[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) implantation improves endothelial dysfunction in a rabbit ischemic limb model.
We evaluated the effect of MSC implantation on limb blood flow (LBF) responses to acetylcholine (ACh), an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an endothelium-independent vasodilator, in rabbits with limb ischemia in which cultured MSCs were implanted (n = 20) or saline was injected as a control group (n = 20). LBF was measured using an electromagnetic flowmeter. A total of 10(6) MSCs were implanted into each ischemic limb.
Histological sections of ischemic muscle showed that capillary index (capillary/muscle fiber) was greater in the MSC implantation group than in the control group. Laser Doppler blood perfusion index was significantly increased in the MSC implantation group compared with that in the control group. LBF response to ACh was greater in the MSC group than in the control group. After administration of N (G) -nitro-L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, LBF response to ACh was similar in the MSC implantation group and control group. Vasodilatory effects of SNP in the two groups were similar.
These findings suggest that MSC implantation induces angiogenesis and augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in a rabbit ischemic model through an increase in nitric oxide production.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e67739. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DEC1 (BHLHE40/Stra13/Sharp2) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is involved in the regulation of apoptosis and cell proliferation and the response to hypoxia. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important step leading to invasion and migration of various tumor cells, and TGF-β treatment has been shown to induce cancer cells to undergo EMT. However, the significance of DEC1 in TGF-β-induced EMT remains unknown. We examined the role of DEC1 in EMT of PANC-1 cells, a human pancreatic cancer cell line. As a result, we found that DEC1 was upregulated by TGF-β in PANC-1 cells, and regulated the expression and the levels of nuclear, cytoplasmic or membrane localization of EMT-related factors, including phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3), snail, claudin-4 and N-cadherin. In the presence of TGF-β, DEC1 knockdown by siRNA inhibited morphological changes during EMT processes, while TGF-β induced PANC-1 cells to taken on a spindle-shaped morphology. Furthermore, a combination treatment of DEC1 expression with TGF-β was closely linked to the migration and invasion of PANC-1 cells. Immunohistochemically, DEC1 and pSmad3 were detected within pancreatic cancer tissues, whereas claudin-4 expression was weaker in the cancer tissues compared with the adjacent non-cancer pancreatic tissues. These findings suggest that DEC1 plays an important role in the regulation of these EMT-related factors in pancreatic cancer.
International Journal of Oncology 07/2012; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing evidence indicates that inflammation is a contributing factor leading to cancer development. However, pathways involved in this progression are not well understood. The involvement of DEC1 in cancer prompted us to examine whether pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induces the expression of DEC1 in oral inflammation. We found that IL-1β up-regulated DEC1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein and elevated the HIF-1α-responsive gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human primary gingival cells. HIF-1α and DEC1 immunoreactivity were significantly higher in the cases of gingival inflammation. We demonstrate that IL-1β up-regulates DEC1 and HIF-1α protein through a classical inflammatory signaling pathway involving Akt. Our data strongly suggest that PI-3K-Akt is an upstream participant in IL-1β-mediated DEC1 and HIF-1α induction. This is supported by the following data: (1) IL-1β induces 473 serine phosphorylation of Akt; (2) IL-1β-mediated Akt activation occurs in a PI-3K-dependent manner, and specific inhibition of PI-3K prevents Akt phosphorylation; and (3) inhibition of Akt prevents IL-1β-mediated DEC1 and HIF-1α induction. Taken together, these results suggest that DEC1 is one of the important transcription factors in inflammation.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 05/2012; 113(10):3246-53. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smads are intracellular signaling mediators. Complexes of Smad2 and Smad3 with Smad4 transmit transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) receptor-induced signaling. Snail plays important roles in mesoderm formation, gastrulation, neural crest development, and epithelial mesenchymal transition. However, it remains unknown whether Smad3 and Snail expression is circadian rhythm-dependent. Here, we showed for the first time that Smad3 and Snail show circadian expression in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) after serum shock. They also showed circadian expression in the mouse liver. We confirmed that BMAL1/2, DEC1/2, VEGF, and PER1/2/3 also show circadian expression in both HGF-1 and MSC. The mRNA peaks and phases in circadian expression of these genes differed between HGF-1 and MSC. In a luciferase assay, Smad3 promoter activity was upregulated by CLOCK/BMAL1. These findings suggest that Smad3 and Snail have circadian rhythm in vitro and vivo, and that circadian expression of Smad3 depends on CLOCK/BMAL1.