Yoshio Yamamoto

Gifu University, Gihu, Gifu, Japan

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Publications (31)54.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The neuronal elements of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of camel were investigated immunohistochemically. PGP 9.5 labeled the receptor cells in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, but not the supporting or basal cells. OMP stained some receptor cells, but no immunoreactive signals for OMP were detected in the non-sensory epithelium. PLCβ2 labeled scattered cells in the sensory epithelium and a larger number of cells in the non-sensory epithelium. Double labeling immunohistochemistry revealed that the PLCβ2-positive cells were surrounded by substance P-positive nerve fibers. Collectively, these data suggest that the camel VNO bears, in addition to the mature vomeronasal receptor cells, trigeminally-innervated solitary chemosensory cells which are expected to play a substantial role in the control of stimulus access to the VNO.
    The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, immunohistochemical analysis has been performed using neuronal markers (GAP43, NCAM and PGP 9.5) to characterize the epithelial invagination in the medial wall of the olfactory pit in the chick embryos. At stages 26-27, the epithelial invagination was primarily composed of characteristic round-shaped cells, which were negative for neuronal markers. These cells were also found in the medial wall of the olfactory pit at stage 24, whereas the epithelial invagination was not observed at any stages other than stages 26-27. The possible relationship between the round-shaped cells and the migratory cells is discussed.
    The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The carotid body is a peripheral chemoreceptor that detects decreases in arterial pO2 and subsequently activates the carotid sinus nerve. The hypoxia-evoked activity of the carotid sinus nerve has been suggested to be modulated by glutamate. In the present study, we investigate the immunohistochemical localization of vesicular glutamate transporters in the carotid body of the rat. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) labeling was closely associated with glomus cells immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase but was not in the cytoplasm of these cells. The VGLUT2 immunoreactivity was observed within nerve endings that were immunoreactive to P2X3 and densely localized inside P2X3-immunoreactive axon terminals. These results suggest that VGLUT2 is localized in the afferent nerve terminals of the carotid body. Glutamate may be released from afferent nerve terminals to modulate the chemosensory activity of the carotid body.
    Cell and Tissue Research 06/2014; · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the Corriedale sheep were examined using lectin histochemistry in order to clarify the histochemical and glycohistochemical differences between these two tissues. The olfactory epithelium was stained with 13 lectins out of 21 lectins examined, while the respiratory epithelium was positive to 16 lectins. The free border of both of the olfactory and respiratory epithelia was stained with 12 lectins: Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL), Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120), Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). The associated glands of the olfactory mucosa, Bowman's glands, were stained with 13 lectins. While both the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands were stained with eight lectins; five of them (WGA, s-WGA, STL, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) and ECL) were mutually positive among the Bowman's glands, mucous nasal glands and the goblet cells. These findings indicate that the glycohistochemical characteristics of the free borders of both olfactory and respiratory epithelia are similar to each other, suggesting that secretions from the Bowman's glands and those of the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands are partially exchanged between the surface of two epithelia to contribute the functions of the respiratory epithelium and the olfactory receptor cells, respectively.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 11/2013; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that serotonin (5-HT) facilitates the chemosensory activity of the carotid body (CB). In the present study, we investigated mRNA expression and immunohistochemical localization of the 5-HT synthetic enzyme isoforms, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) and TPH2, and the 5-HT plasma membrane transport protein, 5-HT transporter (SERT), in the CB of the rat. RT-PCR analysis detected the expression of mRNA for TPH1 and SERT in extracts of the CB. Using immunohistochemistry, 5-HT immunoreactivity was observed in a few glomus cells. TPH1 and SERT immunoreactivities were observed in almost all glomus cells. SERT immunoreactivity was seen on nerve fibers with TPH1 immunoreactivity. SERT immunoreactivity was also observed in varicose nerve fibers immunoreactive for dopamine beta-hydroxylase, but not in nerve fibers immunoreactive for vesicular acetylcholine transporters or nerve terminals immunoreactive for P2X(3) purinoreceptors. These results suggest that 5-HT is synthesized and released from glomus cells and sympathetic nerve fibers in the CB of the rat, and that the chemosensory activity of the CB is regulated by 5-HT from glomus cells and sympathetic nerve fibers.
