[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian cell culture systems are used predominantly for the production of therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) products. A number of alternative platforms, such as Pichia engineered with a humanized N-linked glycosylation pathway, have recently been developed for the production of mAbs. The glycosylation profiles of mAbs produced in glycoengineered Pichia are similar to those of mAbs produced in mammalian systems. This report presents for the first time the comprehensive characterization of an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) mAb produced in a glycoengineered Pichia, and a study comparing the anti-HER2 from Pichia, which had an amino acid sequence identical to trastuzumab, with trastuzumab. The comparative study covered a full spectrum of preclinical evaluation, including bioanalytical characterization, in vitro biological functions, in vivo anti-tumor efficacy and pharmacokinetics in both mice and non-human primates. Cell signaling and proliferation assays showed that anti-HER2 from Pichia had antagonist activities comparable to trastuzumab. However, Pichia-produced material showed a 5-fold increase in binding affinity to FcγIIIA and significantly enhanced antibody dependant cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, presumably due to the lack of fucose on N-glycans. In a breast cancer xenograft mouse model, anti-HER2 was comparable to trastuzumab in tumor growth inhibition. Furthermore, comparable pharmacokinetic profiles were observed for anti-HER2 and trastuzumab in both mice and cynomolgus monkeys. We conclude that glycoengineered Pichia provides an alternative production platform for therapeutic mAbs and may be of particular interest for production of antibodies for which ADCC is part of the clinical mechanism of action.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) at asparigine residue 297 plays a critical role in antibody stability and immune cell-mediated Fc effector function. Current understanding pertaining to Fc glycosylation is based on studies with IgGs that are either fully glycosylated [both heavy chain (HC) glycosylated] or aglycosylated (neither HC glycosylated). No study has been reported on the properties of hemi-glycosylated IgGs, antibodies with asymmetrical glycosylation in the Fc region such that one HC is glycosylated and the other is aglycosylated. We report here for the first time a detailed study of how hemi-glycosylation affects the stability and functional activities of an IgG1 antibody, mAb-X, in comparison to its fully glycosylated counterpart. Our results show that hemi-glycosylation does not impact Fab-mediated antigen binding, nor does it impact neonatal Fc receptor binding. Hemi-glycosylated mAb-X has slightly decreased thermal stability in the CH2 domain and a moderate decrease (∼20%) in C1q binding. More importantly, the hemi-glycosylated form shows significantly decreased binding affinities toward all Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) including the high-affinity FcγRI, and the low-affinity FcγRIIA, FcγRIIB, FcγRIIIA and FcγRIIIB. The decreased binding affinities to FcγRs result in a 3.5-fold decrease in antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). As ADCC often plays an important role in therapeutic antibody efficacy, glycosylation status will not only affect the antibody quality but also may impact the biological function of the product.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biological therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target tumor-associated antigens have been considered an effective therapeutic approach in oncology. In considering Notch-1 receptor as a potential target, we performed immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays to determine 1) whether the receptor is overexpressed in tumor cells as compared to their corresponding normal tissues and 2) the clinical significance of its expression levels in human breast, colorectal, lung and prostate cancers. We found that the expression of Notch-1 protein was overexpressed in primary colorectal adenocarcinoma and nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), but not in primary ductal breast carcinoma or prostate adenocarcinoma. Further analysis revealed that higher levels of Notch-1 protein expression were significantly associated with poorer differentiation of breast and prostate tumors. Strikingly, for NSCLC, the expression levels of Notch-1 protein were found to be inversely correlated with tumor differentiation and progression. For colorectal tumors, however, no correlation of Notch-1 protein expression was found with any tumor clinicopathological parameters, in spite of its overexpression in tumor cells. Our data demonstrated the complexity of Notch-1 protein expression in human solid tumors and further supported the notion that the roles of Notch-1 expression in tumorigenesis are highly context-dependent. The findings could provide the basis for development of distinct therapeutic strategies of Notch-1 mAbs for its applications in the treatment of suitable types of human cancers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation is frequently used as an indicator of cellular signaling activity. Elevated phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase receptors plays an important role in cancer pathogenesis. However, phosphoproteins are usually poorly preserved in clinical tissue samples that are routinely fixed in 10% formalin. Nonetheless, in oncology clinical trials, use of phosphoproteins as biomarkers has been considered to be of great value in evaluating the effectiveness of a given drug candidate. Therefore, it is worthy of investigating whether alternative fixatives would improve the preservation of phosphoproteins in tissue. We compared the IHC staining of a number of phosphoproteins in xenograft and human surgical tumor tissues fixed in three different fixatives: 10% formalin, 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA), and Streck's tissue fixative (STF). We found that STF significantly enhanced the staining intensity of phosphoproteins compared with 10% formalin or 4% PFA. STF fixative also showed superiority of preservation of phosphoproteins in human surgical samples. Our results indicate that the choice of fixative could significantly affect the usability of clinical tissue samples for evaluating phosphoprotein by IHC.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 12/2008; 57(3):257-64. · 2.26 Impact Factor