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2012; 419(2):441-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DEC1 (BHLHE40/Stra13/Sharp2) and DEC2 (BHLHE41/Sharp1) are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation, circadian rhythms and the response to hypoxia. We previously showed the functional effects of DEC1 and DEC2 on apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. However, the roles of DEC1 and DEC2 in oral cancer are poorly understood. We examined whether DEC1 and DEC2 are involved in the regulation of apoptosis in human oral cancer HSC-3 and CA9-22 cells. The expression of DEC2 was upregulated by cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin: CDDP) treatment in HSC-3 cells, whereas CDDP treatment had little effects on the expression of DEC2 in CA9-22 cells. We showed that DEC2 overexpression inhibits pro-apoptotic factor Bim and inhibits apoptosis induced by CDDP in HSC-3 cells, whereas it had little effects on apoptosis in CA9-22 cells. DEC1 overexpression had little effects on apoptosis induced by CDDP in these cells. We also found that CDDP upregulated the amounts of DEC2 in the nucleus in HSC-3 cells. These results suggest that DEC2 has anti-apoptotic effects on apoptosis induced by CDDP in HSC-3 cells.
Biomedical Research 01/2012; 33(2):75-82. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue-engineered medical products (TEMPs) should be evaluated before implantation. Therefore, it is indispensable to establish evaluation protocols in regenerative medicine. Whether or not such evaluation protocols are reasonable is generally verified through a 'round robin' test. However, the round robin test for TEMPs intrinsically includes a deficiency, because 'identical' specimens can not be prepared for TEMPs. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility and limitations of the round robin test for TEMPs by using a prepared evaluation protocol. We adopted tissue-engineered cartilage constructs as delivered specimens and a protocol of measuring sGAG content as an evaluation protocol proposed to ISO TC150/SC7, which is an invasive, but usually applied, method, although non-invasive methods are keenly required in evaluating TEMPs. The results showed that: (a) the coefficient of variation (CV) of the measured sGAG contents in intralaboratory tests was ~5% at most; (b) the CV of sGAG content in the scheme where each participating laboratory measured different constructs was comparable with that in the scheme where each participating laboratory measured one half of a construct along with the organizing laboratory; (c) the CV caused by factors other than the specimen was ~15%, comparable to that in reproducible experiments in biomedical fields. Based on these results, the study concludes that a round robin test for a TEMP could be valuable, under the condition that the delivered TEMPs are sufficiently reproducible so that the CV of the measured values is < 5% in the organizing laboratory.
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 08/2011; 6(7):550-8. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DEC1 (also known as Stra13/Bhlhb2/Sharp2) and DEC2 (also known as Bhlhb3/Sharp1) are two paralogous basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional regulators which exhibit a robust circadian gene expression pattern in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and in peripheral organs. DEC1 has been suggested to play key roles in mammalian cell differentiation, the cell cycle and circadian regulation, hypoxia response, and carcinogenesis. Here we show that DEC1 overexpression exhibits delayed wound healing and reduces cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. DEC1 strongly repressed the promoter activity of cyclin D1. We further identify a possible DEC-response element in the cyclin D1 promoter region, and confirmed the direct binding of DEC1 to that element. Forced expression of DEC1 efficiently repressed the cyclin D1 promoter and expression. Our clinical data provide the first evidence that there is a strong inverse correlation between DEC1 and cyclin D1 expression in oral cancer, and DEC1 expression significantly correlated with clinicopathological parameters. We suggest that radiation-induced DEC1 overexpression and Akt phosphorylation in cancer cells are mediated via PI-3K signalling. Overexpression of DEC1 activates the PI-3K/Akt signalling pathway through reactive oxygen species (ROS).
