Yu Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics of China, Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China

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Publications (638)2158.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 infected patients frequently have osteolytic bone disease, which is caused by the dysregulation of the bone remodeling system that involves the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, but the relationship between osteolytic disease and HIV-1 infection remains unclear. In this study we tested whether HIV-1 infection of osteoclasts affects their differentiation. We prepared human osteoclasts from CD14+ monocytes and examined them for their susceptibility to HIV-1. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of HIV-1 infection on osteoclast differentiation. CD14-derived osteoclasts were shown to express CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 each at the similar level to that shown with macrophages. R5-tropic HIV-1 and X4-tropic HIV-1 were found to infect CD14-derived osteoclasts and replicate in them. Furthermore, HIV-1 infection induced formation of larger osteoclastst, enhanced the expression of mRNAs for three osteoclast specific marker molecules (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, cathepsin K, and the calcitonin receptor), and up-regulated osteoclast bone resorption activity. Our results suggest that osteoclasts serve as a novel target for HIV-1 infection, which may enhance the osteoclast differentiation contributing to the development of osteolytic disease in HIV-1-infected patients.
    Retrovirology 12/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/s12977-015-0139-7 · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biomass char gasification with steam refers to the reaction of the steam and biomass char under high temperature when the biomass char converts to combustible gas. Rice husk was selected as the raw material for char preparation. A gasification reactor was designed and built for the study of characteristics of rice husk char gasification with steam. Results show that the temperature is the primary factor that influences the steam gasification reaction of rice husk char. The conversion rate increases significantly from 27.7% to 90.73% with the temperature from 700 to 950 °C. H2 accounts for 46.9% of the product gas at 950 °C. The conversion rate of rice husk char increases with temperature. The conversion rate of rice husk char increases as the steam flow rate. H2 and CO gradually increase while CO2 and CH4 decrease as the steam flow rate. The conversion rate can be increased by decreasing particle size at low temperature, but the influence of the particle size becomes smaller above 900 °C. The reactivity of rice husk char prepared at low temperature is relatively high. Both surface reaction controlled shrinking core reaction model and homogeneous reaction model can describe the steam gasification reaction of rice husk char when the temperature is less than 850 °C. However, when the temperature is more than 850 °C, the diffusion through gas controls the overall reaction.
    Fuel 10/2015; 158. DOI:10.1016/j.fuel.2015.05.019 · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Investigation of the optimal injection temperature for the hydrate dissociation plays a significant role in the gas hydrate exploitation in the practical field. In this work, the experiments of hydrate dissociation by depressurization in conjunction with thermal stimulation (DT) with the different injection temperatures are carried out in a Cubic Hydrate Simulator (CHS). Evaluation of the entropy production minimization (EPM), the energy ratio and the thermal efficiency are employed to investigate into the optimized injection temperature for hydrate dissociation. The thermal efficiency decreases with the increase of the injection temperature. The optimal injection temperatures for the hydrate dissociation from the points of the maximization of the energy ratio and the minimization of the entropy production, which are equivalent to maximizing the energy production and minimizing the energy consumption, respectively, are 38.8 °C and 37.9 °C. The results of evaluations from the two aspects are in a quite good agreement. Thus, the warm water injection of approximately 38-39 °C is suitable for hydrate dissociation with the DT method, and the hot water injection beyond 39 °C is uneconomical for hydrate dissociation.
    Applied Energy 09/2015; 154:995-1003. DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.05.106 · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ionic liquid-modified metal sulfides/graphene oxide nanocomposites are prepared via a facile electrostatic adsorption. Ionic liquid (IL) is firstly used as surface modifier and structure-directing agent of metal sulfide (MS) crystallization process, obtaining ionic liquid modified-MS (IL-MS) nanoparticles with positive charges on surface. IL-MS/GO is obtained by electrostatic adherence between positively charged IL-MS and negatively charged graphene oxide (GO). The as-prepared sample shows enhanced photocurrent and highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, indicating IL-MS/GO nanocomposites greatly promoted the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs.
