Young Jin Choi

Myongji University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (132)279.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Double-layered microparticles for enzyme-triggered release in the gastrointestinal tract were prepared by spray-chilling a water/oil/water emulsion, which could be a promising candidate for the targeted delivery of water-soluble bioactive compounds. Based on response surface methodology, the optimum conditions for 2nd emulsifier content, concentration ratio of the single emulsion to the coating material, and dispersion fluid temperature were 201.5μmol, 0.30, and 10.1°C, respectively. Morphological characterisation using an FE-SEM indicated that double-layered microparticles with diameters of 7-10μm were spherical and possessed scores of inner droplets. Release profiles generated using in vitro digestion models revealed that the core of double-layered microparticles was gradually released by enzymatic degradation when exposed to the simulated intestinal environment. The accumulative release reached 59.8±0.2% within a residence time of 3h, whereas they were resistant to gastric release-stimuli, such as extremely low pH and pepsin (below 2.4±0.6%).
    Food Chemistry. 10/2014; 161:53–59.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of hydromorphone-OROS (HM-OROS) in reducing sleep disturbance and relieving cancer pain.
    Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lycopene is a natural antioxidant which has several health benefits. Undesirable oxidation of lycopene compromises its health benefits and also affects the sensory quality of food products containing lycopene. Health benefits associated with lycopene in food preparations can be enhanced by preventing its degradation by incorporating it into the oil phase of an oil-in-water nanoemulsion. In this study, lycopene nanoemulsions were prepared from a low-concentration lycopene extract using an emulsification–evaporation technique. The effects of the concentrations of the lycopene extract (0.015 to 0.085 mg/mL) and emulsifier (0.3 to 0.7 mg/mL), and the number of homogenization cycles (2 to 4) on the droplet size, emulsification efficiency (EE), and nanoemulsion stability were investigated and optimized by statistical analysis using a Box-Behnken design. Regression analysis was used to determine the 2nd-order polynomial model relationship of independent and dependent variables, with multiple regression coefficients (R2) of 0.924, 0.933, and 0.872, for the droplet size, EE, and nanoemulsion stability, respectively. Analysis of variance showed that the lycopene extract concentration has the most significant effect on all the response variables. Response surface methodology predicted that a formulation containing 0.085 mg/mL of lycopene extract and 0.7 mg/mL of emulsifier, subjected to 3 homogenization cycles, is optimal for achieving the smallest droplet size, greatest emulsion stability, and acceptable EE. The observed responses were in agreement with the predicted values of the optimized formulation. This study provided important information about the statistical design of lycopene nanoemulsion preparation.Practical ApplicationLycopene nanoemulsions have potential applications in supplementing various food matrices, especially beverages since it can provide transparency in appearance. The novelty of this study is to prepare highly transparent lycopene emulsion which is preferable for the liquid food application since it is less effective in distorting optical appearance of the products. The lycopene nanoemulsion with droplets less than 100 nm is highly transparent compared to unencapsulated lycopene extract, which makes beverage turbid.