The Journal of Pathology 07/2011; 224(3):420-9. · 7.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PERIOD (PER) proteins are transcriptional regulators that are involved in circadian rhythms, sleep homeostasis, cell proliferation and tumour progression. We previously showed that the expression of PER1 was related to the regulation of apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma cells. However, the significance of PER in oral cancer has not been reported, and the detailed molecular mechanisms by which anti-tumour drug induces apoptosis in gingival cancer cells are not well understood. We examined whether PER1 and PER3 are involved in the regulation of apoptosis in human gingival cancer CA9-22 cells. The expression of PER1 and PER3 was upregulated and downregulated, respectively, by cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin: CDDP) treatment in CA9-22 cells, whereas CDDP treatment had little effects on the expression of PER1 and PER3 in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1). We found that short interference RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of PER1 enhanced apoptosis of CA9-22 cells, and that PER1 regulated the amount of Bim, an apoptosis-related molecule. On the other hand, PER3 knockdown had an inhibitory effect on the apoptosis of CA9-22 cells induced by CDDP treatment. These results suggest that the alternation of expression of PER1 and PER3 was related to the apoptosis of CA9-22 cells. Furthermore, PER1 was intensely stained in the gingival cancer tissues, whereas PER3 was significantly stained in the non-tumour tissues by immunohistochemistry. These findings suggest that PER1 and PER3 have anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic effects in human gingival cancer CA9-22 cells, respectively. The balance of PER1 and PER3 may modulate apoptotic reactions in gingival cancer cells.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 04/2011; 47(11):1747-58. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene (DEC) 1 (BHLHE40/Stra13/Sharp2) and DEC2 (BHLHE41/Sharp1) are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that are associated with the regulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation and circadian rhythms, as well as malignancy in various cancers. However, the roles of DEC1 and DEC2 expression in breast cancer are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to examine the roles of DEC1 and DEC2 in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that had been treated with paclitaxel. The expression of DEC1 and DEC2 was up-regulated in paclitaxel-treated MCF-7 cells. Knockdown of DEC1 by siRNA decreased the amount of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), after treatment with paclitaxel, whereas DEC2 knockdown increased the amount of cleaved PARP in both the presence and absence of paclitaxel. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that paclitaxel treatment increased the amount of DEC1 in the nucleus, and increased the amount of DEC2 in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. These results indicate that DEC1 has pro-apoptotic effects, whereas DEC2 has anti-apoptotic effects on the paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 02/2011; 27(4):491-5. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells are used in the reconstruction of many organs and tissues. However, there are no data regarding cranial suture regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells. Because cranial sutures are important for cranial bone growth, the authors examined whether mesenchymal stem cells could aid with suture reformation in adolescent rats.
Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from bone marrow of rat femora. Twenty 4-week-old Fischer 344 male rats received sagittal suture and bone defects with a diameter of 6.0 mm, and mesenchymal stem cells were grafted with membranes. Twenty control rats underwent empty membrane transplantation. The mesenchymal stem cell and control groups were killed at 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after surgery. The parietal bones, including the sagittal suture, were observed under a light microscope. Bone structures were measured on digitized photomicrographs captured in a computer. For each sample, bone and suture regeneration were observed by dorsoventral cephalograms.
In 4- and 8-week control and mesenchymal stem cell groups, a small volume of new bone formation was observed. In the 16- and 24-week mesenchymal stem cell groups, a large amount of new bone formation and a suture-like gap were identified. In contrast, only a small volume of new bone formation along with craniosynostosis was detected in the 24-week control group.
These results suggest that mesenchymal stem cell grafting may be a novel option for cranioplasty, not only repairing bone tissue but also resulting in suture-like gap formation, which may advance cranial bone growth.