    Applied Surface Science 08/2015; 346. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.03.213 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, Raman spectroscopic analysis was applied to determine the structures and cage occupancies of the hydrates that formed from the system of flue gas (simulated by carbon dioxide–nitrogen–sulfur dioxide)–sulfur dioxide aqueous solution, and from the system of flue gas–sulfur dioxide containing tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) aqueous solutions (sulfur dioxide mass concentration 0, 1.0, and 7.0 wt%). Comprehensive TBAB (solid, aqueous, and hydrate) Raman spectra were also obtained. The results reveal that when TBAB is used as promoter, both sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide are encaged in the hydrate from systems of flue gas-TBAB solution with low sulfur dioxide concentration (0, 1.0 wt%), whereas in the hydrate from the system of flue gas-sulfur dioxide highly concentrated (7.0 wt%) TBAB solution, sulfur dioxide will be the sole gas guest encaged in the semi-clathrate hydrate. This suggests the sulfur dioxide concentration significantly influences the hydrate cage occupancies and separation selectivity of the hydrate-based technology. A two-stage hydrate-based flue gas purification process is proposed: one aims at desulfurization when sulfur dioxide concentrates to a relatively high level with the solutions recycling and in the other we can remove the sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide simultaneously.
    Spectroscopy Letters 08/2015; 48(7). DOI:10.1080/00387010.2014.909854 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triblock copolymers, Monomethoxy (Polyethylene glycol)-b-P(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-P(L-glutamic acid) (mPEGPLGA-PGlu) with different molecular weights, were synthesized and mPEG5k -PLGA20.5k -PGlu7.9k were self-assembled into negatively charged nanoparticles with a hybrid core of PLGA and PGlu, and a stealth PEG shell. Because of electrostatic interaction with the negative hybrid-core, the model drug, doxorubicin (DOX), could be easily loaded into the hybrid-core nanoparticles with a high drug loading of ca. 25%. The hydrophobic interaction provided by PLGA could increase the stability of drug-loaded nanoparticles with no change in particle size for at least 3 days and only minor drug leakage (In vitro cytotoxicity testing involving MCF-7 and NCI-H460 cells showed that DOX-loaded nanoparticles were more cytotoxic to both types of cells than free DOX. Time-dependent cellular uptake of the drug-loaded nanoparticles was observed and at least 4 hours was required for rapid internalization through caveolinmediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis by MCF-7 cells into the endosomes where pH-trigged release of DOX from the nanoparticles occurred. The hybrid-core nanoparticles represent a potentially useful therapeutic delivery system for cationic drugs due to their high drug loading, high stability in physiological media and intracellular pH-triggered release.
    Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 08/2015; 11(8). DOI:10.1166/jbn.2015.2088 · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the potential effects of antibiotics on ammonia-oxidizing microbes, multiple tools including quantitative PCR (qPCR), 454-pyrosequencing, and a high-throughput functional gene array (GeoChip) were used to reveal the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and archaeal amoA (Arch-amoA) genes in three wastewater treatment systems receiving spiramycin or oxytetracycline production wastewaters. The qPCR results revealed that the copy number ratios of Arch-amoA to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA genes were the highest in the spiramycin full-scale (5.30) and pilot-scale systems (1.49×10-1), followed by the oxytetracycline system (4.90×10-4), with no Arch-amoA genes detected in the control systems treating sewage or inosine production wastewater. The pyrosequencing result showed that the relative abundance of AOA affiliated with Thaumarchaeota accounted for 78.5-99.6% of total archaea in the two spiramycin systems, which was in accordance with the qPCR results. Mantel test based on GeoChip data showed that Arch-amoA gene signal intensity correlated with the presence of spiramycin (P < 0.05). Antibiotics explained 25.8% of variations in amoA functional gene structures by variance partitioning analysis. This study revealed the selection of AOA in the presence of high concentrations of spiramycin in activated sludge systems.
    Environmental Science & Technology 06/2015; DOI:10.1021/acs.est.5b01293 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The enhanced photoluminescence (PL) for In-rich copper indium sulfide quantum dots (CIS QDs) was observed. The conduction electron-Cu vacancy recombination and the donor–acceptor pair (DAP) defect recombination were considered to exist in CIS QDs at the same time. The temperature-dependent PL study showed that the emission of these QDs might be mainly originated from the recombination between electrons in the quantized conduction band and holes in the copper vacancy acceptor when x was 0.500 (CuxIn1−xS). However, the temperature coefficient of PL peak position decreased when x was 0.237. That meant the DAP recombination increased in the In-rich CIS QDs.