    Journal of Food Science 07/2014; · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The combination of oxaliplatin-based treatments (oxaliplatin plus infusional 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin [FOLFOX] or oxaliplatin plus capecitabine [CapeOX]) and bevacizumab is a standard chemotherapy regimen for metastatic CRC (mCRC). However, several clinical studies that tested S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX) indicate that SOX is also a treatment option for mCRC. TSU-68 is an oral compound that inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. The recommended dose of TSU-68 + SOX was previously determined in a phase I study of mCRC patients. The goal of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of TSU-68 in combination with SOX. Methods This open-label multicenter randomized phase II trial was performed in Korea. Treatment-naive mCRC patients with a performance status of 0 or 1 were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either TSU-68 + SOX or SOX alone. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results A total of 105 patients (TSU-68 + SOX, 52 patients; SOX alone, 53 patients) were randomized. The median PFS was 7.0 months in the TSU-68 + SOX group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.057) and 7.2 months in the SOX group (p = 0.8401). The most frequent grade 3 and 4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (9.6 % [TSU-68 + SOX] vs. 26.4 % [SOX]), neutropenia (13.5 % [TSU-68 + SOX] vs. 15.1 % [SOX]), and anemia (3.8 % [TSU-68 + SOX] vs. 13.2 % [SOX]). We observed a difference between the 2 groups for all grades of anemia (15.4 % [TSU-68 + SOX] vs. 32.1 % [SOX]), diarrhea (30.8 % [TSU-68 + SOX] vs. 47.2 % [SOX]), vomiting (50.0 % [TSU-68 + SOX] vs. 26.4 % [SOX]), and chromaturia (23.1 % [TSU-68 + SOX] vs. 0.0 % [SOX]). Analysis using a Cox proportional hazard model showed that baseline interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were associated with a survival benefit of TSU-68 (p = 0.012). Conclusion TSU-68 + SOX had a favorable safety profile. However, TSU-68 did not have a synergistic effect on the efficacy of SOX. The baseline serum IL-6 level could be a prognostic factor for TSU-68 efficacy.
    Investigational New Drugs 02/2014; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The extraction of medicinal or functional compounds from herbal plants is an important unit operation in food and bio-industries. The target compounds are generally present inter- or intra-cellularly in an intricate microstructure formed by cells, intercellular spaces, capillaries, and pores. The major resistance of molecular diffusion in materials of plant origin always comes from the intact cell walls and adhering membranes. Therefore, increasing the permeability of cell walls and membranes plays a very important role to increase extraction yield and/or extraction rate. Important pretreatment methods to modify the cellular structures and increase the permeability of cell walls or membranes are discussed in this paper. They include physical, biologic, and chemical treatments. In physical methods, mechanical disruption, high-pressure (HP) process, pulsed electric field (PEF) application, ultrasonic treatment, and freeze-thaw, and so on were applied. In biologic methods, different cell wall-degrading enzymes were applied to break-down cell walls or membranes and to diminish the overall internal resistance for transporting bioactive compounds from internal matrix to the external solution. In chemical methods, various chemicals for increasing the inner- or outer-membrane permeabilization were introduced. The principles of the technologies, examples of improvements, and advantages and disadvantages of the pretreatment methods are critically reviewed in this paper.
    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 01/2014; 54(10):1283-97. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Microelectronic Engineering 01/2014; 127:40–43. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole and evaluated risk factors for predicting the failure of empirical antifungal therapy. A multicenter, prospective, observational study was performed in patients with hematological malignancies who had neutropenic fever and received empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole at 22 centers. A total of 391 patients who had abnormal findings on chest imaging tests (31.0%) or a positive result of enzyme immunoassay for serum galactomannan (17.6%) showed a 56.5% overall success rate. Positive galactomannan tests before the initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.026, hazard ratio [HR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.69) and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests before initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.022, HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.71) were significantly associated with poor outcomes for the empirical antifungal therapy. Eight patients (2.0%) had premature discontinuation of itraconazole therapy due to toxicity. It is suggested that positive galactomannan tests and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests at the time of initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy are risk factors for predicting the failure of the empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole. (Clinical Trial Registration on National Cancer Institute website, NCT01060462).
    Journal of Korean medical science 01/2014; 29(1):61-8. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A mixed layer of γ-Fe2O3 and Pt-Fe2O3 core-shell nanoparticles between Ti and Pt electrodes exhibited both analog and digital bipolar resistive switching depending on applied voltage. The resistance sequentially reduced with repeated −1.5 V sweeps and pulses for 100 ms and increased as repeating +1.5 V. After forming at +3 V, digital bipolar switching was achieved with SET transition from high to low resistance at +1 to 2 V and reverse RESET transition at −1 V. Pulse operation at ±2 V led to identical bipolar switching, associated with facilitated interconnection of filament segments between Pt cores in nanoparticle layer.