Plastic and reconstructive surgery 01/2011; 127(1):69-77. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose zinc fingers and homeoboxes 3 (ZHX3) as new osteogenic markers for mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). ZHX3 mRNA expression was upregulated within 1-6 h after incubation of MSCs in the osteogenic induction medium, and reached maximum levels after 24 h of incubation. Two to 4 days later, ZHX3 mRNA levels had decreased sharply. Maximal mRNA levels were 3- to 5-fold higher than those in the undifferentiated state. In contrast, Runt-related transcription factor2 (RUNX2) mRNA expression was downregulated at 2-4 h after incubation, and levels were only enhanced 1.4-fold after 12 and 24 h of incubation. Further, Osterix mRNA levels increased only 1.6-fold after 4 and 24 h of incubation. Thus, ZHX3 expression may be a better marker of MSC osteogenic differentiation than RUNX2 or Osterix expression at the initial stage of differentiation. Knockdown of ZHX3 using 2 distinct small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides had little effect on cell morphology or on MSC proliferation, regardless of the differentiation state of the cells. However, ZHX3 siRNAs suppressed Osterix, but not RUNX2 mRNA expression, within 1 h of osteogenic differentiation, and this suppression was sustained for at least 24 h. The 2 ZHX3 siRNAs also suppressed alkaline phosphatase induction and matrix mineralization (assessed using alizarin red staining), and, further, suppressed the calcium content of the cultures at a later stage of differentiation (days 6-21). The effects of ZHX3 siRNAs on the osteogenic differentiation were comparable to those of RUNX2 and Osterix siRNAs. These findings suggest that ZHX3 is involved in the switch from the undifferentiated state of MSC to an osteogenic program, and that ZHX3 may be useful as an early osteogenic differentiation marker.
Stem cells and development 12/2010; 20(9):1539-47. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DEC1 (BHLHB2/Stra13/Sharp2) and DEC2 (BHLHB3/Sharp1) are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that are involved in circadian rhythms, differentiation and the responses to hypoxia. We examined whether DEC1 and DEC2 are involved in apoptosis regulation, in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. We found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of DEC2 resulted in marked enhancement of apoptosis compared with that in control cells transfected with nonspecific siRNA. However, knockdown of DEC1 by siRNA did not affect cell survival. Knockdown of DEC2 affected the expression of mRNA or proteins related to apoptosis, such as Fas, c-Myc, caspase-8, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and Bax. We also showed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) up-regulates the expression of DEC1 and DEC2. DEC2 over-expression caused by the transfection of an expression vector reduced the amounts of cleaved PARP and caspase-8 induced by TNF-alpha treatment, whereas DEC1 over-expression increased it. Finally, we revealed that treatment with double knockdown against both DEC1 and DEC2 decreased the amounts of cleaved PARP and caspase-8 induced by DEC2 siRNA with or without TNF-alpha. These data indicate that DEC2 has an anti-apoptotic effect, whereas DEC1 has a pro-apoptotic effect, which are involved in the balance of survival of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.
Genes to Cells 03/2010; 15(4):315-25. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PERIOD1 (PER1) is a clock gene. We examined the effect of knockdown of PER1 on apoptosis in pancreatic cancer (MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Transfection of siRNA against PER1 into these cells increased the cleaved forms of caspases and poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase and induced apoptosis in all three cell lines. In the two pancreatic cancer cell lines, PER1 knockdown resulted in upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. Expression of p53 was not altered in the two pancreatic cancer cell lines containing mutated p53, but was upregulated in the HepG2 cells containing wild-type p53. Cell proliferation of MIA PaCa-2 and HepG2 was inhibited by PER1 knockdown. We also examined, by immunohistochemical staining, the expression of PER1 in pancreatic cancer tissue and found that PER1 was strongly expressed in pancreatic cancer cells. These results indicate that PER1 acts as an anti-apoptotic factor in pancreatic cancer cells.
