[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cdc42-associated tyrosine kinase 1 (ACK1) is a specific down-stream effector of Cdc42, a Rho family small G-protein. Previous studies have shown that ACK1 interacts with clathrin heavy chain and is involved in clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis. Here we report that ACK1 interacted with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) upon EGF stimulation via a region at carboxy terminus that is highly homologous to Gene-33/Mig-6/RALT. The interaction of ACK1 with EGFR was dependent on the kinase activity or tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-EGFR and GFP-ACK1 indicates that ACK1 was colocalized with EGFR on EEA-1 positive vesicles upon EGF stimulation. Suppression of the expression of ACK1 by ACK-RNAi inhibited ligand-induced degradation of EGFR upon EGF stimulation, suggesting that ACK1 plays an important role in regulation of EGFR degradation in cells. Furthermore, we identified ACK1 as an ubiquitin-binding protein. Through an ubiquitin-association (Uba) domain at the carboxy terminus, ACK1 binds to both poly- and mono-ubiquitin. Overexpression of the Uba domain-deletion mutant of ACK1 blocked the ligand-dependent degradation of EGFR, suggesting that ACK1 regulates EGFR degradation via its Uba domain. Taken together, our studies suggest that ACK1 senses signal of EGF and regulates ligand-induced degradation of EGFR.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 04/2007; 18(3):732-42. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E06-02-0142 · 4.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Rho family small G-protein Cdc42 has been implicated in a diversity of biological functions. Multiple downstream effectors have been identified. How Cdc42 discriminates the interaction with its multiple downstream effectors is not known. Activated Cdc42-associated tyrosine kinase (ACK) is a very specific effector of Cdc42. To delineate the Cdc42 signaling pathway mediated by ACK, we set about to identify the specific ACK-binding region in Cdc42. We utilized TC10, another member of the Rho family of G-proteins that is 66.7% identical to Cdc42, to construct TC10/Cdc42 chimeras for screening the specific ACK-binding region in Cdc42. A region between switch I and switch II has been identified as the specific ACK-binding (AB) region. The replacement of the AB region with the corresponding region in TC10 resulted in the complete loss of ACK-binding ability but did not affect the binding to WASP, suggesting that the AB region confers the binding specificity to ACK. On the other hand, replacement of the corresponding region of TC10 with the AB region enabled TC10 to acquire ACK-binding ability. Eight residues are different between the AB region and the corresponding region of TC10. The mutational analysis indicated that all eight residues contribute to the binding to ACK2. The assays for the Cdc42-mediated activation of ACK2 indicated that the AB region is essential for Cdc42 to activate ACK2 in cells. Thus, our studies have defined a specific ACK-binding region in Cdc42 and have provided a molecular basis for generating ACK binding-defective mutants of Cdc42 to delineate ACK-mediated signaling pathway.