    Applied Physics Letters 01/2014; 104(9):093514-093514-5. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Periodically distributed ZnO nanostructure arrays were hydrothermally grown on silicon substrates. For the preferential, site-selective growth of the ZnO nanostructures, a seed layer was patterned using self-assembled monolayers of polystyrene spheres (PSs) lithography technique. The size of the seed layer was controlled by the size of PSs, which was determined by oxygen plasma etching time. Due to the existence of numerous nucleation sites, flower-like (FL) ZnO nanostructures grew on the large seed layer over 800 nm in diameter. By reducing the size of the seed layer, we could make a couple of ZnO nanowires grow on a single seed layer island. We examined the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of FL ZnO nanostructure arrays and coupled (CO) ZnO nanowire arrays. Since the dimension of the nanostructures is smaller than or comparable to the penetration depth of the incident electron, CL signal would be generated in the whole body of the nanostructures. So, the CL intensity might be proportional to the surface area through which the photons could escape. As a result, it is natural that the CL intensity from the FL ZnO nanostructure arrays should be stronger than that from the CO ZnO nanowire arrays. However, in spite of the smaller surface area, the CL intensity was strikingly enhanced in the CO ZnO nanowire arrays compared with the closely-packed ZnO nanowire arrays. It could be attributed to the suppression of the near-band-edge ultraviolet emission in the [0001] direction, which was observed in the monochromatic CL measurement.
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 12/2013; 13(12):8074-8. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a systematic and reliable approach to fabricate ZnO nanocone or nanoneedle arrays on various substrates including fibers. Our approach employs wet chemical etching of ZnO nanowire arrays using an aqueous solution of HCl. Using this simple chemical etching technique, nanowire arrays were transformed to nanocone arrays on Si substrates and Kevlar fibers. Significant enhancement of light emission intensities at UV peak (∼387 nm) was observed when the ZnO nanowire arrays are converted to ZnO nanocone arrays. The photoluminescence intensities at the UV peaks from the nanocones are found to be ∼3–4 times larger than those from the nanowires.
    Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials 12/2013; 210(12). · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ginseng and ginsenosides are frequently used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, 20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (GPD), the main metabolite of ginsenosides, was reported to have both anti-allergic and anti-pruritic effects. The immunomodulatory effects of GPD-fortified ginseng extract (GFGE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like symptoms in mice were investigated. This study was designed to investigate the preventive effect of GFGE on AD-like symptoms. The effects of orally administered GFGE on Dermatophagoides farinae body extract (DFE)-induced AD-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice were assessed by analyzing dermatitis score, ear thickness, scratching time, skin histological changes, and serum level of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC). In addition, splenocytes were isolated from the mice and stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies to produce cytokines. Oral administration of GFGE significantly attenuated DFE-induced increases in dermatitis score, ear thickness, scratching time, and severity of skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. GFGE treatment also reduced level of MDC in serum, infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells in skin, and production of cytokines in splenocytes. These results suggest that GFGE might ameliorate DFE-induced AD-like symptoms and be an alternative therapeutic agent for the prevention of AD.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dexamethasone-induced hiccup (DIH) is an underrecognized symptom in patients with cancer, and little information is available about its treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of methylprednisolone rotation as treatment and to confirm the male predominance among those with cancer who experienced DIH during chemotherapy. Persons with cancer who experienced hiccups during chemotherapy treatment and who were receiving treatment with dexamethasone were presumed to have DIH. The following algorithmic practice was implemented for antiemetic corticosteroid use: rotation from dexamethasone to methylprednisolone in the next cycle and dexamethasone re-administration in the second cycle of chemotherapy after recognition of hiccups to confirm DIH. All other antiemetics except corticosteroid remained unchanged. Patients (n = 40) were recruited from eight cancer centers in Korea from September 2012 to April 2013. Data were collected retrospectively. Hiccup intensity (numeric rating scale [NRS]: 5.38 vs. 0.53) and duration (68.44 minutes vs. 1.79 minutes) were significantly decreased after rotation to methylprednisolone, while intensity of emesis was not increased (NRS: 2.63 vs. 2.08). Median dose of dexamethasone and methylprednisolone were 10 mg and 50 mg, respectively. Thirty-four (85%) of 40 patients showed complete resolution of hiccups after methylprednisolone rotation in the next cycle. Of these 34 patients, 25 (73.5%) had recurrence of hiccups after dexamethasone re-administration. Compared with baseline values, hiccup intensity (NRS: 5.24 vs. 2.44) and duration (66.43 minutes vs. 22.00 minutes) were significantly attenuated after dexamethasone re-administration. Of the 40 eligible patients, 38 (95%) were male. DIH during chemotherapy could be controlled without losing antiemetic potential by replacing dexamethasone with methylprednisolone. We also identified a male predominance of DIH. Further prospective studies are warranted.