Journal of biochemistry 09/2009; 146(6):833-8. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The basic helix-loop-helix proteins differentiated embryo chondrocyte 1 (DEC1) and DEC2 are involved in circadian rhythm control. Because the metabolism of dietary nutrients has been linked to circadian regulation, we examined the effect of DEC1 and DEC2 on the function of the metabolite-sensing nuclear receptors, ligand-dependent transcription factors, including retinoid X receptor (RXR) and liver X receptor (LXR). Transfection assays showed that DEC1 and DEC2 repressed ligand-dependent transactivation by RXR. Knockdown of endogenous DEC1 and DEC2 expression with small interfering RNAs augmented ligand-dependent RXRalpha transactivation. DEC1 and DEC2 interacted directly with RXRalpha, and ligand addition enhanced their association. DEC1 and DEC2 modified interaction of RXRalpha with cofactor proteins. Transfection assays using DEC1 and DEC2 mutants revealed that the C-terminal region of DEC2 is required for repression and that an LXXLL motif in DEC1 and DEC2 is necessary for RXRalpha repression. DEC1 and DEC2 repressed the induction of LXR target genes, associated with the promoter of an LXR target gene, and dissociated from the promoter with ligand treatment. Knockdown of endogenous DEC1 and DEC2 enhanced the LXR target gene expression in hepatocytes. Expression of Dec1, Dec2, and Srebp-1c showed a circadian rhythm in the liver of mice, whereas that of Lxralpha, Lxrbeta, and Rxralpha was not rhythmic. DEC1 and DEC2 also repressed the transactivation of other RXR heterodimers, such as farnesoid X receptor, vitamin D receptor, and retinoic acid receptor. Thus, the repressor function of DEC1 and DEC2 may be extended to other RXR heterodimer nuclear receptors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To apply human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to regenerative medicines, it is necessary to multiply hMSC in vitro in a short period. In addition, it is desirable that the medium which is used for the hMSC multiplication is not supplemented with the serum, because the addition of the serum has risks of infection. In this study, we cultured hMSC with three kinds of medium used for multiplying hMSC (DMEM, MSCGM, STK2) and compared hMSC proliferation in each medium. As a result, it was confirmed that hMSC proliferation was significantly higher in STK2 medium which is a novel serum-free medium developed for hMSC multiplication. Moreover, we compared the hMSC proliferation in these media under the environment that assumed bone reproduction. When we cultured hMSC in each medium with hydroxyapatite (HAp), the proliferative inhibition by HAp depended on the additive amount, and the degree of the proliferative inhibition was different among the media but the lowest inhibitory effect was observed in STK2 medium.
Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 04/2009; 129(3):381-4. · 0.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used in numerous studies, the molecular signature and in vivo distribution status of MSC remain unknown. To address this matter, we identified numerous human MSC-characteristic genes--including nine transcription factor genes--using DNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses: Most of the MSC-characteristic genes were down-regulated 24 h after incubation with osteogenesis-, chondrogenesis- or adipogenesis-induction medium, or 48-72 h after knockdown of the nine transcription factors. Furthermore, knockdowns of ETV1, ETV5, FOXP1, GATA6, HMGA2, SIM2 or SOX11 suppressed the self-renewal capacity of MSC, whereas those of FOXP1, SOX11, ETV1, SIM2 or PRDM16 reduced the osteogenic- and/or adipogenic potential. In addition, immunohistochemistry using antibodies for the MSC characteristic molecules--including GATA6, TRPC4, FLG and TGM2--revealed that MSC-like cells were present near the endosteum and in the interior of bone marrow of adult mice. These findings indicate that MSC synthesize a set of MSC markers in vitro and in vivo, and that MSC-characteristic transcription factors are involved in MSC stemness regulation.