    Journal of Luminescence 06/2015; 162. DOI:10.1016/j.jlumin.2015.02.029 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy was employed to analyze the optical properties of Ag2Se quantum dots with different diameters at temperatures of 80–360 K. The photoluminescence lifetime measurement disclosed that in the low-energy electronic structure there were two dominating emissive “in-gap” states associated with surface defect and intrinsic states, which were further confirmed by Gaussian fitting of the photoluminescence spectra. The temperature-dependent emission peak energy was fitted to phenomenological equations to extract the average phonon energy, the Huang–Rhys factor, and the excitonic acoustic phonon coupling coefficient. The relatively large phonon energy and small Huang–Rhys factor were demonstrated, which induced the small variation of emission peak energy in the low-temperature range. Meanwhile, the photoluminescence line width increased with temperature and was analyzed based on the standard equation describing the temperature dependence of the width of the ground state exciton. The variation of both the photoluminescence peak and line broadening was mostly due to the exciton to acoustic phonon coupling.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 06/2015; 119(24):13841-13846. DOI:10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b01030 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We realized white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index (85 – 96) and widely variable color temperatures (2805 – 7786 K) by combining three phosphors based on carbon dots and polymer dots, whose solid-state photoluminescence self-quenching was efficiently suppressed within a polyvinyl pyrrolidone matrix.All three phosphors exhibited dominant absorption in UV spectral region, which ensured the weak reabsorption and no energy transfer crosstalk. The WLEDs showed excellent color stability against the increasing current because the similar response of the tricolor phosphors to the UV light variation.
    Nanoscale 06/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5NR03014E · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Near infrared light emitting diodes (NIR LEDs) were fabricated employing blue GaN chips as the excitation source and PbSe quantum dots as the NIR emitting materials. Quantum dots with different emitting wavelengths were selected to fabricate three NIR LEDs corresponding to two typical applications of illumination and optical communication. The variation of emission peak and full width at half-maximum of the devices were investigated under different voltage bias, and the highest external quantum efficiency of 2.52% was achieved which was comparable to those commercial InGaAsP LEDs and visible quantum dot electroluminescence LEDs.
    RSC Advances 06/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5RA08130K · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A wastewater treatment plant controls the level of pollution reaching the environment. Yet, despite being the most common aerobic route for treatment of wastewater, the activated sludge process is not utilized to its full potential. This is mainly due to the lack of knowledge base correlating the microbial community in the activated sludge to its degradative performance. In this study, the activated biomass at the treatment site was monitored for five consecutive months. Even though operational parameters were kept constant, the microbial community was observed to change after 3 months. This shift was seen to correlate with 25 % loss of degradative efficiency. Target oxygenases were monitored at two time points, and results indicated that the dominating pathway operating in the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) is the degradation of chlorinated aromatics. This study demonstrates the change in degradative efficiency in a CETP with the change in microbial community and analyzes the parameters influencing the microbial community of activated sludge.
    Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12010-015-1703-2 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel poly(ionic liquids) functionalized polypyrrole nanotubes (PILs/PPyNTs) were successfully synthesized. 1-Vinyl-3-ethylimidazole bromide (VEIB) was polymerized on the surface of novel polymerizable vinyl imidazolium-type IL modified PPyNTs prepared by a covalent method. Due to the modification of PILs, the dispersibility of PILs/PPyNTs in aqueous solution was significantly improved and their surface charge properties were obviously changed to electropositivity. Because of the synergetic effects of conductive PPyNTs and biocompatible PILs, excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) were achieved using a PILs/PPyNTs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), which gave a large potential difference enough to well distinguish DA from AA, with excellent sensitivity and good stability, for the simultaneous detection of DA and AA. The existence of PILs effectively improved the transmission mode of electrons of DA and AA oxidation on the electrode and resulted in their different electrocatalytic performance.
    06/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5TB00259A
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the unique properties of nanoparticles, such as small size, large specific surface area and special optical performance, nanosilica is a promising candidate for replacing the conventional micron-sized silica to reinforce the performance of epoxy resins in microelectronic industries. But, its intensive inclination to form agglomerates in epoxy matrices, and its negative effects on the viscosity and glass transition temperature (Tg) of epoxy resins have limited its applications. In this work, a silica hybrid composed of sub-micron sized (500 ± 50 nm) and nano-sized (60 ± 10 nm) silica spheres was prepared and introduced into an epoxy polymer matrix. With this type of silica hybrid as a reinforcing filler, the dispersion quality of the nanosilica particles into the epoxy matrix was greatly improved due to the de-agglomeration effect of the large silica spheres. Also, the Tg of the epoxy composites was significantly enhanced while the viscosity of the liquid epoxy composites before curing remained lower at high filler loading as compared to the corresponding single-sized nanosilica filled epoxy nanocomposites.
    RSC Advances 06/2015; 5(62). DOI:10.1039/C5RA06914A · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As an important wide bandgap p-type conductive delafossite material, CuScO2 (CSO) has been intensively investigated for its wide applications in multi-functional optoelectronic devices. In order to obtain both high infrared (IR) transparency and low resistivity, we report on, for the first time, the experimental preparation of single phase epitaxial CSO thin film by using polymer-assisted-deposition (PAD) method. As a key point in the PAD process, the used polymer materials (PEI and EDTA) not only control the desired viscosity for the process, but also bind the metal ions to prevent premature precipitation and formation of metal oxide oligomers. The technique results in a homogeneous distribution of the metal precursors in the solution as well as the formation of uniform metal organic film. Due to the uniaxial locked epitaxy mechanism, the epitaxial growth of CSO (0001) thin film on a-plane sapphire is achieved, and the orientation relationship of the film with respect to the substrate are confirmed to be CSO[3R](0001)//a−Al2O3(1120). The obtained CSO thin film from the PAD technique exhibits a low electrical resistivity of 1.047 Ω•cm at room temperature, and a high transmittance of 65-85% in the near-IR range and more than 85% in the mid-IR range. The presented technique does provide the possibility of preparing high-crystallinity oxide films which can be applicable over a wide wavelength range from visible band to infrared band.
    RSC Advances 05/2015; 5(61). DOI:10.1039/C5RA07743E · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vertically aligned TiO2/CdS and TiO2/CdS/CdSe nanocable arrays on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) were fabricated by electrochemical deposition of CdS and CdS/CdSe shells over TiO2 nanorod arrays. The morphology, composition, structure and optical absorbance of CdS and CdS/CdSe shells sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays were characterized by different analytical methods. The CdS shell with a hexagonal structure and the CdSe shell with a face-centered structure were densely and uniformly coated on the tetragonal TiO2 nanorod cores both radially and longitudinally. The photovoltaic measurement showed that the photocurrent density obtained under AM1.5G illumination with a zero bias potential (Ag/AgCl electrode) largely increased from 2.17 to 6.57 mA/cm2, when the TiO2/CdS nanocables were further covered by the CdSe shell.
    Electrochimica Acta 05/2015; 165. DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2015.02.234 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a series of monochrome light-emitting diodes based on monodisperse carbon dots with an emission color ranging from blue to red, which is determined by the thickness of the down-conversion layers and the carbon dot doping concentration in the polymer matrix. We further demonstrate the potential of CDs for fabrication of relief graphical pattern with anti-counterfeiting security.
    05/2015; 3:6613-6615. DOI:10.1039/C5TC01379H
  • Letters in Drug Design &amp Discovery 05/2015; 12(999):1-1. DOI:10.2174/1570180812666150514234029 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exploitation of natural gas hydrate is expecting to be an important strategic way to solve the problem of energy depletion. Understanding the effectiveness of the well configuration plays a pivotal role in gas production from the hydrate reservoir. This study evaluates the methane hydrate dissociation behaviors using both vertical well and horizontal well experimentally. Methane hydrate in porous media has been synthesized in a 117.8 L pilot-scale hydrate simulator (PHS), which is equipped with 9 (3 × 3) vertical wells and 9 (3 × 3) horizontal wells. The condition of hydrate formation is corresponding to the ocean depth of 1200 m and it is similar to the hydrate characteristics of the South China Sea. Hydrate is dissociated under depressurization and thermal stimulation. The results indicate that, for the depressurization and thermal stimulation methods, the gas production rate, the heat transfer rate, and the accumulative dissociation ratio with the horizontal well pattern are higher than those with the vertical well pattern. Meanwhile, the evaluations of the energy ratio and the thermal efficiency indicate that the horizontal well pattern has the advantage of higher production efficiency by the thermal stimulation. Thus, it is determined that the production performance is better using the horizontal well pattern.
