[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetamiprid (ACE) and imidacloprid (IMI) belong to a new, widely used class of pesticide, the neonicotinoids. With similar chemical structures to nicotine, neonicotinoids also share agonist activity at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Although their toxicities against insects are well established, their precise effects on mammalian nAChRs remain to be elucidated. Because of the importance of nAChRs for mammalian brain function, especially brain development, detailed investigation of the neonicotinoids is needed to protect the health of human children. We aimed to determine the effects of neonicotinoids on the nAChRs of developing mammalian neurons and compare their effects with nicotine, a neurotoxin of brain development.
Primary cultures of cerebellar neurons from neonatal rats allow for examinations of the developmental neurotoxicity of chemicals because the various stages of neurodevelopment-including proliferation, migration, differentiation, and morphological and functional maturation-can be observed in vitro. Using these cultures, an excitatory Ca(2+)-influx assay was employed as an indicator of neural physiological activity. Significant excitatory Ca(2+) influxes were evoked by ACE, IMI, and nicotine at concentrations greater than 1 µM in small neurons in cerebellar cultures that expressed the mRNA of the α3, α4, and α7 nAChR subunits. The firing patterns, proportion of excited neurons, and peak excitatory Ca(2+) influxes induced by ACE and IMI showed differences from those induced by nicotine. However, ACE and IMI had greater effects on mammalian neurons than those previously reported in binding assay studies. Furthermore, the effects of the neonicotinoids were significantly inhibited by the nAChR antagonists mecamylamine, α-bungarotoxin, and dihydro-β-erythroidine.
This study is the first to show that ACE, IMI, and nicotine exert similar excitatory effects on mammalian nAChRs at concentrations greater than 1 µM. Therefore, the neonicotinoids may adversely affect human health, especially the developing brain.
PLoS ONE 02/2012; 7(2):e32432. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0032432 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, both potentiation and depression of the synaptic response were induced in hippocampal CA1 neurons by systematically varying the frequency of low frequency afferent stimulation (LFS) between 0.5 and 25 Hz and the pulse number between 40 and 1000. The input-response relationship for CA1 synapses showed that LFS at a higher frequency or with a smaller pulse number increased the magnitude of potentiation of the synaptic response by increasing the contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) to induction of potentiation. One possible mechanism for this bidirectional plasticity was that specific patterns of LFS differentially activate a uniform receptor population in producing depression or potentiation of synaptic responses. However, a pharmacological study indicated that, despite their opposite effects, both the synaptic depression induced by LFS at 1 Hz and the synaptic potentiation induced by LFS at 10 Hz were triggered by co-activation of NMDARs and mGluRs at CA1 synapses. We suggest that activation of protein kinase C or inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, both coupled to group 1 mGluRs, is involved in the bidirectional synaptic plasticity induced in hippocampal CA1 neurons by 1-10 Hz LFS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Deficits of function in autism spectrum disorder are explained by abnormal neural connectivity as a consequence of alternations in synapse formation during development. Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for functional brain development through TH-dependent gene expressions which are disrupted by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at pM order concentrations (Miyazaki et al.J.B.C.279:18195,2004). PCBs and their metabolites hydroxy-PCBs (OH-PCBs), which have similar chemical structure to THs, have accumulated in almost all human blood examined, even in their brain by global environmental contamination. 4- OH-PCB 187 is found as the major OH-PCB in human cerebrospinal fluid (Takasuga et al.Org.Halogen Comp.66:2529,2004). These toxic chemicals pass easily through placenta to fetal brain where the blood-brain barrier has not yet developed. We reported two other OH-PCB congeners inhibited TH-dependent dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells in culture (Kimura-Kuroda et al.Dev.Brain Res.154:259,2005). Monkey experiments showed maternal PCBs exposure caused some difficulties in the development of social communications of their offspring (Nakagami et al., 2007). Objectives: Effects of OH-PCB congeners on synapse formation and dendrite extension were investigated using cultured Purkinje cells of fetal mice. Methods: Dissociated cerebellar culture was prepared as previously described (Kimura-Kuroda et al.,Dev.Brain Res.137:55,2002).After OH-PCB treatments, Purkinje cells and synapses were immunostained , observed by confocal laser microscope and quantified using CCD - MetaMorph imaging system. Results: Addition of 4-OH-PCB 187 significantly inhibited synapse formation on Purkinje cells at pM order concentrations. 4-OH-PCB 187 also caused abnormal dendrite extension in the Purkinje cells. Conclusions: These data further support the hypothesis that interaction with genetic backgrounds, PCBs (and probably other neurotoxic chemicals) contaminated in perinatal brain cause abnormal synaptic connections during development, result in heterogeneous symptoms of autism spectrum disorders and/or other comorbid disorders like LD, ADHD, depending on spatio-temporal difference in sensitive synaptogenesis and in chemical exposure doses (Kuroda, Environ. Sci.,10:23,2003).
International Meeting for Autism Research 2008; 05/2008
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hydroxy-PCB (OH-PCB) metabolites are widely distributed bioaccumulative environmental chemicals and have similar chemical structures to those of thyroid hormones (THs). Previously, we reported that THs are essential for neuronal development and the low doses of two OH-PCBs, namely, 4-OH-2',3,3',4',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (4'-OH-PeCB-106) and 4-OH-2',3,3',4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (4'-OH-HxCB-159), inhibited the TH-dependent dendritic development of Purkinje cells in mouse cerebellar cultures using serum-free defined medium. To determine which type of OH-PCBs affect neuronal development, we further examined several OH-PCBs and other estrogenic chemicals using this simple and sensitive assay system. Two-way ANOVA was used to assess the effects of OH-PCBs and other chemicals on both factors of their concentrations and with/without T4 in the assay of TH-dependent dendritic development of Purkinje cells. Aside from the two OH-PCBs, 4-OH-2',3,4',5,6'-pentachlorobiphenyl (4'-OH-PeCB-121) and bisphenol A significantly inhibited the TH-dependent dendritic development of Purkinje cells, whereas 4-OH-2',3,3',5',6'-pentachlorobiphenyl (4'-OH-PeCB-112), 4-OH-2',3,3',5,5',6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (4'-OH-HxCB-165), 4-OH-2,2',3,4',5,5',6-heptachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-HpCB-187), progesterone and nonylphenol did not induce any inhibition, but significantly promoted the dendritic extension of Purkinje cells in the absence of THs. Other estrogenic chemicals, including beta-estradiol, diethyl stilbestrol and p-octylphenol did not show significant inhibitory or promoting effects. From these results, it is suggested that exposure to OH-PCBs and other environmental chemicals may disrupt normal neuronal development and cause some developmental brain disorders, such as LD, ADHD, and autism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormones (THs) are important for brain development, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in humans is a serious problem because PCBs may affect TH functions. To determine the effects of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) on brain development, we performed mouse cerebellar culture assays. 4-OH-2',3,3',4',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl and 4-OH-2',3,3',4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl significantly inhibited the TH-dependent extension of Purkinje cell dendrites even at 5 x 10(-11) M and 5 x 10(-12) M, respectively. OH-PCBs may disturb TH-dependent brain development.
Developmental Brain Research 03/2005; 154(2):259-63. DOI:10.1016/j.devbrainres.2004.11.004 · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously established a primary culture system of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) to investigate the functional roles of individual types of neuron in pheromonal signal processing. However, the detailed characteristics of cultured AOB neurons were not yet apparent. In the present study, we address the cytological aspects of cultured AOB neurons using immunocytochemical staining methods. Cultured AOB neurons were compared with cultured main olfactory bulb (MOB) neurons in neuronal composition, maturational time course, and cell size. The number of total neurons, measured by microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunostaining, progressively decreased, and glutamic acid decarboxylase positive (GAD+) interneurons were scarcely changed in their number in both AOB and MOB cultures over the culture periods. In contrast, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH+) neurons in AOB cultures showed a slight, but significant, increase over time in culture, while those in MOB cultures remarkably decreased. The numbers of total neurons and GAD+ neurons were significantly greater in AOB cultures than in MOB cultures at all investigated time points. However, the numbers of TH+ neurons were lower at 7 days in vitro (DIV) and greater at 21 DIV in AOB cultures than in MOB cultures. The somatic sizes of all types of neurons at 14 DIV were significantly larger in AOB cultures than in MOB cultures. Furthermore, the frequency distributions of somatic sizes of total, GAD+, and TH+ neurons were significantly different between AOB and MOB cultures. These subtle differences in vitro may reflect in vivo differences between the AOB and MOB.
Anatomy and Embryology 01/2005; 209(2):129-36. DOI:10.1007/s00429-004-0432-z · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The characteristics of functional changes of GABAergic synapses between cultured rat cortical neurons were observed by monitoring intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+]in) during development in vitro. After 5 days in vitro (DIV), cultured cortical neurons spontaneously exhibited synchronous oscillatory changes in [Ca2+]in, which were derived from synaptic activity. Exposure to bicuculline, antagonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors, caused a marked decrease in the frequency of [Ca2+]in oscillations at 7-20 DIV. Although the frequency of spontaneous oscillations increased during this culture period, the ratio of the decrease in the frequency following bicuculline treatment did not significantly change. Thereafter, to investigate the detailed morphological changes of GABAergic synapses during development in vitro, the cultured neurons were immunostained with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), synaptophysin and GABA(A) receptor and were observed under a confocal laser microscope. Most of the GAD-positive puncta colocalized with synaptophysin-positive puncta and were opposed to GABA(A) receptor-positive structures. The images of GAD-positive puncta were reconstructed from the confocal three-dimensional data to analyze their number, volume, and surface area. The number of these puncta increased with culture time at 7-20 DIV. Although the volume of individual GAD-positive puncta did not significantly change, the surface area decreased in a time-dependent manner over the culture period. This system that we developed enabled us to investigate in detail the morphological and functional changes of GABAergic synapses during neuronal development.
Developmental Brain Research 10/2004; 152(2):99-108. DOI:10.1016/j.devbrainres.2004.05.013 · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synapse plasticity, in particular, formation of new synapses, plays crucial roles in learning and memory. We have developed a convenient assay system for measuring the number of newly formed synapses between cultured rat cerebrocortical neurons using the multisite fluorometry system of intracellular calcium. We found that cultured neurons exhibited spontaneous oscillatory changes in intracellular calcium levels and that the frequency of the oscillation was strongly correlated with synaptic density. Combined with immunohistochemical studies, this assay system enables us to study the molecular mechanism of synapse formation, in particular, the involvement of ecto-protein kinase. Other applications of the assay system are discussed here.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In CA1 neurons of guinea pig hippocampal slices, long-term depression (LTD) was induced in the field EPSP response in the absence of test synaptic inputs (one stimulus every 20 s) by application of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist, aminocyclopentane-1S, 3R-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD). This effect was blocked and long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced by co-application of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) during ACPD perfusion (ACPD/NMDA-induced LTD). These results indicate that the state of NMDA receptor activation during ACPD perfusion determines whether LTP or LTD is induced in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Co-application of an inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor inhibitor, 2-aminotheoxydiphenyl borate, during ACPD application had no effect on the ACPD/NMDA-induced LTP, but increased the magnitude of the ACPD-induced LTD, suggesting that the ACPD/NMDA-induced LTP involves NMDA receptors, but not IP3 receptors, whereas the converse applies to the ACPD-induced LTD.
Brain Research 03/2004; 999(1):20-8. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2003.11.058 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Although microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 1B and its phosphorylation have been suggested to be important for synapse formation among cortical neurons, the localization of MAP1B in synapses has not yet been confirmed. In this report, we examine the localization of MAP1B in synaptic regions. 2. The localization of MAP1B was observed by immunohistochemical and electron microscopic techniques using specific antibodies against MAP1B. 3. MAP1B immunoreactivities were widely distributed in the cerebral cortex and were observed in the postsynaptic area but not in presynaptic terminals. 4. These synapses were classified as the asymmetrical type. 5. Only some synapses exhibited MAP1B immunoreactivities. MAP1B-immunopositive synapses accounted for about half of the total synapses. 6. Such a localization suggests MAP1B's important roles in synaptic functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Thyroid hormones play important roles in the development of the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that the deprivation of thyroid hormones in the early developmental stage causes structural and functional deficits in the CNS, but the precise mechanism underlying this remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of thyroid hormones on synapse formation between cultured rat cortical neurons, using a system to estimate functional synapse formation in vitro. 2. Exposure to 10(-9) M thyroid hormones, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine or thyroxine, caused an increase in the frequency of spontaneous synchronous oscillatory changes in intracellular calcium concentration, which correlated with the number of synapses formed. 3. The detection of synaptic vesicle-associated protein synapsin I by immunocytochemical and immunoblot analysis also confirmed that exposure to thyroxine facilitated synapse formation. 4. The presence of amiodarone, an inhibitor of 5'-deiodinase, or amitrole, a herbicide, inhibited the synapse formation in the presence of thyroxine. 5. In conclusion, we established a useful in vitro assay system for screening of miscellaneous chemicals that might interfere with synapse formation in the developing CNS by disrupting the thyroid system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the roles of the GABAergic inhibitory system of accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) in pheromonal memory formation, we have developed a primary culture system of AOB neurons, which had numerous excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Using this culture system of AOB neurons, we examined the correlation in rats between neuronal excitation and synaptic morphology by bicuculline-induced disinhibition of cultured AOB neurons. The exposure to bicuculline induced long-lasting oscillatory changes in the intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+]in) of cultured non-GABAergic multipolar neurons, which were identified as mitral/tufted cells (MT cells). These MT cells exhibited the appearance of dendritic filopodia structures after a 10-min treatment with bicuculline. By labelling presynaptic terminals with FM4-64, the appearance of new presynaptic terminals was clearly observed on newly formed filopodia after 120 min treatment with bicuculline. These results suggest that bicuculline-induced [Ca2+]in oscillation of MT cells induces the growth of filopodia and subsequently the formation of new presynaptic terminals. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin or the deprivation of extracellular calcium blocked bicuculline-induced synapse formation. The present results indicate that the long-lasting [Ca2+]in oscillation caused by bicuculline-induced disinhibition of cultured MT cells is significantly implicated in the mechanism underlying synapse formation on cultured AOB neurons. Our established culture system of AOB neurons will aid in clarifying the mechanism of synapse formation between AOB neurons and the molecular mechanism of pheromonal memory formation.
European Journal of Neuroscience 10/2003; 18(6):1343-52. DOI:10.1046/j.1460-9568.2003.02901.x · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aluminum is environmentally abundant but not an essential trace element. Although there is increasing evidence suggesting the implication of aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, it is still controversial. We found and report here that aluminum maltolate, a stable and hydrophilic aluminum complex, causes death of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Degenerated neurons were TUNEL-positive. Immunohistochemical detection of synapsin I and microtubule associated protein 2 revealed the synapse loss between neurons intoxicated by aluminum maltolate. To explore the mechanism underlying its neurotoxicity, we administered various pharmacological compounds prior to the application of aluminum maltolate, and found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) markedly attenuated the neurotoxicity. Furthermore, aluminum maltolate inhibited the elevation of intracellular calcium levels caused by BDNF. Our results suggest the involvement of BDNF in the molecular mechanism underlying neurotoxicity induced by aluminum maltolate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In CA1 neurons of guinea pig hippocampal slices, long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced by 10 min application of 10 microM aminocyclopentane-1S, 3R-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD), the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist, in the presence of test synaptic inputs (once every 20 s). In contrast, long-term depression (LTD) was induced by application of 10 microM ACPD in the absence of test inputs. When 10 microM ACPD was applied in the presence of test inputs, co-application of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate resulted in LTD induction when used at 50 microM. In ACPD-induced LTP, the delivery of test synaptic inputs to CA1 neurons could be replaced by co-application of NMDA (100 nM) during ACPD perfusion. These results suggest that, in CA1 neurons, a co-operative effect involving the activation of both mGluRs and NMDA receptors is required to trigger the process involved in ACPD-induced LTP. In addition, ACPD-induced LTD was blocked by co-application of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor inhibitor, 2-aminotheoxydiphenyl borate (10 microM), which had no effect on ACPD-induced LTP. The results of the present study, therefore, indicate that ACPD-induced LTP involves NMDA receptors, but not IP3 receptors, whereas the converse applies to ACPD-induced LTD.
Neuroscience Research 09/2003; 46(4):509-21. DOI:10.1016/S0168-0102(03)00162-7 · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we established a culture system of the accessory olfactory bulb in order to investigate the functional role of each accessory olfactory bulb neurons in pheromonal signal processing. In the present study, we developed a co-culture system of cultured accessory olfactory bulb neurons with partially dissociated cells of the vomeronasal organ. The dissociated cells of the vomeronasal organ form spherical structures surrounding a central cavity in culture, referred to as the vomeronasal pockets. The projection and activity of olfactory receptor neurons affect the differentiation and maturation of main olfactory bulb neurons. It was also reported induction of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in main olfactory bulb neurons when they were co-cultured with explants of the olfactory epithelium. Thus, we investigated the effects of co-culture with vomeronasal pockets on the differentiation and/or maturation of cultured accessory olfactory bulb neurons in relation to tyrosine hydroxylase expression. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons developmentally increased over time in the accessory olfactory bulb culture. This increase was significantly enhanced by coculture with vomeronasal pockets. Interestingly, a significant change in tyrosine hydroxylase expression was not observed when main olfactory bulb neurons were co-cultured with vomeronasal pockets. Moreover, significant changes in tyrosine hydroxylase expression were not observed when accessory olfactory bulb neurons were co-cultured with olfactory epithelium explants, as was previously observed in co-culture of main olfactory bulb neurons and olfactory epithelium explants. These results suggest that the differentiation and/or maturation of accessory olfactory bulb neurons is modified by vomeronasal organ neurons via specific interactions between the sensory organ and its target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosine and ATP modulate cellular and tissue functions via specific P1 and P2 receptors, respectively. Although, in general, adenosine inhibits excitability and ATP functions as an excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system, little is known about the direct interaction between P1 and P2 receptors. We recently demonstrated that the G(i/o)-coupled adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) and G(q/11)-coupled P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) form a heteromeric complex with a unique pharmacology in cotransfected HEK293T cells using the coimmunoprecipitation of differentially epitope-tagged forms of the receptor [Yoshioka et al. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 7617-7622], although it remained to be determined whether this hetero-oligomerization occurs in vivo. In the present study, we first demonstrated a high degree of colocalization of A1R and P2Y1R by double immunofluorescence experiments with confocal laser microscopy in rat cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum in addition to primary cultures of cortical neurons. Then, a direct association of A1R with P2Y1R was shown in coimmunoprecipitation studies using membrane extracts from these regions of rat brain. Together, these results suggest the widespread colocalization of A1R and P2Y1R in rat brain, and both receptors can exist in the same neuron, and therefore associate as hetero-oligomeric complexes in the rat brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a well-defined medium with insulin, transferrin and selenium but without serum and albumin, we quantitatively determined the effect of thyroid hormones on the development of Purkinje cells in mouse cerebellar monolayer cultures. Addition of a thyroid hormone, T3 or T4, to the serum-free medium resulted in a highly elaborate dendritic development of Purkinje cells. The cultured Purkinje cells in the presence of T4 even showed similarities in shape and in synapse formation to normal Purkinje cells in vivo. Such effect of T4 on the dendritic arborization of Purkinje cells was dose dependent and significantly sensitive to a low dose of T4 even at 50 pM. The effect of T4 was confirmed by an inhibition experiment using amiodarone, which was reported to induce thyroid dysfunction. Furthermore, T4 affected not only Purkinje cell development but also the shape of other neural cells such as small interneurons (mainly granule cells) and astrocytes in cerebellar cultures. T4 induced development of both interneurons and astrocytes having long processes. These results indicate that thyroid hormones play a pivotal role in the development of mouse Purkinje cell dendrites acting on Purkinje cells directly and/or indirectly via the close interaction with interneurons and astrocytes.
Developmental Brain Research 08/2002; 137(1):55-65. DOI:10.1016/S0165-3806(02)00408-X · 1.78 Impact Factor