Genes to Cells 03/2009; 14(3):407-24. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The circadian clock is reset by external time cues for synchronization to environmental changes. In mammals, the light-input signalling pathway mediated by Per gene induction has been extensively studied. On the other hand, little is known about resetting mechanisms that are independent of Per induction. Here we show that activation of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK), triggered by TGF-beta, activin or alkali signals, evoked resetting of the cellular clock independently of Per induction. The resetting was mediated by an immediate-early induction of Dec1, a gene whose physiological role in the function of the circadian clock has been unclear. Acute Dec1 induction was a prerequisite for ALK-mediated resetting and upregulation was dependent on SMAD3, which was phosphorylated for activation in response to the resetting stimuli. Intraperitoneal injection of TGF-beta into wild-type or Dec1-deficient mice demonstrated that Dec1 has an essential role in phase-shift of clock gene expression in the kidney and adrenal gland. These results indicate that ALK-SMAD3-Dec1 signalling provides an input pathway in the mammalian molecular clock.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DEC1 (BHLHB2/Stra13/Sharp2)-a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor-is known to be involved in various biological phenomena including clock systems and metabolism. In the clock systems, Dec1 expression is dominantly up-regulated by CLOCK : BMAL1 heterodimer, and it exhibits circadian rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-the central circadian pacemaker-and other peripheral tissues. Recent studies have shown that the strong circadian rhythmicity of Dec1 in the SCN was abolished by Clock mutation, whereas that in the liver was affected, but not abolished, by Clock mutation. Moreover, feeding conditions affected hepatic Dec1 expression, which indicates that Dec1 expression is closely linked with the metabolic functions of the liver. Among ligand-activated nuclear receptors examined, LXRalpha and LXRbeta with T0901317-agonist for LXR-were found to be potent enhancers for Dec1 promoter activity, and a higher expression level of LXRalpha protein was detected in the liver than in the kidney and heart. T0901317 increased the levels of endogenous Dec1 transcript in hepatoma cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that LXRalpha bound to the Dec1 promoter, and an LXRalpha-binding site was identified. These observations indicate that hepatic DEC1 mediates the ligand-dependent LXR signal to regulate the expression of genes involved in the hepatic clock system and metabolism.
Genes to Cells 12/2008; 14(1):29-40. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DEC1 suppresses CLOCK/BMAL1-enhanced promoter activity, but its role in the circadian system of mammals remains unclear. Here we examined the effect of Dec1 overexpression or deficiency on circadian gene expression triggered with 50% serum. Overexpression of Dec1 delayed the phase of clock genes such as Dec1, Dec2, Per1, and Dbp that contain E boxes in their regulatory regions, whereas it had little effect on the circadian phase of Per2 and Cry1 carrying CACGTT E' boxes. In contrast, Dec1 deficiency advanced the phase of the E-box-containing clock genes but not that of the E'-box-containing clock genes. Accordingly, DEC1 showed strong binding and transrepression on the E box, but not on the E' box, in chromatin immunoprecipitation, electrophoretic mobility shift, and luciferase reporter assays. Dec1-/- mice showed behavioral rhythms with slightly but significantly longer circadian periods under conditions of constant darkness and faster reentrainment to a 6-h phase-advanced shift of a light-dark cycle. Knockdown of Dec2 with small interfering RNA advanced the phase of Dec1 and Dbp expression, and double knockdown of Dec1 and Dec2 had much stronger effects on the expression of the E-box-containing clock genes. These findings suggest that DEC1, along with DEC2, plays a role in the finer regulation and robustness of the molecular clock.
Molecular and cellular biology 07/2008; 28(12):4080-92. · 6.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DEC1 (BHLHB2/Sharp2/Stra13) and DEC2 (BHLHB3/Sharp1) are basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, involved in cellular differentiation, responses to hypoxia and circadian rhythms. We recently showed that the expression of DEC1 and DEC2 was up-regulated by hypoxia; however, the functions of these two factors under hypoxic conditions have not been elucidated in detail. It is well established that the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is up-regulated by hypoxia, and the expression of VEGF in response to hypoxia depends on transcriptional activation by a heterodimer comprising hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1). In the present study, we showed that DEC2, but not DEC1, suppressed VEGF gene expression under hypoxic conditions. DEC2 protein was co-immunoprecipitated with HIF-1alpha but not with ARNT1. The binding of HIF-1alpha to the hypoxia response element (HRE) in the VEGF promoter was decreased by DEC2 over-expression, and increased by DEC2 knockdown. We also showed that the circadian expression of VEGF showed a reciprocal pattern to that of DEC2 in cartilage. DEC2 had a circadian oscillation in implanted Sarcoma 180 cells. We conclude that DEC2 negatively regulates VEGF expression and plays an important role in the pathological conditions in which VEGF is involved.
Genes to Cells 03/2008; 13(2):131-44. · 2.73 Impact Factor