[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-stimulated clone-22 (TSC-22) was originally isolated as a TGF-beta-inducible gene. In this study, we identified TSC-22 as a potential leukemia suppressor. Two types of FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (Flt3) mutations are frequently found in acute myeloid leukemia: Flt3-ITD harboring an internal tandem duplication in the juxtamembrane domain associated with poor prognosis and Flt3-TKD harboring a point mutation in the kinase domain. Comparison of gene expression profiles between Flt3-ITD- and Flt3-TKD-transduced Ba/F3 cells revealed that constitutive activation of Flt3 by Flt3-TKD, but not Flt3-ITD, upregulated the expression of TSC-22. Importantly, treatment with an Flt3 inhibitor PKC412 or an Flt3 small interfering RNA decreased the expression level of TSC-22 in Flt3-TKD-transduced cells. Forced expression of TSC-22 suppressed the growth and accelerated the differentiation of several leukemia cell lines into monocytes, in particular, in combination with differentiation-inducing reagents. On the other hand, a dominant-negative form of TSC-22 accelerated the growth of Flt3-TKD-transduced 32Dcl.3 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that TSC-22 is a possible target of leukemia therapy.