    Histochemie 12/2012; · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Kouki Kato, Yoshio Yamamoto
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term hypoxia (days to weeks) increases phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) at Ser31 and Ser40 in the carotid body (CB). In the present study, we examined the time course of TH phosphorylation at Ser31 and Ser40 in CB of rats exposed to short-term hypoxia (within 1 day) for 0-24h. Using immunoblotting, the signal intensities of both phosphorylated TH were more intense in CB of rats exposed to hypoxia for 6, 12, 18, and 24h than those of controls. Using immunohistochemistry, immunoreactive intensities of both phosphorylated TH were significantly more intense in glomus cells after rats were exposed to hypoxia for 6, 12, 18, and 24h than those of controls (p<0.05). These results show that phosphorylation of TH at Ser31 and Ser40 is increased in CB glomus cells by short-term hypoxia, suggesting that activation of TH via phosphorylation contributes to the facilitation of catecholamine biosynthesis in CB glomus cells at an early stage of hypoxia.
    Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 11/2012; · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Under long-term hypoxia, noradrenaline (NA) content in the carotid body (CB) increases, suggesting that NA plays an important role in CB chemotransduction. However, it is unknown whether short-term hypoxia upregulates NA biosynthesis in CB. Therefore, we examined dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) expression in the CB of rats exposed to hypoxia (10% O2) for 0 to 24 hr with immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Using immunoblotting, the signal intensity for DBH appeared to be the most intense in rats exposed to hypoxia for 12 hr. Using immunohistochemistry, DBH immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm of some glomus cells and varicosities in controls and rats exposed to hypoxia for 6 hr. In rats exposed to hypoxia for 12 hr, DBH immunoreactive intensities in DBH-positive glomus cells were significantly higher compared with controls (p<0.05). In the CB of rats exposed to hypoxia for 18 and 24 hr, DBH immunoreactive intensities in DBH-positive glomus cells were significantly lower than that of rats exposed to hypoxia for 12 hr (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that DBH immunoreactivity is transiently increased in glomus cells by short-term hypoxia, suggesting that NA biosynthesis is transiently facilitated in glomus cells at an early stage of hypoxia.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 09/2012; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Under hypertension, it has been reported that the carotid body (CB) is enlarged and noradrenaline (NA) content in CB is increased. Therefore, it is hypothesized that morphological and neurochemical changes in CB are induced in hypertensive animal models. In the present study, we examined the morphological features and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) immunoreactivity in CB of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/Izm) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY/Izm). The CB of SHR/Izm was elongated in terms of the cross section of center and was enlarged in the reconstructed images compared with that of WKY/Izm, and the total volume of CB in SHR/Izm (0.048 ± 0.004 mm³) was significantly (p<0.05) increased compared with the value in WKY/Izm (0.032 ± 0.006 mm³). By immunohistochemistry, immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase in CB was mainly observed in glomus cells and the immunostaining properties were similar between WKY/Izm and SHR/Izm. On the other hand, DBH immunoreactivity was mainly observed in nerve fibers around blood vessels and observed in a few glomus cells in CB of WKY/Izm. The number of glomus cells with strong DBH immunoreactivity was increased in SHR/Izm compared with that in WKY/Izm. In conclusion, the present study exhibited the enlargement of CB as three-dimensional image and revealed the enhanced immunoreactivity for DBH of glomus cells in SHR/Izm. These results suggest that the morphology of CB is affected by the effect of sympathetic nerve and that the signal transduction from CB is regulated by NA in glomus cells under hypertensive conditions.
    Autonomic neuroscience: basic & clinical 04/2012; 169(1):49-55. · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Yasufumi Soda, Yoshio Yamamoto
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    ABSTRACT: The laminar nerve endings are distributed in the laryngeal mucosa, and described as sensory receptors evoked by laryngeal pressure changes. The present study aimed to determine detailed morphological characteristics of the laryngeal laminar endings of the rat. Immunohistochemistry for Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, α(3) subunit, showed that laminar endings were distributed in the entire laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. The parent axons of the endings were thick in diameter, and they were branched and continued to the endings. In some cases, several endings from different parent axons fused into a large complex structure of 500 μm in width. The laminar endings were also immunoreactive for vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGLUT1) and vGLUT2, but not for P2X(3) purinoceptor. Around the laminar endings, terminal Schwann cells with immunoreactivity for S-100 protein were closely associated with axon terminals. Use of scanning electron microscopy with alkaline maceration method showed that the terminal Schwann cells consisted of a rounded perinuclear region and lamellar cytoplasmic processes. Ultrastructurally, axon terminals with numerous mitochondria were partly covered with Schwann cell sheath, and some terminals intruded into the epithelial layer. Clear vesicles of 50 nm in diameter were also observed especially in small cytoplasmic processes of 400 nm to 1 μm in size. The results in the present study suggested that the laminar endings in epiglottic mucosa have morphological characteristics of slowly adapting mechanoreceptors and contribute to sensation of laryngeal pressure via mucosal tension.