    Applied Energy 05/2015; 145. DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.01.137 · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The bias-enhanced performance of visible-blind ultraviolet (UV) detection of GaN Schottky barrier diodes has been studied. The UV response of the Schottky diodes was found to be vastly amplified at elevated reverse bias, leading to the observation of the voltage-dependent gain arising from the defect-induced Schottky barrier lowering effect. In contrast, the visible light response of the GaN Schottky diodes shows insignificant voltage dependence because of the dominance of the internal photoemission absorption. Thus, the visible rejection ratio, defined as the responsivity of UV over visible range, can be greatly enhanced at high operating bias for the UV detectors based on the GaN Schottky barrier diodes. The observation has been supported by both experimental results and simulation data, and has been utilized to minimize the interference between the monolithically integrated GaN photodetectors and power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in the present study of LED communication.
    IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 05/2015; 27(9):994-997. DOI:10.1109/LPT.2015.2399302 · 2.18 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
2,158.22 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics of China
      Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China
    • South Central College
      Central, Louisiana, United States
  • 2012–2015
    • Liaoning University
      Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China
    • Middle Tennessee State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Murfreesboro, Tennessee, United States
    • Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
      Zhegang, Jiangxi Sheng, China
    • Guizhou Normal University
      Kuei-yang, Guizhou Sheng, China
    • Guizhou University
      Kuei-yang, Guizhou Sheng, China
  • 2008–2015
    • East China University of Science and Technology
      • School of Materials Science and Engineering
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • North China Electric Power University
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Kunming Medical College
      Yün-nan, Yunnan, China
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2007–2015
    • Shenyang Pharmaceutical University
      • • School of Pharmaceutics
      • • Department of Pharmacy
      Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China
    • Zhongshan University
      中山, Guangdong, China
    • Henan Normal University
      Henan’an, Guangdong, China
  • 2006–2015
    • Tianjin University
      • • State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments
      • • School of Chemical Engineering and Technology
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
    • Jilin University
      • • State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics
      • • Department of Pathophysiology
      • • College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine
      • • State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • College of Environment and Resources
      Yung-chi, Jilin Sheng, China
  • 2003–2015
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry
      • • Laboratory of Energy Systems and Renewable Energy
      • • State Key Laboratory of Drug Research
      • • Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences
      • • Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2014
    • North China University of Water Conservancy and Electric Power
      Cheng, Henan Sheng, China
    • Central South University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China
    • Dalian University of Technology
      • Department of Chemistry
      Lü-ta-shih, Liaoning, China
    • The University of Hong Kong
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2012–2014
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • Gene Therapy Center
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010–2014
    • Wuhan University
      • • State Key Laboratory of Virology
      • • College of Life Sciences
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 2008–2014
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2007–2014
    • Kunming University of Science and Technology
      Yün-nan, Yunnan, China
  • 2013
    • Tsinghua University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • William Penn University
      University Park, Florida, United States
    • Xiangya Hospital of Central South University
      Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China
    • China Agriculture University-East
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2012–2013
    • Zhengzhou University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Cheng, Henan Sheng, China
    • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
      • School of Public Health
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 2011–2013
    • Peking University Health Science Center
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital
      Hua-yang, Sichuan, China
    • Fudan University
      • Department of Medicinal Chemistry
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics
      University Park, Maryland, United States
    • Shaanxi Normal University
      Xi’an, Guangdong, China
  • 2010–2013
    • Capital Medical University
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2008–2013
    • Hunan University
      • College of Environmental Science and Engineering
      Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China
  • 2007–2012
    • University of Science and Technology of China
      • • School of Life Sciences
      • • Department of Modern Physics
      Luchow, Anhui Sheng, China
  • 2009–2011
    • Worcester Polytechnic Institute
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Worcester, MA, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Section on Developmental Genetics
      • • Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology
      Maryland, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics
      Lü-ta-shih, Liaoning, China
  • 2007–2010
    • Tongji Hospital
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 2002–2010
    • Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2006–2009
    • Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2007–2008
    • The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
      Maryland, United States