S in regulating ROS formation might be NADPH oxidase.
PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e56124. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P102 is a multifunctional transcriptional co-activator. This experiment is designed to investigate the role of p102 in the activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and sequentially extracellular matrix (ECM) over synthesis in diabetic nephropathy. Rat glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) or isolated glomeruli were cultured in normal glucose (NG, 5.5mM) or high glucose (HG, 25mM) DMEM. The generation of reactive oxygen species was measured by 2',7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe assay. The protein levels were analyzed by Western blot and the mRNA levels were evaluated by real-time PCR. HG treatment induced an increase in reactive oxygen species production. Culturing the cells in HG for 48h, p102 mRNA and protein, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1) receptor) mRNA, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and fibronectin proteins were significantly increased. NADPH oxidase inhibtor DPI blocked the HG-induced p102, TGF-β1 and fibronetcin elevations. Knockdown on p102 expression by siRNA depressed the HG-induced AT(1) receptor up-regulation as well as the increases in TGF-β1 and fibronectin. In contrast, AT(1) receptor antagonist candesartan did not influence p102 levels under either NG or HG condition, but blocked the HG-induced TGF-β1 and fibronectin increases. The results from isolated glomeruli were consistent with that of MCs, which showed that HG exposure stimulated the expression of p102. These results suggest that the overproduction of reactive oxygen species at the early stage of HG incubation stimulates p102 synthesis, which in turn up-regulates AT(1) receptor expression. The activation of RAS stimulates TGF-β1 and fibronectin production, which further results in ECM accumulation.
European journal of pharmacology 01/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pim-3 kinase has been shown to be aberrantly expressed in premalignant and malignant lesions of endoderm-derived organs such as the liver, pancreas, colon and stomach. Pim-3 kinase inactivates the Bad protein, a proapoptotic molecule, and improves the expression of Bcl-xL, an antiapoptotic molecule, to promote cell proliferation. Thus, blocking Pim-3 kinase activity may be a new strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we screened low molecular compounds and observed that the stemonamide synthetic intermediate, T-18, potently inhibited Pim kinase activity. Moreover, T-18 inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic, as well as that of hepatocellular and colon cancer cells in vitro. It also induced the apoptosis of human pancreatic carcinoma cells in vitro by decreasing the levels of phospho-Ser112-Bad; the levels of Pim-3 kinase and total Bad protein were not altered. Furthermore, T-18 inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in nude mice without apparent adverse effects when the tumor was palpable. These observations indicate that stemonamide synthetic intermediates may be novel drugs for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers, particularly pancreatic cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decrease in endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was reported to participate in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study is aimed at exploring the relationship between the abnormalities in H2S metabolism, hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and the activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Cultured renal mesangial cells (MCs) and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were used for the studies. The expressions of angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (Ang II) type I receptor (AT1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and collagen IV were measured by real time PCR and Western blot. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed by fluorescent probe assays. Cell proliferation was analyzed by 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay. Ang II concentration was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. AGT, ACE and AT1 receptor mRNA levels and Ang II concentration were increased in high glucose (HG) -treated MCs, the cell proliferation rate and the production of TGF-β1 and of collagen IV productions were also increased. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylenechloride iodonium (DPI) was able to reverse the HG-induced RAS activation and the changes in cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Supplementation of H2S attenuated HG-induced elevations in ROS and RAS activation. Blockade on H2S biosynthesis from cystathione-γ-lyase (CSE) by DL-propargylglycine (PPG) resulted in effects similar to that of HG treatment. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, the changes in RAS were also reversed by H2S supplementation without affecting blood glucose concentration. These data suggested that the decrease in H2S under hyperglycemic condition leads to an imbalance between oxidative and reductive species. The increased oxidative species results in intrarenal RAS activation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74366. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the updated concept of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), it contains the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-angiotensin (Ang) II-angtiogensin type 1 receptor (AT1) axis and the angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2)-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis. The former axis has been well demonstrated performing the vasoconstrictive, proliferative and pro-inflammatory functions by activation of AT1 receptors, while the later new identified axis is considered counterbalancing the effects of the former. The present study is aimed at observing the interaction between Ang-(1-7) and Ang II on cultured rat renal mesangial cells (MCs). RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy results showed that both AT1 and Mas receptor were co-distributed in rat renal MCs. Ang-(1-7) showed similar effects on Ang II in cultured MCs that stimulated phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation and transforms growth factor-β1 synthesis, and cell proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis. Co-treatment of the cell with Ang-(1-7) and Ang II, Ang-(1-7) counteracted AngII-induced effects in a concentration dependent manner, but failed to alter the changes induced by endothelin-1. The stimulating effect of Ang II was mediated by AT1 receptor while all the effects of Ang-(1-7) were blocked by Mas receptor antagonist A-779, but not by AT1 receptor antagonist losartan or AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319. These results suggest that Ang-(1-7) and Ang II specifically interact with each other on rat renal MCs via activation of their specific receptors, Mas and AT1 receptor respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kidney is an important target for both Angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] in the renin-angiotensin system. However, the renal function of Ang-(1-7) remains unclear. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of Ang-(1-7) on high glucose-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cultured renal epithelial cells.
Cultured renal epithelial (NRK-52E) cell line was used in the experiment. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry was performed to observe α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to determine mRNA and protein levels. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the concentration of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the culture media.
High glucose-induced decreased in both angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) and Mas mRNA levels. Meanwhile, high glucose induced increases in α-SMA and vimentin, decreases in E-cadherin, elevations in TGF-β1 and fibronectin secretions. Ang-(1-7) partially reversed high glucose-induced changes in α-SMA, vimentin, E-cadherin, TGF-β1 and fibronectin. High glucose stimulated ERK, p38 and JNK phosphorylation and Ang-(1-7) reversed the changes in ERK and p38 but not JNK phosphorylation.
Inhibition and insufficiency in ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis under high glucose condition participate EMT. Supplementation of Ang-(1-7) attenuates high glucose-induced EMT. ERK and p38 intracellular signaling pathways, not JNK, mediate the effect of Ang-(1-7) on EMT.
Life sciences 03/2012; 90(11-12):454-62. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major form of chronic inflammation that can frequently progress to colon cancer. Several studies have demonstrated massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the lamina propria and submucosa in the progression of UC-associated colon carcinogenesis. Macrophages contribute to the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). However, the role of neutrophils is not well understood. To better understand the involvement of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) in the regulation of CAC, we used a mouse CAC model produced by administering azoxymethane (AOM), followed by repeated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ingestion. This causes severe colonic inflammation and subsequent development of multiple tumors in mice colon. We observed that colorectal mucosal inflammation became increasingly severe with AOM and DSS treatment. Macrophages infiltrated the lamina propria and submucosa, together with a marked increase in neutrophil infiltration. The chemokine CXCL2 increased in the lamina propria and submucosal regions of the colons of the treated mice, together with the infiltration of neutrophils expressing CXCR2, a specific receptor for CXCL2. This process was followed by neoplastic transformation. After AOM and DSS treatment, the mice showed enhanced production of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and neutrophil elastase (NE), accompanied by excessive vessel generation and cell proliferation. Moreover, CXCL2 promoted neutrophil recruitment and induced neutrophils to express MMP-9 and NE in vitro. Furthermore, administration of neutrophil-neutralizing antibodies after the last DSS cycle markedly reduced the number and size of tumors and decreased the expression of CXCR2, CXCL2, MMP-9, and NE. These observations indicate a crucial role for TANs in the initiation and progression of CAC and suggest that the CXCL2-CXCR2 axis might be useful in reducing the risk of UC-associated colon cancer.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e51848. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is considered as the third gasotransmitter after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. This gas molecule participates in the regulation of renal function. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major chronic complications of diabetes. The present study aimed to explore the changes in H(2)S metabolism in the early stage of DN and the effects of H(2)S on cultured rat renal glomerular mesangial cells (MCs).
Cultured rat MCs and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were used in this study. Expression levels of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and collagen IV in rat renal cortex and in cultured MCs were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from rat MCs was assessed by fluorescent probe assays. MCs proliferation was analyzed by 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay.
H(2)S levels in the plasma and renal cortex and the levels of CSE messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in renal cortex were significantly reduced, while the levels of TGF-β1 and collagen IV increased 3 weeks after STZ injection. Administration of NaHS, a H(2)S donor, reversed the increases in TGF-β1 and collagen IV in diabetic rats. By contrast, NaHS did not alter the TGF-β1 and collagen IV levels in non-diabetic rats. But NaHS lowered the CSE mRNA level in renal cortex. Exposure to high glucose promoted ROS generation and cell proliferation, up-regulated the expression of TGF-β1 and collagen IV but decreased the CSE expression in cultured MCs. Treatment of cultured MCs with NaHS reversed the effect of high glucose. NaHS did not change ROS generation, cell proliferation, TGF-β1 and collagen IV expression in the cells cultured with normal glucose. Reduction of endogenous H(2)S generation by DL-propargylglycine, a CSE inhibitor, produced similar cellular effects as high glucose, including increases in cell proliferation, TGF-β1 and collagen IV expressions and ROS generation.
Suppressed CSE-catalyzed endogenous H(2)S production in the kidney by hyperglycemia may play an important role in the pathogenesis of DN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prototype based on digital radio technology with associated open-loop Doppler signal processing techniques has been developed
to measure a spacecraft’s line-of-sight velocity. The prototype was tested in China’s Chang’E-1 lunar mission relying on S-band
telemetry signals transmitted by the satellite, with results showing that the residuals had a RMS value of ∼3 mm/s (1 σ) using 1-sec integration, which is consistent with the Chinese conventional USB (Unified S-Band) tracking system. Such precision
is mainly limited by the short-term stability of the atomic (e.g. rubidium) clock at the uplink ground station. It can also
be improved with proper calibration to remove some effects of the transmission media (such as solar plasma, troposphere and
ionosphere), and a longer integration time (e.g. down to 0.56 mm/s at 34 seconds) allowed by the spacecraft dynamics. The
tracking accuracy can also be increased with differential methods that may effectively remove most of the long-term drifts
and some of the short-term uncertainties of the uplink atomic clock, thereby further reducing the residuals to the 1 mm/s
level. Our experimental tracking data have been used in orbit determination for Chang’E-1, while other applications (such
as the upcoming YH-1 Mars orbiter) based on open-loop Doppler tracking will be initiated in the future. Successful application
of the prototype to the Chang’E-1 mission in 2008 is believed to have great significance for China’s future deep space exploration.
Science in China Series G Physics Mechanics and Astronomy 12/2010; 52(12):1849-1857. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The same-beam VLBI observations of Rstar and Vstar, which were two small satellites of Japanese lunar mission, SELENE, were
successfully performed by using Shanghai and Urumqi 25-m telescopes. When the separation angle between Rstar and Vstar was
less than 0.1 deg, the differential phase delay of the X-band signals between Rstar and Vstar on Shanghai-Urumqi baseline
was obtained with a very small error of 0.15 mm rms, which was reduced by 1–2 order compared with the former VLBI results.
When the separation angle was less than 0.56 deg, the differential phase delay of the S-band signals was also obtained with
a very small error of several mm rms. The orbit determination for Rstar and Vstar was performed, and the accuracy was improved
to a level of several meters by using VLBI and Doppler data. The high-accuracy same-beam differential VLBI technique is very
useful in orbit determination for a spacecraft, and will be used in orbit determination for Mars missions of China Yinghuo-1
and Russia Phobos-grunt.
Science in China Series G Physics Mechanics and Astronomy 01/2009; 52(12):1858-1866. · 1.41 Impact Factor