    The Oncologist 10/2013; · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Efficacy, safety, and quality of life (QoL) for patients receiving larger doses of controlled-release oxycodone (CR oxycodone) in outpatient clinics are evaluated. The use of high-dose CR oxycodone and adjuvant drugs for pain management, pain intensity, parameters associated with quality of life, and adverse effects in cancer patients treated with high-dose CR oxycodone (≥80 mg/day) was prospectively observed for 8 weeks. Data from 486 cancer patients receiving high-dose CR oxycodone were collected from 44 hospitals during the period from February 2009 to March 2010. Three hundred eighteen of the total 486 patients treated with high-dose CR oxycodone were followed up for 8 weeks. Pain intensity significantly improved from a mean numeric rating scale (NRS) 5.49 to NRS 4.33 (P < 0.0001). Dosage of CR oxycodone increased from a mean of 130.0 to a mean of 174.9 (P < 0.0001). QoL including activity, walking, and sleeping significantly improved after 8 weeks. At baseline, 138 complained of adverse effects, of which constipation (30.2%) was the most common followed by dry mouth (8.8%) and dizziness (8.2%). After 8 weeks, 128 patients complained of adverse effects such as constipation (27.0%), nausea (5.7%), dry mouth (5.7%), and dizziness (5.0%). After 8 weeks of high-dose CR oxycodone, adverse effects did not increase. This study suggests that over an 8-week period, the use of high-dose CR oxycodone for cancer pain management is efficient, safe, and tolerable in outpatient clinics.
    Pain Medicine 09/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: α-Lipoic acid (ALA) is widely used for diabetic neuropathy due to its antioxidant properties. We evaluated its potential for preventing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of ALA in CIN prevention. Two hundred and two patients with basal renal insufficiency who received elective coronary angiography were randomized to the ALA group [ALA treatment for 2 days (600 mg orally three times a day before and after coronary catheterization, n = 100)] or the control group (n = 102). The primary end point was the maximum increase in serum creatinine (sCr) and the secondary end point was the incidence of CIN defined as an increase in sCr of either ≥25% or ≥44.2 µmol/l. Results: Mean maximum increase in sCr was not different between the ALA and the control group (-1.32 ± 30.5 vs. -1.19 ± 30.1 µmol/l, respectively; p = 0.977). sCr did not significantly change from baseline (120.8 ± 69.8 vs. 122 ± 88.1 µmol/l) in the ALA group and the simple saline hydration group (108.2 ± 37.5 vs. 110 ± 49 µmol/l). There was a lower rate of CIN in the ALA group than in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (3.0 vs. 6.9%, respectively; p = 0.332). Conclusion: ALA showed no benefit in CIN prevention.