    Histochemie 03/2012; 138(1):25-39. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is a leading causative toxin of staphylococcal food poisoning. However, it remains unclear how this toxin induces emesis in humans, primates, and certain experimental animals. To understand the mechanism of SEA-induced emesis, we investigated the behavior of SEA in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in vivo using the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus). Immunofluorescence of GI sections showed that perorally administered SEA translocated from the lumen to the interior tissues of the GI tract and rapidly accumulated in certain submucosa cells. These SEA-binding cells in the submucosa were both tryptase- and FcεRIα-positive, suggesting these SEA-binding cells were mast cells. These SEA-binding mast cells were 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-positive, but the intensity of the 5-HT signal decreased over time compared to that of mast cells in the negative control. Furthermore, toluidine blue staining showed the number of metachromatic mast cells was decreased in the duodenal submucosa, suggesting that SEA binding induced degranulation and release of 5-HT from submucosal mast cells. These observations suggest that the target cells of SEA are submucosal mast cells in the GI tract and that 5-HT released from submucosal mast cells plays an important role in SEA-induced emesis.
    FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 12/2011; 64(3):392-402. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined morphological characteristics of the carotid body of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), those of age-matched normotensive Wistar rats (NWR), and age-matched genetically comparable Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). We examined the distribution and abundance of four different regulatory neuropeptides: substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the carotid bodies of these three strains of rats. The carotid bodies of SHR were larger than those of NWR and WKY. The values of the long axis of the carotid bodies of SHR were significantly larger (1.3 times) than those of NWR and WKY. In the carotid bodies of SHR, the percentage of relatively large vessels was similar to that of the carotid bodies of WKY, although the carotid bodies themselves were significantly larger than in WKY. The density of VIP varicose fibers in the carotid bodies of SHR was lower than in the carotid bodies of WKY, although the density of SP, CGRP and NPY fibers was similar to that of the carotid bodies of NWR and WKY. These findings suggested that VIP was unrelated to enlargement of the carotid body of SHR, but it might modify the sensitivity of chemoreceptors in the carotid body.
    Histology and histopathology 03/2011; 26(3):369-75. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Morphological development of sensory structures in the laryngeal mucosa of postnatal rats was observed by use of immunohistochemistry for protein gene-product 9.5 (PGP9.5). Moreover, expression changes of high affinity neurotrophin receptors, TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, and low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR) were examined to elucidate the relationship to morphogenesis. Intraepithelial nerve endings and parent axons of the laminar endings with immunoreactivity for PGP9.5 have already appeared in the rat on embryonic day 18 (E18) as well as solitary chemoreceptor cells in the glottic cleft. According to neurotrophin receptors, TrkA immunoreactivity were observed on and after postnatal week 3 (3W) in the nervous sensory structures, that is, free nerve endings, laminar endings and sub- and intragemmal plexuses of the taste buds. In the laminar endings, TrkC immunoreactivity was also observed on and after 3W. According to the laryngeal sensory cells, the solitary chemoreceptor cells were immunoreactive to TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC on and after postnatal day 3 (P3). In the taste buds in arytenoid region, taste cells were immunoreactive for TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC on and after 3W, P14, and 3W, respectively. Immunoreactivity for p75(NTR) was observed on the surface of taste cells on and after P9. The results of the present study suggest that sensory structures in the laryngeal mucosa were developed on perinatal days to involve respiratory reflex, and that neurotrophin receptors may take part in the regulation and maintenance of sensory structures.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 03/2011; 294(4):694-705. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nasal cavity of adult Xenopus laevis (X. laevis) is composed of a series of three compartments: principal, middle, and inferior chambers. The principal chamber is lined with olfactory epithelium (OE), middle chamber with middle chamber epithelium (MCE), and inferior chamber with vomeronasal epithelium (VNE). In the present study, we examined developmental changes of lectin-binding patterns of the OE, MCE, and VNE by the use of four biotinylated lectins; DSL, DBA, PNA, and UEA-I. From Stage 59, just after the beginning of metamorphosis, the stainings of the free border for DBA and UEA-I were decreased in the OE and MCE, respectively, but the stainings of secretory granules (SGs) in the OE became intense. From Stage 63, sensory cells positive for DSL were increased in these three epithelia, and positive stainings for UEA-I and DBA increased in the SGs and Jacobson's glands (JGs), respectively. In addition, from 3 months after the end of metamorphosis, the stainings of sensory cells for PNA, DBA, and DSL changed in the OE, MCE, and VNE, respectively, and those of the SGs, Bowman's glands, and JGs also changed for several lectins. The present results showed that glycoconjugates expressed in three epithelia and their associated glands changed during and after the end of metamorphosis. These findings may indicate that the functional maturation of each epithelium depends not only on the maturation of sensory cells, but also on the maturation of the SGs in supporting cells of the OE and their associated glands after the end of metamorphosis.