Ying Liu

Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Beijing, Beijing Shi, China

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Publications (17)13.74 Total impact

  • Applied Mechanics and Materials 02/2013;
  • Applied Mechanics and Materials 02/2013;
  • Applied Mechanics and Materials 12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: This work describes the structural changes of bagasse hemicelluloses during the cooking process involving active oxygen (O(2) and H(2)O(2)) and solid alkali (MgO). The hemicelluloses obtained from the bagasse raw material, pulp, and yellow liquor were analyzed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and (1)H-(13)C 2D hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy (HSQC). The results revealed that the structure of the bagasse hemicelluloses was L-arabino-(4-O-methylglucurono)-D-xylan. Some sugar units in hemicelluloses were oxidized under the cooking conditions. Additionally, the backbones and the ester linkages of hemicelluloses were heavily cleaved during the cooking process.
    Carbohydrate research 10/2012; 359:65-9. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel, efficient, and environmentally friendly technology is used in cornstalk cooking, active oxygen (O₂ and H₂O₂) cooking with solid alkali (MgO). After the cooking, the milled wood lignin in the raw material and pulp and the water-soluble and insoluble lignin in the yellow liquor were all characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence NMR. The results showed that the cooking procedure with solid alkali and active oxygen had a high selectivity for delignification, which could remove 85.5% of the lignin from the raw material. The syringyl (S/S'/S') units could be dissolved preferentially because of their high reactivity, and a novel guaiacyl unit with a carbonyl group (G') was generated in the cooking process. Moreover, during the cooking, the β-O-4' (A/A'/A″) structures as the main side-chain linkages in all the lignins could be partly broken and the β-O-4' (A') with a ring-conjugated structure was readily attacked by oxygen, whereas the H unit and β-5' and β-β' structures were found to stay stable without characteristic reaction.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2012; 60(18):4656-61. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents a novel, efficient and environmentally friendly process for the cooking of corn stalk that uses active oxygen (O2 and H2O2) and a recoverable solid alkali (MgO). The structural changes on the surface of corn stalk before and after cooking were characterized by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The results showed that lignin and extractives were effectively removed, especially those on the surface of corn stalk. Additionally, the changes included becoming fibrillar, the exposure of cellulose and hemi-cellulose and the pitting corrosion on the surface, etc. The results also showed that the removal reaction is from outside to inside, but the main reaction is possibly on the surface. Furthermore, the results of active oxygen cooking with a solid alkali are compared with those of alkaline cooking in the paper.
    Bioresource Technology 01/2012; 103(1):432-9. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Formic acid hydrolysis is widely used in lignocellulose pretreatment. However, formic acid hydrolysis wheat straw cannot be directly used as a fermentation substrate owing to various fermentation inhibitors, especially the formic acid in reaction system and released during pretreatment. Study found treatment of wheat straw hydrolysate with D311 ion-exchange resin had a good result on reduction formic acid. We investigated the influence of D311 resin content on the elimination of residual formic acid and the adsorbance of glucose. The results reveal that 22.5 g D311 resin can eliminate 94% of residual formic acid and with only 15% reduction of glucose concentration.
    Digital Manufacturing and Automation (ICDMA), 2010 International Conference on; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: A series of Ni-based catalysts were prepared using hydrogen reduction of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (Ni/Al HTlcs) synthesized by coprecipitation. The physico-chemical properties of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds and the corresponding Ni-based catalysts were characterized using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), BET surface areas, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results indicated that Ni/Al HTlcs with layered structures could be successfully prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the characteristic HTlcs reflections were also observed in the XRD analysis. The NiO and Ni0 phases were identified in all Ni-based catalysts, which displayed randomly interconnected pores and no layer structures. In addition, the studies also found the Ni/Al HTlcs and Ni-based catalysts had high specific surface areas, low pore volumes and low pore diameters. The catalytic hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol with Ni-based catalysts was also investigated. Among the studied catalysts, RE1NASH-110-3 showed the highest selectivity and yield of ethyl acetate to ethanol, which were 68.2% and 61.7%, respectively. At the same time, a major by-product, butyl acetate, was formed due to an ester-exchange reaction. A proposed hydrogenation pathway for ethyl acetate over Ni-based catalysts was suggested.
    Molecules 08/2010; 15(8):5139-52. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: – • Litterfall and litter chemistry are key factors for the assessment of forest floor properties. A long-term study on litterfall, litter chemistry and forest basal areas was carried out in an old-growth temperate forest, northeastern China. – • The objective of this study was to test whether forest floor properties in the old-growth forest remain relatively constant. – • Litterfall increased significantly over the past 27 y but litterfall of various litter components showed different temporal trends. Changes in proportions of various litter components, combined with the inherent chemistry differences among them, made litter carbon (C): nitrogen (N) and lignin:N ratios increase at an average rate of 0.19 and 0.16 per year, respectively, suggesting a decreasing trend in the forest floor C and N cycling rates. Changes in dominant tree species biomass significantly affected their corresponding foliar litter production and proportions in the total litterfall and therefore played a dominant role in regulating the developing trends of litter chemistry and quantity in this forest floor. – • Our study indicated that forest floor properties in the old-growth forest still showed a directional change and this was mainly caused by the intrinsic changes rather than yearly climatic fluctuation.