    Cardiology 08/2013; 126(3):159-166. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A pn junction consisting of n-type ZnO nanowires (NWs) on p-type Si substrate exhibits analog resistive switching dependent on the polarity of applied voltage before forming operation for the bipolar switching. The current-voltage curves of Ti/ZnO-NWs/ZnO-seed-layer/p+-Si substrate show diode characteristics with hysteresis in the reverse bias condition, presenting a gradually increasing and then saturated current with repeated voltage sweeps. The current is then further increased with sweeping –V and decreased during the subsequent +V sweep. This polarity-dependent analog switching remains the same during pulse measurement. The analog switching is thought to originate from gradual redistribution of oxygen vacancies, trapping and detrapping of charges in the ZnO NWs, which modulate the depletion width and space charge density. Consequently, the resistance of the pn junction is changed in an analog fashion. After the forming operation, bipolar switching is observed with a transition from high to low resistance states (SET) at +V and reverse transition (RESET) at –V, originating from the formation and rupture of filaments. These results demonstrate multiple features of the ZnO NWs based pn junction, including diode characteristics, analog-type resistive switching before forming operation, and digital-type bipolar switching after forming.
    Journal of Applied Physics 08/2013; 114(6). · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum conditions for complete chemo-selective oxidization of the primary alcohol group in 1-monolaurin (1-ML) with dual catalysts, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidine oxoammonium (TEMPO) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Reaction conditions that required (i) the least amount of catalyst and (ii) the shortest reaction time were established. A statistical model of the degree of oxidation was proposed by response surface regression considering 5 factors: reactant pH, concentrations of the 2 catalysts, and reaction temperature, and time. Based on this proposed model, the relative effect of each factor could be predicted. The conditions that resulted in the lowest consumption of catalyst enabled oxidization of 2.744 g of 1-ML completely within 81 min with 18.4 mg TEMPO and 19.6 mL NaClO (pH 9.66, 34.5°C). The fastest reaction time (72 min) required 21.8 mg TEMPO and 19.9 mL NaClO (pH 10.98, 34.8°C). FT-IR and 13C NMR analysis revealed that 1-ML was completely oxidized under 2 different optimal conditions and the chemoselective oxidation of the primary alcohol occurred without oxidation of a secondary alcohol. After chemo-selective oxidation, 1-ML retained antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.
    Food science and biotechnology 07/2013; 22(3):621-629. · 0.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of factors related to overall survival (OS) have been addressed in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was conducted to determine the impact of whole-body metastatic regions on survival outcome in advanced non-squamous NSCLC. Between March 2005 and February 2011, 112 eligible patients with newly confirmed stage IV non-squamous NSCLC, available for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status 18-21 analysis, and accessible for the determination of pretreatment whole-body metastatic regions were enrolled in this retrospective study. The total number of synchronous metastatic regions was scored according to the following disease sites: abdomen/pelvis, lung to lung/pulmonary lymphangitic spread, bone, pleura/pleural effusion/pericardial effusion, neck/axillary lymph nodes, other soft tissue, brain. The median age of the cohort was 65 years (range, 31 to 88 years). The median whole-body metastatic score was 2 (range, 1 to 6), and bone and lung to lung were the most common metastatic sites. EGFR mutations were observed in 40 (35.7%) patients with a deletion in exon 19 and Leu858Arg mutation in exon 21 being detected in 16 (40.0%) and 19 (47.5%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis for OS revealed that treatment factors (p=0.005), performance status (p=0.006), whole-body metastatic score (p<0.001), and EGFR mutation status (p=0.095) were significantly or marginally associated with OS. The results of the present study demonstrated that whole-body metastatic extent strongly affects survival outcome, even after adjustment for other significant variables in advanced non-squamous NSCLC. The clinical validity of more curative multimodal approaches in cohorts with limited metastases remains to be explored.
    Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2013; 45(2):95-102. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ginsenoside 20-O-β-D glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (compound K), a minor ginsenoside, is not found in white raw ginseng, but has better bioavailability than the major ginsenosides in ginseng. Employing commercial enzyme packages for industrial applications, the optimum conditions for enzymatic transformation for the highest content of compound K was explored to enhance the health benefits of ginseng extract. Cytolase PCL 5 was selected from commercial enzyme packages nominated for high β-glucosidase activity. By response surface methodology, the optimal conditions were identified as 78 h of treatment at pH 4.3 at 55.4 °C for 2.068 mg/mL of compound K, showing good agreement with the experimental value.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 05/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The bias-polarity dependent multimode threshold and bipolar resistive switching characteristics in bi-layered Pt-Fe2O3 core-shell and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles assembly were investigated. The Ti/Pt-Fe2O3-core-shell-nanoparticles (∼20 nm)/γ-Fe2O3-nanoparticles (∼40 nm)/Pt structure exhibited a threshold switching upon applying −V at Ti electrode. However, the filaments were formed at +V and subsequently ruptured at −V, featured to be bipolar switching. After rupturing filaments, it returned to threshold switching mode. The presence of core-shell nanoparticles facilitates the threshold switching either by temporary formation of filaments or enhanced charge transport. Also, the oxygen reservoir role of Ti electrode was essential to form stable filaments for bipolar switching.
    Applied Physics Letters 03/2013; 102(12). · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate to determine whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can prevent anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. A total of 103 patients were enrolled in this prospective randomized open label controlled trial. They are patients first diagnosed with breast cancer or lymphoma, who require chemotherapy, including anthracycline like adriamycine or epirubicine. Patients were randomized to the NAC group {n=50; 1200 mg orally every 8 hours starting before and ending after the intravenous infusion of anthracycline in all chemotherapy cycles (3-6)} or the control group (n=53). Primary outcome was the decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) absolutely ≥10% from the baseline and concomitantly <50% at 6-month. Composite of all-cause death, heart failure and readmission were compared. The primary outcome was not significantly different in the NAC and control groups {3/47 (6.4%) vs. 1/52 (1.9%), p=0.343}. The mean LVEF significantly decreased in both the NAC (from 64.5 to 60.8%, p=0.001) and control groups (from 64.1 to 61.3%, p<0.001) after the completion of whole chemotherapy. The mean LVEF change did not differ between the two groups (-3.64% in NAC vs. -2.78% in control group, p=0.502). Left ventricular (LV) end systolic dimension increased with higher trend in NAC by 3.08±4.56 mm as compared with 1.47±1.83 mm in the control group (p=0.064). LV end diastolic dimension did not change in each group and change does not differ in both. Peak E, A and E/A ratio change and cardiac enzymes were comparable in two groups. Cumulative 12-month event rate was 6% and 3.8% in the NAC group and the control group, respectively, with no difference (p=0.672). We cannot prove that NAC prevents anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy.
    Korean Circulation Journal 03/2013; 43(3):174-81.

Publication Stats

667 Citations
279.05 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2014
    • Myongji University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Material Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1997–2014
    • Seoul National University
      • • College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
      • • Department of Agricultural Biotechnology
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2013
    • Pusan National University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Chonbuk National University
      • Semiconductor Physics Research Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hallym University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • College of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Purdue University
      West Lafayette, Indiana, United States
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Engineering
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007–2013
    • Hallym University Medical Center
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Washington State University
      • School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
      Pullman, Washington, United States
  • 2011
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • School of Materials Science and Engineering
      Chinju, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2009–2011
    • Chungbuk National University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Tyundyu, North Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Sogang University
      • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Georgia Institute of Technology
      • School of Materials Science and Engineering
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2010
    • Gangneung-Wonju National University
      • Department of Marine Molecular Biotechnology
      Kang-neung, Gangwon, South Korea
    • University of Science and Technology, Beijing
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2006–2008
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • Department of Surgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2006
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Food Science and Technology
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2004
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Interaction and Robotics Research Center
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1998–2000
    • Kyung Hee University
      • Department of Physics
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea