[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 infected patients frequently have osteolytic bone disease, which is caused by the dysregulation of the bone remodeling system that involves the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, but the relationship between osteolytic disease and HIV-1 infection remains unclear. In this study we tested whether HIV-1 infection of osteoclasts affects their differentiation.
We prepared human osteoclasts from CD14+ monocytes and examined them for their susceptibility to HIV-1. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of HIV-1 infection on osteoclast differentiation. CD14-derived osteoclasts were shown to express CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 each at the similar level to that shown with macrophages. R5-tropic HIV-1 and X4-tropic HIV-1 were found to infect CD14-derived osteoclasts and replicate in them. Furthermore, HIV-1 infection induced formation of larger osteoclastst, enhanced the expression of mRNAs for three osteoclast specific marker molecules (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, cathepsin K, and the calcitonin receptor), and up-regulated osteoclast bone resorption activity.
Our results suggest that osteoclasts serve as a novel target for HIV-1 infection, which may enhance the osteoclast differentiation contributing to the development of osteolytic disease in HIV-1-infected patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel dual fluorophore-based ratiometric Cu2+ sensor CPC was synthesized via integrating carboxamidoquinoline and coumarin fluorophores. CPC showed high selectivity for Cu2+ over other metal ions at pH 7.24 in acetonitrile–water solution. The emission produced by carboxamidoquinoline was obviously quenched upon binding Cu2+, while the emission produced by coumarin remained almost intact during the whole titration, thus acting as a stable internal standard and validating CPC as a ratiometric sensor. A Job's plot and the MS analysis implied that there was only the formation of a CPC/Cu2+ complex with 1:1 stoichiometry.
Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 10/2015; 218. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2015.04.100 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The solution-processed PbSe colloidal quantum-dot (CQD) infrared photodetector with tandem architecture is proposed to address the high dark current issue. The electrical transport mechanism in tandem has been fundamentally changed in which the recombination of carriers at an intermediate layer becomes dominant rather than carriers hopping between nearest neighbors in CQD materials. As a result, the tandem photodetector exhibits ultra-high detectivities of 4.7 × 10(13) Jones and 8.1 × 10(13) Jones under 34 μW cm(-2) illumination at 1100 nm, at 275 K and 100 K, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Higher alcohols, longer chain alcohols, contain more than 3 carbon atoms, showed close energy advantages as gasoline, and were considered as the next generation substitution for chemical fuels. Higher alcohol biosynthesis by native microorganisms mainly needs gene expression of heterologous keto acid decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenases. In the present study, branched-chain α-keto acid decarboxylase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CICC 6246 (Kivd) and alcohol dehydrogenases gene from Zymomonas mobilis CICC 41465 (AdhB) were transformed into Escherichia coli for higher alcohol production. SDS-PAGE results showed these two proteins were expressed in the recombinant strains. The resulting strain was incubated in LB medium at 37 °C in Erlenmeyer flasks and much more 3-methyl-1-butanol (104 mg/L) than isobutanol (24 mg/L) was produced. However, in 5 g/L glucose-containing medium, the production of two alcohols was similar, 156 and 161 mg/L for C4 (isobutanol) and C5 (3-methyl-1-butanol) alcohol, respectively. Effects of fermentation factors including temperature, glucose content, and α-keto acid on alcohol production were also investigated. The increase of glucose content and the adding of α-keto acids facilitated the production of C4 and C5 alcohols. The enzyme activities of pure Kivd on α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketoisocaproate were 26.77 and 21.24 μmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Due to its ability on decarboxylation of α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketoisocaproate, the recombinant E. coli strain showed potential application on isoamyl alcohol and isobutanol production.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10295-015-1656-z · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shiga-like toxins (Stxs) produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli are a major virulence factor involved in severe diseases in human and animals. These toxins are ribosome-inactivating proteins and treatment for diseases caused by them is not available. So there is an urgent need for agents capable of effectively targeting this lethal toxin. In this paper, we identified baicalin, a flavonoid compound from Chinese traditional medicine as a compound against Shiga-like toxin 2 (Stx2). We found that baicalin significantly improves the renal function and reduces Stx2-induced lethality in mice. Further experiments reveal that baicalin induces the formation of oligomers by the toxin by direct binding. We also identified the residues important for such interactions and have analyzed their roles in binding baicalin by biophysical and biochemical analyses. Our results establish baicalin as a candidate compound for the development of therapeutics against diseases caused by Stxs.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1128/AAC.01416-15 · 4.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigation of the optimal injection temperature for the hydrate dissociation plays a significant role in the gas hydrate exploitation in the practical field. In this work, the experiments of hydrate dissociation by depressurization in conjunction with thermal stimulation (DT) with the different injection temperatures are carried out in a Cubic Hydrate Simulator (CHS). Evaluation of the entropy production minimization (EPM), the energy ratio and the thermal efficiency are employed to investigate into the optimized injection temperature for hydrate dissociation. The thermal efficiency decreases with the increase of the injection temperature. The optimal injection temperatures for the hydrate dissociation from the points of the maximization of the energy ratio and the minimization of the entropy production, which are equivalent to maximizing the energy production and minimizing the energy consumption, respectively, are 38.8 °C and 37.9 °C. The results of evaluations from the two aspects are in a quite good agreement. Thus, the warm water injection of approximately 38-39 °C is suitable for hydrate dissociation with the DT method, and the hot water injection beyond 39 °C is uneconomical for hydrate dissociation.
Applied Energy 09/2015; 154:995-1003. DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.05.106 · 5.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ionic liquid-modified metal sulfides/graphene oxide nanocomposites are prepared via a facile electrostatic adsorption. Ionic liquid (IL) is firstly used as surface modifier and structure-directing agent of metal sulfide (MS) crystallization process, obtaining ionic liquid modified-MS (IL-MS) nanoparticles with positive charges on surface. IL-MS/GO is obtained by electrostatic adherence between positively charged IL-MS and negatively charged graphene oxide (GO). The as-prepared sample shows enhanced photocurrent and highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, indicating IL-MS/GO nanocomposites greatly promoted the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, Raman spectroscopic analysis was applied to determine the structures and cage occupancies of the hydrates that formed from the system of flue gas (simulated by carbon dioxide–nitrogen–sulfur dioxide)–sulfur dioxide aqueous solution, and from the system of flue gas–sulfur dioxide containing tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) aqueous solutions (sulfur dioxide mass concentration 0, 1.0, and 7.0 wt%). Comprehensive TBAB (solid, aqueous, and hydrate) Raman spectra were also obtained. The results reveal that when TBAB is used as promoter, both sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide are encaged in the hydrate from systems of flue gas-TBAB solution with low sulfur dioxide concentration (0, 1.0 wt%), whereas in the hydrate from the system of flue gas-sulfur dioxide highly concentrated (7.0 wt%) TBAB solution, sulfur dioxide will be the sole gas guest encaged in the semi-clathrate hydrate. This suggests the sulfur dioxide concentration significantly influences the hydrate cage occupancies and separation selectivity of the hydrate-based technology. A two-stage hydrate-based flue gas purification process is proposed: one aims at desulfurization when sulfur dioxide concentrates to a relatively high level with the solutions recycling and in the other we can remove the sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide simultaneously.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triblock copolymers, Monomethoxy (Polyethylene glycol)-b-P(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-P(L-glutamic acid) (mPEGPLGA-PGlu) with different molecular weights, were synthesized and mPEG5k -PLGA20.5k -PGlu7.9k were self-assembled into negatively charged nanoparticles with a hybrid core of PLGA and PGlu, and a stealth PEG shell. Because of electrostatic interaction with the negative hybrid-core, the model drug, doxorubicin (DOX), could be easily loaded into the hybrid-core nanoparticles with a high drug loading of ca. 25%. The hydrophobic interaction provided by PLGA could increase the stability of drug-loaded nanoparticles with no change in particle size for at least 3 days and only minor drug leakage (In vitro cytotoxicity testing involving MCF-7 and NCI-H460 cells showed that DOX-loaded nanoparticles were more cytotoxic to both types of cells than free DOX. Time-dependent cellular uptake of the drug-loaded nanoparticles was observed and at least 4 hours was required for rapid internalization through caveolinmediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis by MCF-7 cells into the endosomes where pH-trigged release of DOX from the nanoparticles occurred. The hybrid-core nanoparticles represent a potentially useful therapeutic delivery system for cationic drugs due to their high drug loading, high stability in physiological media and intracellular pH-triggered release.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the influences of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, MDR1 and NR1I2 polymorphisms on tacrolimus concentration in early postrenal transplant recipients.
A total of 159 patients were included, dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentration on day 7 after transplantation (C0D7/D) was calculated and 10 SNPs in four genes were genotyped.
CYP3A5*3 explained 32.8% of variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D. CYP3A4*1G, MDR1 1236-2677-3435 diplotype and NR1I2 -25385C > T explained 21.4% of variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 nonexpressers.
