Z H Zhou

University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (14)70.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Parvoviridae is a family of the smallest viruses known with a wide variety of hosts. The capsid structure of the Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell densovirus (C6/36 DNV) at 1.2-nm resolution was obtained by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction. Structure comparisons between the C6/36 DNV and other parvoviruses reveal that the degree of structural similarity between C6/36 DNV and the human parvovirus B19 is higher than that between C6/36 DNV and other insect parvoviruses. The amino acid sequence comparisons of structural and non-structural proteins also reveal higher levels of similarity between C6/36 DNV and parvovirus B19 than those between C6/36 DNV and other parvoviruses. These findings indicate that C6/36 DNV is closely related to the human virus B19, and the former might evolve from the human species other than from other insect viruses.
    Science in China Series C Life Sciences 03/2007; 50(1):70-4. DOI:10.1007/s11427-007-2036-3 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a relatively new virus first isolated in China and is a member of the Aquareovirus genus of the Reoviridae family. Recent report of genomic sequencing showed that GCRV shared high degree of homology with mammalian reovirus (MRV). As a step of our effort to understand the structural basis of GCRV pathogenesis, we determined the three-dimensional (3D) structure of GCRV capsid at 17 A resolution by electron cryomicroscopy. Each GCRV capsid has a multilayered organization, consisting of an RNA core, an inner, middle and outer protein layer. The outer layer is made up of 200 trimers that are arranged on an incomplete T=13 icosahedral lattice. A characteristic feature of this layer is the depression resulting from the absence of trimers around the peripentonal positions, revealing the underlying trimers on the middle layer. There are 120 subunits in the inner layer arranged with T=1 symmetry. These structural features are common to other members of the Reoviridae. Moreover, SDS-PAGE analysis showed that GCRV virions contain seven structural proteins (VP1-VP7). These structural proteins have a high degree of sequence homology to MRV, consistent with the structural similarities observed in our study. The high structural similarities of isolated GCRV and MRV suggest that future structural studies focusing on GCRV entering into and replicating within its host cell are necessary in order to fully understand the structural basis of GCRV pathogenesis.
    Science in China Series C Life Sciences 01/2006; 48(6):593-600. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The three-dimensional structure of capsid of Aedes albopictus C6/36 densovirus was determined to 14-A resolution by electron cryomicroscopy and computer reconstruction. The triangulation number of the capsid is 1. There are 12 holes in each triangular face and a spike on each 5-fold vertex. The validity of the capsid and nucleic acid densities in the reconstructions was discussed.
    Science in China Series C Life Sciences 07/2004; 47(3):224-8. DOI:10.1007/BF03182767 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the isolation, sequencing, biochemical, and structural characterization of a previously undescribed virus in a chronically infected Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line. This virus is identified as a new densovirus under the Densovirinae subfamily of the Parvoviridae based on its biological and morphologic properties as well as sequence homologies, and is tentatively designated A. albopictus C6/36 cell densovirus (C6/36 DNV). Analysis of the 4094 nt of the C6/36 DNV genome revealed that the plus strand had three large open reading frames (ORFs): a left ORF, a right ORF, and a mid-ORF (within the left ORF), whose potential coding capacities are 91.0, 40.8, and 41.2 kDa, respectively. The left ORF likely encodes the nonstructural protein NS-1, which contains NTP-binding and helicase domains. The right ORF likely encodes structural proteins, VP1 and VP2. Our analyses revealed that C6/36 DNV has a similar genomic organization and shares very high homology in nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequences with Aedes aegypti densovirus (AaeDNV) and A. albopictus densovirus (AalDNV), members of the genus Brevidensovirus of the Densovirinae. Similar to other densoviruses, C6/36 DNV has a different genomic organization and no recognizable sequence homology with viruses in the Parvovirinae. The three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the C6/36 DNV at 15.6-A resolution by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) revealed distinctive outer surface features not previously seen in other parvoviruses, indicating structural divergence of densoviruses, in addition to its genomic differences, while the inner surface of the C6/36 DNV capsid exhibits features that are conserved among parvoviruses.
    Virology 02/2004; 318(1):123-33. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2003.09.013 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The RNA of Chinese Sacbrood Bee Virus (CSBV) was purified and used as template to obtain a 1096 bp cDNA fragment by RT-PCR amplification. This DNA fragment was cloned into pGEM-T Easy Vector for sequencing. Analyses of the sequenced CSBV RNA fragment revealed a nucleotide sequence homology of 87.6% and a deduced amino-acid sequence homology of 94.6% with that of the Sacbrood Virus (SBV), indicating that CSBV is a different but highly homologous virus of SBV. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of CSBV was determined at 2.5 nm resolution by using electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) and computer reconstruction methods. The 3-D structure showed that the capsid has aT = 1 (or P = 3) icosahedral capsid shell with a smooth surface. There were 12 pentons at its icosahedral vertices (5-fold axes) and 132 holes penetrating the shell. The 3-D structure also revealed densities corresponding to the CSBV genome, suggesting icosahedrally-ordered RNA organization, a novel feature not previously reported for any picornaviruses.
    Science in China Series C Life Sciences 09/2001; 44(4):443-8. DOI:10.1007/BF02879612 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The three-dimensional (3D) structure of the wild-type rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been determined to a resolution of 3.2 nm by electron cryomicroscopy and computer image reconstruction techniques. The 3D density map exhibits characteristic structural features of a calicivirus: a T=3 icosahedral capsid with 90 arch-like capsomeres at the icosahedral and local 2-fold axes and 32 large surface hollows at the icosahedral 5- and 3-fold axes. This result confirms that the RHDV isolated in China is a member of the Caliciviridae family. A rather continuous capsid shell was found without channels. However, our RHDV structure also reveals some distinct structural characteristics not observed in other caliciviruses, including interconnected capsomeres and the lack of protuberance on the base of each of the surface hollows. Two types of particles were identified with similar outer capsid structure but different density distributions inside the capsid shells, which could not be distinguished by conventional negative staining electron microscopy. As the genomic and subgenomic RNAs are both packaged into particles for RHDV, we suggest that the two types of particles identified correspond to those containing either the genomic or subgenomic RNAs, respectively. Keywordselectron cryomicroscopy-three-dimensional reconstruction-RHDV-calicivirus
    Chinese Science Bulletin 06/2001; 46(12):1005-1008. DOI:10.1007/BF03183546 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human herpesviruses are large and structurally complex viruses that cause a variety of diseases. The three-dimensional structure of the herpesvirus capsid has been determined at 8.5 angstrom resolution by electron cryomicroscopy. More than 30 putative alpha helices were identified in the four proteins that make up the 0.2 billion-dalton shell. Some of these helices are located at domains that undergo conformational changes during capsid assembly and DNA packaging. The unique spatial arrangement of the heterotrimer at the local threefold positions accounts for the asymmetric interactions with adjacent capsid components and the unusual co-dependent folding of its subunits.
    Science 06/2000; 288(5467):877-80. DOI:10.1126/science.288.5467.877 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Typical herpes simplex virus (HSV) capsids contain seven proteins that form a T=16 icosahedron of 1,250-A diameter. Infection of cells with recombinant baculoviruses expressing two of these proteins, VP5 (which forms the pentons and hexons in typical HSV capsids) and VP19C (a component of the triplexes that connect adjacent capsomeres), results in the formation of spherical particles of 880-A diameter. Electron cryomicroscopy and computer reconstruction revealed that these particles possess a T=7 icosahedral symmetry, having 12 pentons and 60 hexons. Among the characteristic structural features of the particle are the skewed appearance of the hexons and the presence of intercapsomeric mass densities connecting the middle domain of one hexon subunit to the lower domain of a subunit in the adjacent hexon. We interpret these connecting masses as being formed by VP19C. Comparison of the connecting masses with the triplexes, which occupy equivalent positions in the T=16 capsid, reveals the probable locations of the single VP19C and two VP23 molecules that make up the triplex. Their arrangement suggests that the two triplex proteins have different roles in controlling intercapsomeric interactions and capsid stability. The nature of these particles and of other aberrant forms made in the absence of scaffold demonstrates the conformational adaptability of the capsid proteins and illustrates how VP23 and the scaffolding protein modulate the nature of the VP5-VP19C network to ensure assembly of the functional T=16 capsid.
    Journal of Virology 09/1999; 73(8):6821-30. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction from transmission electron cryomicroscopy images is a technique for 3D structure determination of macromolecular complexes such as spherical viruses with icosahedral symmetry. To calculate virus structures to higher resolution, it is necessary to combine information from hundreds (perhaps thousands) of high resolution but extremely noisy images. The most intensive step is an optimization calculation in which the parameters determining particle center and orientation are refined. The complexity increases quadratically as the number of particle images increases, making it impractical to refine hundreds of particles on conventional workstations. We discuss a parallel implementation of the refinement algorithm on shared-memory platforms. The speed-up obtained thus far has made it possible for us to reconstruct an improved resolution structure of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) capsid. 1 Introduction Three-dimensional structural determinatio...
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    ABSTRACT: Unlike the multiple-shelled organization of other Reoviridae members, cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) has a single-shelled capsid. The three-dimensional structures of full and empty CPV by electron cryomicroscopy show identical outer shells but differ inside. The outer surface reveals a T=1 icosahedral shell decorated with spikes at its icosahedral vertices. The internal space of the empty CPV is unoccupied except for 12 mushroom-shaped densities attributed to the transcriptional enzyme complexes. The ordered double-stranded RNA inside the full capsid forms spherical shells spaced 25 A apart. The RNA-protein interactions suggest a mechanism for RNA transcription and release.
    Journal of Virology 03/1999; 73(2):1624-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a member of the Reoviridae family, is a double-stranded RNA virus. Infection of rice plants with RDV reduces crop production significantly and can pose a major economic threat to Southeast Asia. A 25-A three-dimensional structure of the 700-A-diameter RDV capsid has been determined by 400-kV electron cryomicroscopy and computer reconstruction. The structure revealed two distinctive icosahedral shells: a T=13l outer icosahedral shell composed of 260 trimeric clusters of P8 (46 kDa) and an inner T=1 icosahedral shell of 60 dimers of P3 (114 kDa). Sequence and structural comparisons were made between the RDV outer shell trimer and the two crystal conformations (REF and HEX) of the VP7 trimer of bluetongue virus, an animal analog of RDV. The low-resolution structural match of the RDV outer shell trimer to the HEX conformation of VP7 trimer has led to the proposal that P8 consists of an upper domain of beta-sandwich motif and a lower domain of alpha helices. The less well fit REF conformation of VP7 to the RDV trimer may be due to the differences between VP7 and P8 in the sequence of the hinge region that connects the two domains. The additional mass density and the absence of a known signaling peptide on the surface of the RDV outer shell trimer may be responsible for the different interactions between plants and animal reoviruses.
    Journal of Virology 12/1998; 72(11):8541-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Formation of herpes simplex virus-1 capsids requires the presence of intact scaffolding proteins. The C terminus of the abundant scaffolding protein associates with the major capsid shell protein VP5 through hydrophobic interactions. After cleavage by the viral encoded protease, which removes their C-terminal 25 aa, the scaffolding proteins are released from the capsid. We have used electron cryomicroscopy and computer image processing to determine, to 13 A, the three-dimensional structures of capsids containing either cleaved or uncleaved scaffolding proteins. Detailed comparisons show that the structures of the outer icosahedral shells are almost identical in the two capsid types. Differences are apparent in the radial distribution of the density inside the capsid shell (within a radius of 460 ) which represents the scaffolding core. However, in both capsid types, the bulk of this internal density exhibits no icosahedral symmetry. Close examination revealed localized regions of icosahedrally arranged extra density at the interface between the outer shell and the scaffold of protease-minus capsids. Rod-like densities extending inwards for approximately 40 from the capsid shell are present under four of the six quasi-equivalent triplex positions. Under triplexes Tb, Tc, and Te, the major additional densities appear as pairs with the rods in each pair situated 37 apart. We propose that these rods are formed by the C-termini of the scaffolding proteins and represent the sites of interaction between the capsid shell and scaffold.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/1998; 95(6):2778-83. DOI:10.1073/pnas.95.6.2778 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electron cryomicroscopy and icosahedral reconstruction are used to obtain the three-dimensional structure of the 1250-A-diameter herpesvirus B-capsid. The centers and orientations of particles in focal pairs of 400-kV, spot-scan micrographs are determined and iteratively refined by common-lines-based local and global refinement procedures. We describe the rationale behind choosing shared-memory multiprocessor computers for executing the global refinement, which is the most computationally intensive step in the reconstruction procedure. This refinement has been implemented on three different shared-memory supercomputers. The speedup and efficiency are evaluated by using test data sets with different numbers of particles and processors. Using this parallel refinement program, we refine the herpesvirus B-capsid from 355-particle images to 13-A resolution. The map shows new structural features and interactions of the protein subunits in the three distinct morphological units: penton, hexon, and triplex of this T = 16 icosahedral particle.
    Biophysical Journal 02/1998; 74(1):576-88. DOI:10.1016/S0006-3495(98)77816-6 · 3.83 Impact Factor