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 03/2011; 294(5):839-46. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical and produced from L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Since NO is recently suggested to be involved in olfactory perception, the expression of eNOS, an isoform of NOS, was examined in the rat olfactory epithelium. The activity of NADPH-diaphorase was also examined as a marker of NOS. In the dorsomedial region of the nasal cavity, intensely positive reactions for NADPH-diaphorase were observed in the entire cytoplasm of sensory cells (olfactory cells). By immunohistochemistry, intensely positive reactions for eNOS were also found in the dorsomedial region of the nasal cavity. These reactions were observed on the free border of the olfactory epithelium. By immunoelectron microscopy, positive reactions for eNOS were found in the cilia of olfactory cells. In addition, in situ hybridization analysis of the olfactory epithelium revealed the expression of eNOS mRNA in the olfactory cells. These results indicate the presence of eNOS in the olfactory cells of the rat, and differential expression of eNOS in the olfactory epithelium depending on the regions of the nasal cavity. In addition, NO produced by eNOS may be involved in olfactory perception in the cilia of olfactory cells.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 11/2010; 73(4):423-30. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ of the Japanese striped snake were examined by lectin histochemistry. Of the 21 lectins used in the study, all lectins except succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA) showed similar binding patterns in the vomeronasal receptor cells and the olfactory receptor cells with varying intensities. The binding patterns of s-WGA varied among individuals in the vomeronasal and olfactory receptor cells, respectively. Four lectins, Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-II (BSL-II), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), and Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL) stained secretory granules and the organelles in the olfactory supporting cells and did not stain them in the vomeronasal supporting cells. These results suggest that the glycoconjugate moieties are similar in the vomeronasal and olfactory receptor cells of the Japanese striped snake.
    Journal of Morphology 10/2010; 271(10):1197-203. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurochemical and morphological changes in the carotid body are induced by chronic hypoxia, leading to regulation of ventilation. In this study, we examined the time courses of changes in immunohistochemical intensity for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cellular volume of glomus cells in rats exposed to hypoxia (10% O(2)) for up to 24 hr. Grayscale intensity for TH immunofluorescence was significantly increased in rats exposed to hypoxia for 12, 18, and 24 hr compared with control rats (p<0.05). The transectional area of glomus cells was not significantly different between experimental groups. The TH fluorescence intensity of the glomus cells exhibited a strong negative correlation with the transectional area in control rats (Spearman's rho = -0.70). This correlation coefficient decreased with exposure time, and it was lowest for the rats exposed to hypoxia for 18 hr (rho = -0.18). The histogram of TH fluorescence intensity showed a single peak in control rats. The peaks were gradually shifted to the right and became less pronounced in hypoxia-exposed rats, suggesting that a hypoxia-induced increase in TH immunoreactivity occurred uniformly in glomus cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that short-term hypoxia induces an increase in TH protein expression in rat carotid body glomus cells.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 09/2010; 58(9):839-46. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the carotid body (CB), it has been reported that the expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and TH protein are enhanced by exposure to hypoxia. However, it is not known whether CO(2) affects the expression of TH in the CB. We examined the expression of TH mRNA and the immunoreactivity for TH in the CB of rats exposed to hypoxia (10% O(2)), hypercapnia (10% CO(2)) and hypercapnic hypoxia (10% O(2) and 10% CO(2)) for 2-24 h. The expression of TH mRNA in the CB was markedly enhanced in rats exposed to hypoxia for 4 h (6.6-fold), 6 h (6.0-fold) and 8 h (7.8-fold), and in rats exposed to hypercapnic hypoxia for 12 h (4.8-fold). The most intense TH immunoreactivity was observed in the CB from rats exposed to hypoxia for 12 and 24 h and to hypercapnic hypoxia for 24 h. The expressions of TH mRNA and the immunoreactivity for TH were not altered in the CB of rats exposed to hypercapnia. It is suggested that CO(2) does not affect TH expression in the CB, and that it inhibits hypoxia-enhanced TH expression.
    Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 08/2010; 173(1):95-100. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the sensory ganglia, neurons are devoid of synaptic contacts, and ganglion neurons surrounded by one of glial cells, satellite cells. Recent studies suggest that neurons and satellite cells interact through neurotransmitters. In the present study, intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) dynamics of neurons and satellite cells from one of viscerosensory ganglia, nodose ganglion (NG), were investigated by stimulation with glutamate and its agonist and/or the antagonist of the GABA(A) receptor bicuculline. In the specimens containing neurons with satellite cells, glutamate and a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist t-ACPD evoked [Ca(2+)](i) increases in both neurons and surrounding satellite cells. Moreover, bicuculline also induced [Ca(2+)](i) increases in neurons and satellite cells. However, in the isolated neurons, bicuculline did not cause an increase in [Ca(2+)](i), suggesting that satellite cells are equipped with the ability to release GABA. In the neurons associated with satellite cells, the delay time until the onset of a response was shorter in the case of glutamate stimulation with bicuculline than that without bicuculline (107.3 +/- 93.4 vs. 231.8 +/- 97.0 s, p < 0.01). Furthermore, immunoreactivities for glutamate transporter, GLAST, and GABA transporter, GAT-3, were observed in both neurons and satellite cells of NG. In conclusion, the levels of [Ca(2+)](i) of NG neurons and surrounding satellite cells are increased by glutamate through at least mGluRs, and endogenous GABA modulates these responses; GABA inhibition is dependent on a close association between neurons and satellite cells. Such neuron-glia interaction in the nodose ganglion may regulate sensory information from visceral organs.
    Histochemie 07/2010; 134(1):13-22. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TREK belongs to a subfamily of tandem pore domain K+ channels, and consists of three subunits, TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK. We examined the distribution of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK immunoreactive neurons in rat trigeminal sensory neurons. In the trigeminal ganglia, 31%, 43% and 60% of neurons were immunoreactive for TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK, respectively. Mean sizes of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK immunoreactive trigeminal ganglion neurons were 447+/-185, 445+/-23 and 492+/-12 mm2, respectively. Furthermore, TREK channels were colocalized with cationic TRP channels, TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPM8. TREK-1 immunoreactive neurons were colocalized with TRPV1 (57%), TRPV2 (11%) and TRPM8 (33%). TREK-2-immunoreactive neurons were colocalized with TRPV1 (33%), TRPV2 (9%) and TRPM8 (19%). TRAAK immunoreactive neurons were colocalized with TRPV1 (47%), TRPV2 (10%) and TRPM8 (22%). The present results revealed that TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK channels colocalized with thermosensitive TRP channels in some small trigeminal ganglion neurons.
    Neuroscience Letters 05/2009; 454(2):129-33. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are two functional pathways for the nasotrigeminal reflex: the spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve (SPV) to the Kölliker-Fuse (KF) nucleus and the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBl). Although stimulation of the nasal mucosa by cool temperature induces respiratory depression, it is still unknown whether these nuclei are activated. In the present study, we examined the expression of Fos protein in rat brainstem neurons after nasal application of l-menthol, which is known to activate cold-sensitive nasal receptors. Application of l-menthol, but not paraffin oil, decreased the respiratory rate from 99.7+/-15.6 to 78.5+/-7.3 min(-1). Furthermore, a significantly higher density of Fos-immunoreactive cells was observed in the SPV and KF in the l-menthol rats than in the controls. In the SPV, the density of Fos-immunoreactive cells was highest at approximately 0.5mm rostral to the obex in both the l-menthol (48.5+/-11.5 cells/section) and paraffin oil (26.0+/-9.6 cells/section) groups. In the KF, the mean density of Fos-immunoreactive cells was highest at approximately 5.0mm rostral to the obex in both groups (l-menthol: 67.8+/-14.0 cells/section, control: 41.0+/-12.7 cells/section). The present study suggests that the SPV-KF pathway is important for the cold-induced respiratory depression.
    Neuroscience Letters 05/2008; 435(3):246-50. · 2.03 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

136 Citations
54.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Gifu University
      • • United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences
      • • Department of Basic Veterinary Science
      Gihu, Gifu, Japan
  • 2003–2012
    • Iwate University
      • Faculty of Agriculture
      Morioka-shi, Iwate-ken, Japan
  • 2004
    • Ehime University
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Matuyama, Ehime, Japan