CYP3A5*3 was the predominant determinant affecting tacrolimus concentration. Genotyping of CYP3A4/MDR1/NR1I2 polymorphisms may be helpful for better guiding tacrolimus dosing in CYP3A5 nonexpressers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly stable monodispersed nano Cu hydrosols were facilely prepared by an aqueous chemical reduction method through selecting copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) as the copper precursor, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and ethanol amine (EA) as the complexing agents, and hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent. The size of the obtained Cu colloidal nanoparticles was controlled from 0.96 to 26.26 nm by adjusting the dosage of the copper precursor. Moreover, the highly stable nano Cu hydrosols could be easily concentrated and re-dispersed in water meanwhile maintaining good dispersibility. A model catalytic reaction of reducing p-nitrophenol with NaBH4 in the presence of nano Cu hydrosols with different sizes was performed to set up the relationship between the apparent kinetic rate constant (kapp) and the particle size of Cu catalysts. The experimental results indicate that the corresponding kapp showed an obvious size-dependency. Calculations revealed that kapp was directly proportional to the surface area of Cu catalyst nanoparticles, and also proportional to the reciprocal of the particle size based on the same mass of Cu catalysts. This relationship might be a universal principle for predicting and assessing the catalytic efficiency of Cu nanoparticles. The activation energy (Ea) of this catalytic reaction when using 0.96 nm Cu hydrosol as a catalyst was calculated to be 9.37 kJ mol(-1), which is considered an extremely low potential barrier. In addition, the synthesized nano Cu hydrosols showed size-dependent antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and the minimal inhibitory concentration of the optimal sample was lower than 5.82 μg L(-1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Super-resolution image reconstruction techniques play an important role for improving image resolution of lung 4D-CT. We presents a super-resolution approach based on fast sub-pixel motion estimation to reconstruct lung 4D-CT images. A fast sub-pixel motion estimation method was used to estimate the deformation fields between "frames", and then iterative back projection (IBP) algorithm was employed to reconstruct high-resolution images. Experimental results showed that compared with traditional interpolation method and super-resolution reconstruction algorithm based on full search motion estimation, the proposed method produced clearer images with significantly enhanced image structure details and reduced time for computation.
Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University 07/2015; 35(7):1034-1038.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copy number variations (CNVs) refer to large insertions, deletions and duplications in the genomic structure ranging from one thousand to several million bases in size. Since the development of next generation sequencing technology, several methods have been well built for detection of copy number variations with high credibility and accuracy. Evidence has shown that CNV occurring in gene region could lead to phenotypic changes due to the alteration in gene structure and dosage. However, it still remains unexplored whether CNVs underlie the phenotypic differences between Chinese and Western domestic pigs. Based on the read-depth methods, we investigated copy number variations using 49 individuals derived from both Chinese and Western pig breeds. A total of 3,131 copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were identified with an average size of 13.4 Kb in all individuals during domestication, harboring 1,363 genes. Among them, 129 and 147 CNVRs were Chinese and Western pig specific, respectively. Gene functional enrichments revealed that these CNVRs contribute to strong disease resistance and high prolificacy in Chinese domestic pigs, but strong muscle tissue development in Western domestic pigs. This finding is strongly consistent with the morphologic characteristics of Chinese and Western pigs, indicating that these group-specific CNVRs might have been preserved by artificial selection for the favored phenotypes during independent domestication of Chinese and Western pigs. In this study, we built high-resolution CNV maps in several domestic pig breeds and discovered the group specific CNVs by comparing Chinese and Western pigs, which could provide new insight into genomic variations during pigs' independent domestication, and facilitate further functional studies of CNV-associated genes.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0131522. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131522 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sugars released from alkali-pretreated SCB (sugarcane bagasse) were used for biofuel (bioethanol and biogas) production based on a high-solids fed-batch SSF (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation) process with delayed inoculation (DSSF). A DSSF process with 24 h delayed inoculation increased the ethanol production rate by eliminating glucose inhibition in the early stages of fermentation, and shortened the duration of the process. Increasing solids loading from 18 to 36% (w/v) enhanced glucose concentration, while ethanol conversion efficiency was decreased. Gradual feeding of the hydrolyzed medium could improve the DSSF process. DSSF, with batch feeding mode, achieved as high as 68.047 g/L (74.13% of theoretical yield) ethanol concentration with 30% (w/v) solids loading at 96 h. After evaporation, the residual stillage obtained 306.974 mL/g volatile solids (VS) methane through anaerobic digestion. Sequential bioethanol and biogas production improved the yield of utilized biomass.
Energy 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.energy.2015.06.066 · 4.84 Impact Factor