    Annals of Forest Science 01/2010; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of higher CO2 concentrations (500 and 700 μmol mol−1) in atmosphere on total soil respiration and the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration during seedling growth of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis. During the four growing seasons (May-October) from 1999 to 2003, the seedlings were exposed to elevated concentrations of CO2 in open-top chambers. The total soil respiration and contribution of root respiration were measured using an LI-6400-09 soil CO2 flux chamber on June 15 and October 8, 2003. To separate root respiration from total soil respiration, three PVC cylinders were inserted approximately 30 cm deep into the soil in each chamber. There were marked diurnal changes in air and soil temperatures on June 15. Both the total soil respiration and the soil respiration without roots showed a strong diurnal pattern, increasing from before sunrise to about 14:00 in the afternoon and then decreasing before the next sunrise. No increase in the mean total soil respiration and mean soil respiration with roots severed was observed under the elevated CO2 treatments on June 15, 2003, as compared to the open field and control chamber with ambient CO2. However, on October 8, 2003, the total soil respiration and soil respiration with roots severed in the open field were lower than those in the control and elevated CO2 chambers. The mean contribution of root respiration measured on June 15, 2003, ranged from 8.3% to 30.5% and on October 8, 2003, from 20.6% to 48.6%.
    Pedosphere. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Employing root-wrenching method and LI-6400-09 soil respiration chamber, this paper measured the diurnal changes of soil respiration rate with and without roots in situ on June 17, August 5, and October 10, 2003. The seasonal changes of soil respiration were also measured from May to September, 2004. The results showed that both the total and the root-wrenched soil respiration appeared single diurnal pattern, with the peaks presented during 12:00-14:00. The diurnal fluctuation of soil respiration on August 5 was smaller than that on June 17 and October 10. There were also obvious seasonal changes in total and root-wrenched soil respiration, as well as in root respiration, which were higher from June to August but lower in May and September. The average total soil respiration, root-wrenched soil respiration, and root respiration were 3.12, 1.94 and 1.18 micromol CO2 x m(-2) s(-1), respectively, and the contribution of roots to total soil respiration ranged from 26.5% to 52.6% from May to September, 2004. There were exponential correlations between respiration rate and soil temperature, and linear correlations between respiration rate and soil humidity. The Q10 values were 2.44, 2.55 and 2.27 for total soil respiration, root-wrenched soil respiration, and root respiration, respectively. The effect of soil temperature on root-wrenched soil respiration was lager than that on total soil respiration and root respiration. Soil humidity had a larger effect on total soil respiration than on root respiration and root-wrenched soil respiration.
    Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban 10/2005; 16(9):1581-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (500 μmol·mol−1 and 700 μmol·mol−1) on total soil respiration and the contribution of root respiration ofPinus koraiensis seedlings were investigated from May to October in 2003 at the Research Station of Changbai Mountain Forest Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jilin Province, China. After four growing seasons in top-open chambers exposed to elevated CO2, the total soil respiration and roots respiration ofPinus koraiensis seedlings were measured by a Li-6400-09 soil CO2 flux chamber. Three PVC cylinders in each chamber were inserted about 30 cm into the soil instantaneously to terminate the supply of current photosynthates from the tree canopy to roots for separating the root respiration from total soil respiration. Soil respirations both inside and outside of the cylinders were measured on June 16, August 20 and October 8, respectively. The results indicated that: there was a marked diurnal change in air temperature and soil temperature at depth of 5 cm on June 16, the maximum of soil temperature at depth of 5 cm lagged behind that of air temperature, no differences in temperature between treatments were found (P>0.05). The total soil respiration and soil respiration with roots severed showed strong diurnal and seasonal patterns. There was marked difference in total soil respiration and soil respiration with roots severed between treatments (P−2·s−1, 11.5%, 43.1% and 27.9% on June 16, August 20 and October 8, respectively.
    Journal of Forestry Research 01/2004; 15(3):187-191.
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    ABSTRACT: The variations of the contents of water-soluble carbohydrate and nitrogen in L. chinensis and Ph. communis under different stocking rates were studied by fencing grazing experiment on L. chinensis grassland. The results indicated that the water-soluble carbohydrate content in the base stem of L. chinensis and Ph. communis was the lowest (7.12% and 3.95%, respectively) at the beginning of growth period, and then increased gradually with seasons. There was no significant variation in the content of leaf water-soluble carbohydrate in the grasses. L. chinensis germinated earlier than Ph. communis, resulted in the difference between the water-soluble carbohydrate content in the base stem and the leaf of the grasses at the beginning of the experiment in May. Proper stocking rates were favorable for the increase of water-soluble carbohydrate content, and could accelerate the re-growth capability of the herbage. The nitrogen content was the highest at the beginning of growth period, and then decreased gradually with seasons, which was accorded with their phenology. Proper stocking rates could stimulate the assimilation of nitrogen in soil, and bring it to the ground, which improved the nutrition value of the herbage.
    Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban 01/2004; 14(12):2167-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Leaf tissue turnover of Leymus chinensis and Phragmites communis after grazing was studied by application of theory and method of tissue turnover in this paper. The results showed that the number of living leaf of P. communis was larger than that of L. chinensis, but the length of living leaf of L. chinensis was larger than that of P. communis during the whole growth period. Both of the leaf appearance rate and the leaf elongation rate of L. chinensis and P. communis were largest at first, and then they decreased gradually. The rate of leaf wither and leaf senescence were in the converse trend. The leaf lifespan of P. communis was shorter than that of L. chinensis. The velocity of leaf tissue turnover of P. communis was faster than that of L. chinensis. There would be a great loss if the leaf tissue of L. chinensis were not used in time. The quality of grasslands could be improved by different utilization ways and periods.
    Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban 06/2002; 13(5):573-6.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, transects were set in areas where Aneurolepidium chinense and its companion species grew together. Competition and coexistence patterns of these species in the ecotone were analyzed using the following measures:frequency distribution, spatial pattern, and pattern intensity. Patterns of A. chinense and its main companion species were diverse. Aggregation was the tactics for A. chinense to defend the foreign species' invading or disperse itself. There existed competition and coexistence between A. chinense and its main companion species. A. chinense and Phragmite communis competed and coexisted through suppression. A. chinense and Kalimeris interifolia coexisted through competition. Hierochloe glabra and Puccinellia tenuiflora competed with A. chinense through clonal growth. Calamagrostis epigeios was suppressed by A. chinense.
    Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban 02/2002; 13(1):50-4.
  • Ying Liu, Shi-jie Han, Lu Lin
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    ABSTRACT: A stdudy was conducted to determine the seasonal changes of soil respiration and the contribution of root respiration to soil respiration in Betula platyphylla forest in Changbai Mountain from May to September in 2004. Results indicated that the total soil respiration, root-severed soil respiration and the root respiration followed a similar seasonal trend, with a high rate in summer due to wet and high temperature and a low rate in spring and autumn due to lower temperature. The mean rates of total soil respiration, root-severed soil respiration and root respiration were 4.44, 2.30 and 2.14 µmol·m−2·s−1, respectively during the growing season, and they were all exponentially correlated with temperature. Soil respiration rate had a linear correlation with soil volumetric moisture. The Q10 values for total soil respiration, root-severed soil respiration and root respiration were 2.82, 2.59 and 3.16, respectively. The contribution rate of root respiration to the total soil respiration was between 29.3% and 58.7% during the growing season, indicating that root is a major component of soil respiration. The annual mean rates of total soil respiration, root-severed soil respiration and root respiration were 1.96, 1.08, and 0.87 µmol·m−2·s−1, or 741.73, 408.71, and 329.24 g·m−2·a−1, respectively. Root respiration contributed 44.4% to the annual total soil respiration. The relationship proposed for soil respiration with soil temperature was useful for understanding and predicting potential changes in Changbai Mountain B. platyphylla forest ecosystem in response to forest management and climate change.
    Journal of Forestry Research 20(4):367-371.
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of nitrogen (N) availability and tree species on the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen at early stage of decomposition of forest litter were studied in a 13-week laboratory incubation experiment. Fresh litter samples including needle litter (Pinus koraiensis) and two types of broadleaf litters (Quercus mongolica and Tilia amurensis) were collected from a broadleaf-korean pine mixed forest in the northern slope of Changbai Mountain (China). Different doses of N (equal to 0, 30 and 50 kg·ha−1yr−1, respectively, as NH4NO3) were added to litter during the experiment period. The litter decomposition rate expressed as mass loss and respiration rate increased significantly with increasing N availability. The mass loss and cumulative CO2-C emission were higher in leaf litter compared to that in needle litter. The dissolved organic Carbon (DOC) concentrations in litter leachate varied widely between the species, but were not greatly affected by N treatments. Regardless of the N addition rate, both N treatments and species had no significant effect on dissolved organic N (DON) concentrations in litter leachate. About 52–78% of added N was retained in the litter. The percentage of N retention was positively correlated (R2=0.91, p<0.05) with the litter mass loss. This suggested that a forest floor with easily decomposed litter might have higher potential N sink strength than that with more slowly decomposed litter.
    Journal of Forestry Research 20(2):111-116.