Yoko Yokoyama

Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyōgo, Japan

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Publications (32)163.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the usefulness of postsurgical capsule endoscopy (CE) in the diagnosis of recurrent small bowel lesions of Crohn's disease (CD). This prospective study included 19 patients who underwent ileocolectomy or partial ileal resection for CD. CE was performed 2-3 wk after surgery to check for the presence/absence and severity of lesions remaining in the small bowel, and for any recurrence at the anastomosed area. CE was repeated 6-8 mo after surgery and the findings were compared with those obtained shortly after surgery. The Lewis score (LS) was used to evaluate any inflammatory changes of the small bowel. One patient was excluded from analysis because of insufficient endoscopy data at the initial CE. The total LS shortly after surgery was 428.3 on average (median, 174; range, 8-4264), and was ≥ 135 (active stage) in 78% (14 of 18) of the patients. When the remaining unresected small bowel was divided into 3 equal portions according to the transition time (proximal, middle, and distal tertiles), the mean LS was 286.6, 83.0, and 146.7, respectively, without any significant difference. Ulcerous lesions in the anastomosed area were observed in 83% of all patients. In 38% of the 13 patients who could undergo CE again after 6-8 mo, the total LS was higher by ≥ 100 than that recorded shortly after surgery, thus indicating a diagnosis of endoscopic progressive recurrence. Our pilot study suggests that CE can be used to objectively evaluate the postoperative recurrence of small bowel lesions after surgery for CD.
    World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy. 03/2014; 6(3):88-98.
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    ABSTRACT: Background & aims To improve the clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC), more accurate serum diagnostic and assessment methods are required. We used serum metabolomics to develop diagnostic and assessment methods for UC. Methods Sera from UC patients, Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and healthy volunteers (HV) were collected at multiple institutions. The UC and HV were randomly allocated to the training or validation set, and their serum metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Using the training set, diagnostic and assessment models for UC were established by multiple logistic regression analysis. Then, the models were assessed using the validation set. Additionally, to establish a diagnostic model for discriminating UC from CD, the CD patients' data were used. Results The diagnostic model for discriminating UC from HV demonstrated an AUC of 0.988, 93.33% sensitivity, and 95.00% specificity in the training set and 95.00% sensitivity and 98.33% specificity in the validation set. Another model for discriminating UC from CD exhibited an AUC of 0.965, 85.00% sensitivity, and 97.44% specificity in the training set and 83.33% sensitivity in the validation set. The model for assessing UC showed an AUC of 0.967, 84.62% sensitivity, and 88.23% specificity in the training set and 84.62% sensitivity, 91.18% specificity, and a significant correlation with the clinical activity index (rs = 0.7371, P < 0.0001) in the validation set. Conclusions Our models demonstrated high performance and might lead to the development of a novel treatment selection method based on UC condition.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 01/2014; · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background aims In patients with inflammatory bowel disease infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), immunosuppressive therapy required to suppress active inflammatory bowel disease may promote HBV reactivation. Methods A 27-year-old corticosteroid-naive woman with Crohn's disease (CD) activity index of 249.8 complicated by HBV infection was offered Entecavir to control HBV reactivation during immunosuppressive therapy for CD. The patient refused Entecavir, fearing that it might adversely affect her pregnancy outcome. Instead, we applied intensive granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) at two sessions per week to deplete inflammatory cytokine-producing leucocytes as an immunosuppressive therapy in this case. Results GMA induced stable remission (CD activity index, I 105) and endoscopic improvement without HBV reactivation or safety concern. Furthermore, CD remission was paralleled by suppression of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin as measured in serum samples. Conclusions Immunosuppressive therapy required to treat an active CD potentially can promote HBV reactivation and worsen liver function. In this study involving a CD case complicated by chronic HBV infection, intensive GMA as a non-pharmacologic treatment intervention was associated with clinical remission and endoscopic improvement without HBV reactivation. Furthermore, GMA was well-tolerated and was without any safety concern. However, suppression of tumor necrosis and interleukin-6by GMA in this clinical setting is potentially very interesting.
    Cytotherapy 01/2014; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess patients' acceptance of therapeutic leukocytapheresis known as cytapheresis (CAP) for the treatment of an active flare of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A questionnaire was sent to 155 IBD patients who had been treated with CAP for an active flare of IBD at the IBD center of Hyogo College of Medicine between January 2009 and July 2012. In the questionnaire, patients were asked to evaluate CAP including efficacy, safety, unfavorable features and their willingness to be retreated with CAP for a subsequent IBD flare-up. Seventy-eight percent (112 of 155 patients) including 86 with ulcerative colitis and 26 with Crohn's disease completed the questionnaire. The need for coming to hospital for CAP, needle pain during blood access, sparing time for CAP process were scored by 57%, 58%, and 58.9% of the patients, respectively as unfavorable. Patients highly favored the safety of CAP, the sum of very and relatively favorable was 89%, higher than for efficacy (68%). Seventy-two percent of patients favored retreatment with CAP. In binary logistic regression analysis, the levels of satisfaction for efficacy (P < 0.001), and inconvenience for CAP treatment time (P < 0.001) were highly significant factors for patients' willingness to be retreated. Bearing in mind that CAP is a non-pharmacologic treatment intervention, our analyses indicated that IBD patients favored high efficacy, as well as comfort of CAP or maintaining their normal social activity even during an active phase of the disease. Patient's acceptability for CAP appeared to be determined by the balance of these factors.
    Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 10/2013; 17(5):490-497. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) with an Adacolumn in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) has been applied as a non-pharmacological treatment strategy, but the efficacy has been encouraging as well as discouraging, depending on patients' demography at entry. In this study, we looked for predictive factors for clinical response to GMA in patients with UC. METHODS: In a retrospective setting, 43 outpatients who had been treated with GMA for active UC were evaluated. Patients were divided into remission group and non-remission group based on Lichtiger's clinical activity index (CAI) before and after 10, once a week GMA sessions. The efficacy was analysed in relation to patients' demographic variables. To determine predictive factors that closely related to the response to GMA, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied. RESULTS: After 10 GMA sessions, the overall clinical remission rate (CAI < 4) was 53.5%. Multiple logistic regression and ROC analyses showed that the interval between relapse and the first GMA session was a significant and independent predictive factor for clinical response to GMA (P = 0.016); the clinical response was better in patients who received GMA immediately after a relapse and vice versa. Likewise, univariate analyses showed that, the duration of UC (P = 0.036) and the cumulative prednisolone (PSL) dose (P = 0.006) before the first GMA session were significantly greater in the GMA non-responder group as compared with the responder group. Additionally, a lower white blood cell (WBC) count at first GMA session was related to clinical response to GMA (P = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, patients with a short duration of UC and low cumulative PSL dose seemed to respond well to GMA. However, we found that the best responders were patients who received GMA immediately after a clinical relapse. Additionally, GMA was effective in patients with low WBC count at the first GMA session. The findings of this study should spare medical cost and reduce morbidity time for many patients, relevant for decision making in clinical settings.
    BMC Gastroenterology 02/2013; 13(1):27. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of leukocytapheresis (LCAP) and to investigate predictive factors for mucosal healing and a sustained clinical response in steroid-free and steroid-refractory patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Material and methods. Thirty-one steroid-free or steroid-refractory patients with active UC were enrolled. Five or ten consecutive sessions of LCAP were performed in each patient. The efficacy and tolerability was then evaluated at weeks 3 and 6. Endoscopic examination was performed at week 6 to evaluate the mucosal healing, and the sustained cumulative response rate was evaluated at 12 months. Results. At week 6, the mean Mayo clinical activity score had decreased significantly from 8.0 to 4.6 in the steroid-free patients and from 8.3 to 3.9 in the steroid-refractory patients. Rachmilewitz's endoscopic index had also decreased significantly from 9.1 to 6.1 in the steroid-free patients and from 10.0 to 5.7 in the steroid-refractory patients. Forty-seven percent of the steroid-free patients and 33% of the steroid-refractory patients achieved mucosal healing. The peripheral platelet counts had decreased significantly at weeks 3 and 6 in the mucosal healing group, compared with the non-mucosal healing group. The patients with a more than 15% platelet reduction had a significantly higher cumulative response rate, compared with the patients without a platelet reduction (p = 0.015). Conclusions. LCAP is beneficial for the induction of mucosal healing in steroid-free and steroid-refractory patients with UC. The degree of platelet reduction during LCAP might be a predictive marker for mucosal healing and a sustained clinical response.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Weekly granulocyte/monocyte adsorption (GMA) to deplete elevated and activated leucocytes should serve as a non-pharmacological intervention to induce remission in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). This trial assessed the efficacy of monthly GMA as a maintenance therapy to suppress UC relapse. Thirty-three corticosteroid refractory patients with active UC received 10 weekly GMA sessions as a remission induction therapy. They were then randomized to receive one GMA session every 4 weeks (True, n=11), extracorporeal circulation without the GMA column every 4 weeks (Sham, n=11), or no additional intervention (Control, n=11). The primary endpoint was the rate of avoiding relapse (AR) over 48 weeks. At week 48, the AR rates in the True, Sham, and Control groups were 40.0%, 9.1%, and 18.2%, respectively. All patients were steroid-free, but no statistically significant difference was seen among the three arms. However, in patients who could taper their prednisolone dose to <20 mg/day during the remission induction therapy, the AR in the True group was better than in the Sham (p<0.03) or Control (p<0.05) groups. Monthly GMA may potentially prevent UC relapse in patients who have achieved remission through weekly GMA, especially in patients on <20 mg/day PSL at the start of the maintenance therapy.
    Gut and liver 10/2012; 6(4):427-33. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aim:  Topical mesalamine or corticosteroid has shown efficacy in patients with ulcerative proctitis, but patients often become refractory to these interventions. Xilei San is a herbal preparation with evidence of anti-inflammatory effects. We evaluated the efficacy of topical Xilei San in ulcerative proctitis patients. Methods:  In a double blind setting, 30 patients with intractable ulcerative proctitis despite ≥4 weeks of topical mesalamine or corticosteroid were randomly assigned to True (n=15) and placebo (n=15). Patients in True received suppository Xilei San (0.1g/dose/day of Xilei San), the other 15 received placebo suppository. The initial efficacy was evaluated on day 14. Primary endpoint of the trial was avoiding relapse during 180 days, relapse meant recurrence of active disease. Riley's index was applied for endoscopic and histological evaluations, while patients' quality of life was evaluated by an inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire. Results:  On day 14, the number of patients who achieved remission, clinical activity index ≤4 in True was significantly higher vs placebo (P<0.04). Likewise, at day 180, an 81.8% of patients in True were without relapse vs 16.7% in placebo (P<0.001). Further, significant endoscopic (P<0.01), histological (P<0.02) and inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (P<0.04) improvements were observed in True, but not in placebo. Conclusions:  This is the first controlled investigation showing significant clinical and endoscopic efficacy for Xilei San in patients with intractable ulcerative proctitis. Topical Xilei San was well tolerated, and was without safety concerns. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 07/2012; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocytapheresis (LCAP) is used as an adjunct therapy for patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). Although, LCAP is routinely performed at 3,000 mL per session, we were interested to see that if this can be replaced with bodyweight (BW) adjusted volume. In an open label prospective trial, the clinical response to BW adjusted LCAP (BWA-LCAP) was evaluated in 14 patients with active UC. Fourteen demography matched UC patients who had been treated with the routine 3,000 mL LCAP were randomly sampled from our database as a control group. All patients were given 10 weekly LCAP sessions. In the BWA-LCAP group, the processed blood volume (PBV) was set at 30 mL/kg × BW/session. Baseline demographic measures were not significantly different between the two groups. The average PBV in the BWA-LCAP group was 1971.0 ± 330.0 mL, range 1,020-2,460. In both groups, the average UC clinical disease activity index, the endoscopic index, and the concomitant prednisolone dosage were significantly and equally reduced during the course of 10 LCAP. Accordingly, at the end of the trial, no significant difference was seen in any outcome measure between the two groups. However, a significantly higher incidence of adverse event (AE) was observed in the routine 3,000 mL LCAP group as compared with the BWA-LCAP group (P < 0.01). The outcomes of this investigation showed that the therapeutic efficacy of LCAP based on 30 mL/kg × BW is similar to the routine 3,000 mL per session LCAP. However, BWA-LCAP should be favored if one is to see the full potential of LCAP without AE.
    Journal of Clinical Apheresis 11/2011; 26(6):326-31. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infliximab (IFX) is effective for remission induction and maintenance of Crohn's disease (CD). This trial assessed the efficacy of scheduled maintenance IFX monotherapy to prevent postoperative CD recurrence. Thirty-one CD patients who had ileocolic resection within the past 4 weeks were randomly assigned to scheduled IFX at 5 mg/kg intravenously every 8 weeks for 36 months (n = 15) or without IFX (control, n = 16). All patients were treated without immunomodulator or corticosteroid following surgery. The primary and secondary endpoints were remission rates at 12 and 36 months, defined as CD Activity Index (CDAI) ≤150, an International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IOIBD) score <2, and C-reactive protein (CRP) <0.3 mg/dL. Additionally, endoscopic recurrences at 12 and 36 months were evaluated. At 12 and 36 months, 100%, and 93.3% of patients in the IFX group were in remission (IOIBD <2), respectively vs. 68.8% and 56.3% in the control arm (P < 0.03). Similarly, 86.7% and 86.7% of patients in the IFX group maintained serological remission (CRP <0.3 mg/dL) vs. 37.5% and 37.5% in the control arm (P < 0.02). Further, the IFX group achieved higher endoscopic remission at 12 months, 78.6% vs. 18.8% (P = 0.004). However, in the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis the CDAI scores between the two arms were not significantly different either at 12 or at 36 months. No adverse event (AE) was observed. An early intervention with IFX monotherapy should prevent clinical, serological, and endoscopic CD recurrence following ileocolic resection. Thiopurine naivety and eliminating the initial loading dose of IFX might minimize serious AEs.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 11/2011; 18(9):1617-23. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Japan, adsorptive granulocyte/monocyte apheresis (GMA) is an approved treatment option in patients with active Crohn's disease (CD). However, there is inadequate knowledge regarding the mechanism(s) of therapeutic effects of this non-pharmacologic treatment strategy. Further, recently we have been interested in the regulatory T-cell (Treg) profile which has an essential immunoregulatory function. Thirteen CD patients were treated with a single GMA session. The mean CD activity index (CDAI) and duration of CD were 218.5 and 9.8 years, respectively. Eight healthy volunteers participated as a control group. From CD patients, whole blood was taken immediately before and after the GMA session directly from the GMA column inflow and outflow lines. Broad spectrum serum key cytokines and chemokines were measured by suspension-array and ELISA. At baseline, almost all assayed inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated in CD patients. Treg-associated cytokines including IL-10 (P < 0.02) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 (P < 0.03), were higher in the GMA column outflow vs. inflow. In contrast, the Th1/Th2 balance, defined as IFN-γ/IL-10 was lower during hemofiltration (P = 0.05), potentially due to an elevated IL-10 (P < 0.02) because an elevation of pro-inflammatory IFN-γ (Th1) was not observed at the GMA column outflow. A single GMA session had a significant impact on the Treg profile. Treg-related cytokines like IL-10 and TGF-β1 in the blood returning to the patients from the GMA column outflow were elevated, while pro-inflammatory cytokines like IFN-γ were not. This action of GMA is potentially very interesting in patients with immune disorders, like CD patients.
    Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 08/2011; 15(4):367-73. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Granulocyte/monocyte adsorption (GMA) has been introduced as an adjunct intervention for active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. The processed blood volume (PV) per GMA session is an important factor for its efficacy because depletion of elevated/activated myeloid leukocytes is its main action. Hitherto, this aspect of GMA has been largely ignored. Thirty-three patients were enrolled for remission induction therapy with five weekly GMA sessions at a standard PV of 1800 mL, regardless of patients' bodyweight (BW). The patients were divided into three groups: high (H)BW (≥ 65 kg, n = 11), 50 kg ≤ medium (M)BW < 65 kg (n = 12), and low (L)BW (≤ 50 kg, n = 10). UC clinical activity index (CAI) was according to Lichtiger, and the clinical efficacies were evaluated at both one week post 3(rd) GMA (Week 4) and one week post 5(th) GMA (Week 6). The average BW was 70.9 ± 6.2 kg in HBW, 55.8 ± 4.5 kg in MBW, and 46.8 ± 1.2 kg in LBW, indicating the mean PV/BW in the three groups being 25.6 ± 2.12, 32.5 ± 2.50, and 38.7 ± 1.0 (mL/kg, P < 0.05), respectively. The LBW group consisted of female patients only. Significant improvements of CAI were seen before treatment at either Week 4 or Week 6 in all groups. A significantly higher remission rate was achieved in the LBW (80.0%) vs. MBW (33.3%) or HBW (27.3%) at Week 6 (P < 0.03). According to this GMA evaluation, the lower-limit of optimum PV/kg should be higher than 38.7 mL/kg for its potential clinical efficacy to be significantly greater than the routine GMA method. Additional BW-oriented GMA studies in larger and gender controlled cohorts of patients should strengthen our findings.
    Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 08/2011; 15(4):360-6. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CD4+CD25High T-cell phenotype has an essential immunoregulatory role, while the CD4+CD28null T-cell reflects immune pathology. We investigated the profiles of the CD4+CD25High and the CD4+CD28null T-cell phenotypes in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) during active and quiescent phases as well as following colectomy. Fifty-nine UC patients, 34 active (UCa) and 25 quiescent (UCq) together with 19 healthy controls (HC) were included. Ten of 34 UCa patients underwent colectomy due to unremitting UC (UCo). Immunohistochemical phenotypic of the peripheral blood lymphocytes bearing CD4, CD25 or CD28 was done for analyzes by a multiparameter fluorescence activated cell sorting technique. The expression of the CD4+CD25High phenotype was higher in UCq (P<0.01) or UCo (P<0.01) group vs UCa group. Further, the expression of the CD4+CD28null phenotype in UCa or UCo group was higher than in the HC group (P<0.05). However, the expression of the CD4+CD28null phenotype up to 12 months after colectomy was not significantly different from the levels in the same patients during acute phase. Our impression is that a high CD4+CD25High T-cell reflects alleviation of inflammation, while the expression of the CD4+CD28null T-cell phenotype is an etiologic feature in UC patients, and is maintained after removing the affected colon.
    Cytokine 07/2011; 56(2):466-70. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infliximab (IFX), an antibody to tumor necrosis factor, (TNF)-α has efficacy in treating Crohn's disease (CD). However, knowledge of the potential effects of IFX on patients' immune profiles is lacking. The purpose of this study was to reveal the immunological effects of IFX. Twenty-two patients with a CD activity index (CDAI) of 194.2±92.9 and an average duration of disease of 3.26 months and 21 healthy controls were included. Patients were to have their first IFX remission induction therapy with 3 infusions (5 mg/kg) at weeks 0, 2, and 6. Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid was the only ongoing medication in the patient population. Blood samples at baseline, 12 hours after the first infusion and at week 14 were labeled with anti-CD4/CD25 antibodies for immunohistochemical measurement of regulatory T-cells (Treg). Serum cytokines and chemokines were measured by suspension array and ELISA. CDAI significantly decreased prior to the second IFX infusion (p<0.001). Clinical remission rates were 77.3% and 91% by the second and third infusions, respectively. At baseline, interleukin (IL)-6 (p<0.03), IL-8 (p<0.03), IL-10 (p=0.050), IL-13 (p<0.01), transforming growth factor-β1 (p<0.01), and 'regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted' (RANTES) (p<0.01) were elevated in patients. After the initial IFX infusion, TNF-α (p<0.04), IL-6 (p<0.03), interferon (IFN)-γ (p<0.04), IFN-γ-inducible protein-10 (p<0.01), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (p<0.01), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (p<0.01), and RANTES (p<0.01) were decreased. IFX infusion was associated with an increase in Treg (p<0.01) and a decrease in the Th1 (IFN-γ)/Th2 (IL-4) ratio (p<0.03). IFX use was associated with restoration of the Th1/Th2 balance after a single infusion and seemed to promote induction of naïve Th0 lymphocytes to Treg. This knowledge should have clinical relevance.
    Gut and liver 03/2011; 5(1):37-45. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is the first report on a case of Crohn's disease (CD), who was successfully maintained with a combination of infliximab (IFX) and selective depletion of granulocytes/monocytes by adsorption (GMA). A 33-year-old female with CD activity index (CDAI) 294.2 responded to iv IFX (5mg/kg) administered at weeks 0, 2, and 6 in combination with 3000 mg/day oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; CDAI = 118). Then IFX at 8 week intervals was given as maintenance therapy. Two weeks before the 5th scheduled IFX, the patient worsened with an increase in stool frequency and a rise in CDAI. GMA was administered at weeks 5, 6, and 7 after her 6th iv IFX. Her CDAI decreased from 166.2 to 126.3 and 111.9 before 2nd and 3rd GMA sessions. She received her 7th iv IFX while the CDAI was 83.6. GMA course was repeated before 8th and 9th IFX. The patient remained in stable clinical and endoscopic remission without experiencing any serious side effect. After achieving mucosal healing, the patient decided to cease IFX therapy while continuing with GMA. IFX appears to induce and maintain remission of CD, but it may lose its efficacy after repeated administration. GMA is safe and by selectively depleting elevated/activated leukocytes may be a useful adjunct for IFX efficacy.
    Journal of Clinical Apheresis 01/2010; 25(4):226-8. · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Transfusion and Apheresis Science - TRANSFUS APHER SCI. 01/2010; 43.
  • Gastroenterology 01/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor