[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the recent increase in inflammatory diseases is related to an increase in environmental chemicals and psychiatric stress. To investigate the effect of chronic topical exposure to chemicals and isolation stress, low-dose formalin (a mild contact sensitizer and an irritant), 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB; a potent contact sensitizer) and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS; an irritant) were applied to mouse ears at 7-d intervals under no-stress or stress conditions. Skin reactions (ear swelling) elicited by formalin and TNCB increased time dependently. At the chronic stage, a significant skin reaction peaking at 1 h after application was elicited on the formalin-treated sites, while a shift from a delayed-type hypersensitivity to an immediate-type response was observed on the TNCB-treated sites. At the formalin-treated sites, genes related to neurogenic inflammation, i.e., bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor, IL-6, and membrane metallo endopeptidase (NEP) mRNA were upregulated. In the TNCB-treated sites, marked upregulation of IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-4, and IL-6 mRNA was observed in addition to B2 receptor mRNA. Pretreatment with HOE140, the B2 receptor antagonist suppressed these skin reactions. Increased skin sensitivity to an unrelated chemical, ethanol, and thermal stimuli were elicited in formalin and TNCB-treated mice. Cortisol levels in formalin-treated mice and IgE levels in TNCB-treated mice were elevated respectively. Stress markedly amplified the skin reactions and gene expression related to neurogenic inflammation. SLS did not induce any changes. It was concluded that chronic topical exposure to low-dose noxious chemicals and stress could easily induce skin sensitivity relating to the BK-B2 pathway and nociceptive sensitization reflecting neural sensitization.
Journal of Occupational Health 12/2007; 49(6):431-42. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonspecific unresponsive states of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to unrelated antigens are induced in mice by a single administration of hapten. In these studies, we found a unique regulatory mechanism of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) mediated by nonspecific suppressor factor (NSF) induced by the intravenous injection of hapten-conjugated syngeneic spleen cells. NSF is a approximately 45-kDa protein released from the macrophage-like suppressor cells and binds selectively to dendritic cells (DCs). Moreover, NSF-treated DCs release a second approximately 20-kDa NSF (NSF(int)).
To try and identify NSF and characterize its function.
The suppressor activity was evaluated by inhibition of the passive transfer of CHS by the effector cells sensitized with hapten and the antigen-presenting cell (APC) activity of hapten-primed draining lymph node cells (DLNCs) to induce CHS. NSF-containing supernatants obtained from the culture of spleen cells from mice that had been injected intravenously with oxazolone-conjugated syngeneic spleen cells 7 days before were prepared and purified with a Green A dye-affinity column, DEAE column and Sephacryl S-200 column. Then, samples of molecular mass of approximately 45 kDa were separated by native-PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-PAGE. After confirming the suppressor activity of proteins of approximately 45 kDa separated by native-PAGE, samples were separated by nonreducing SDS-PAGE, transferred onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes and analysed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.
Proteins of approximately 45 kDa eluted from a Sephacryl S-200 column and the slice of native-PAGE gel exhibited the strong suppressor activity. Analyses using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and MASCOT algorithm of the protein bands around 45 kDa separated by nonreducing SDS-PAGE identified NSF as a 22.5-kDa protein, dual specific phosphatase 14/MAP-kinase phophatase-6 (DUSP14/MKP6), which functions as a negative regulator of the MAP-kinase signalling. Western blot analyses revealed that recombinant DUSP14 (rDUSP14) exists as the mixture of 22.5-kDa monomer and 45-kDa dimer under nonreducing conditions, and monomers under reducing conditions. Treatment with rDUSP14 at 4 degrees C for 2 h suppressed the ability of effector cells to transfer CHS dose dependently and the APC function of DLNCs to induce CHS. Epicutaneous application of rDUSP14 immediately after challenge inhibited the subsequent CHS expression. rDUSP14 was bound specifically by major histocompatibility complex class II (Ia)-positive spleen cells (presumably DCs). The suppressor activity of NSF was neutralized by anti-DUSP14 monoclonal antibody. Expression of DUSP14 mRNA in the spleen was upregulated parallel to the unresponsive state induced by hapten-conjugated cells. NSF, NSF(int) and rDUSP14 exhibited the phosphatase activity towards p-nitrophenyl phosphate in vitro as alkaline phosphatase.
These studies indicate for the first time that NSF is a dimer of DUSP14 secreted by macrophage-like suppressor cells by stimulation with hapten-conjugated cells and exerts a regulatory function on CHS through DCs as a secreted phosphatase.
British Journal of Dermatology 06/2007; 156(5):848-60. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory skin diseases are exacerbated by psychiatric stress. Previous studies have shown that the activity of epidermal antigen-presenting cells (APCs), Langerhans cells (LCs) and keratinocytes (KCs), is affected by stress. Hapten application causes migration of LCs to draining lymph nodes (DLNs). Recently, we found that hapten application also activates epidermal cells (ECs) to mature potent APCs, and that the main APCs in these populations are KCs. Thus, DLN cells and ECs following hapten application are available for estimating the APC function of LCs and KCs in stress studies.
To investigate the mechanism of exacerbation of skin inflammation by chronic stress by observing the effect of isolation stress transversally on the skin immune and neurohormonal systems.
Contact sensitivity (CS) was elicited in BALB/c mice. The APC function of LCs and ECs following hapten application was assessed by the CS-inducing activity in the recipient mice. Levels of neurohormonal transmitters and proinflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell surface molecules were detected using flow cytometry. Expression of mRNA for cytokines, neurohormonal receptors and a differentiation marker by ECs was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
Acute stress (2-day isolation) suppressed induction of CS, while chronic stress (30-day isolation) markedly enhanced induction of CS. DLN cells from chronically stressed mice contained increased numbers of LCs and exhibited enhanced APC function for inducing CS. In contrast, the APC function of KCs from these mice was markedly suppressed. Serum corticosterone levels were enhanced in acute stress, while substance P (SP) levels were enhanced in chronic stress. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor-1 mRNA expression in ECs was enhanced in acute stress, while SP receptor (i.e. neurokinin-1 receptor) mRNA expression in ECs was enhanced in chronic stress. Production and mRNA expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 alpha and tumour necrosis factor-alpha by ECs following hapten application was markedly suppressed in chronic stress. Expression by ECs of E-cadherin, which adheres LCs and KCs homophilically, was suppressed in chronic stress. In addition, these cells exhibited impaired differentiation, i.e. suppressed spontaneous proliferation and enhanced mRNA expression for transglutaminase-3.
Chronic isolation stress may enhance CS responses by upregulation of the APC activity of LCs and the SP system. However, dysregulation of KC function and differentiation by chronic stress suggests that KCs may not contribute to the enhancement of the CS response positively. These complex changes suggest that chronic isolation stress in mice may provide a possible model system for studying the mechanism of exacerbation of skin inflammation by stress.
British Journal of Dermatology 08/2004; 151(1):50-64. · 3.76 Impact Factor