[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The detailed role of angiotensin II in salt-exacerbated stroke is unclear. We examined the role of angiotensin II in salt-accelerated stroke of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP).
Salt-loaded SHRSP were orally given the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker candesartan (0.3 to 3 mg/kg per day) and calcium channel blocker amlodipine (1 mg/kg per day), and the effects on stroke (n=61) and brain superoxide were compared between them. We also examined the effect of angiotensin II infusion (200 ng/kg per min) on brain superoxide production and blood-brain barrier.
Despite the comparable hypotensive effect between candesartan and amlodipine, candesartan prolonged survival of salt-loaded SHRSP much more than amlodipine (P<0.01), being associated with more improvement of cerebral arteriolar thickening, cerebral arteriolar cell proliferation, and hippocampal CA1 neuronal cell reduction (1024.9+/-20.6 versus 724.9+/-22.8 cells/mm2; P<0.01; n=7 to 10 in each group) in SHRSP by candesartan (P<0.05) than amlodipine. Salt loading increased superoxide and NADPH oxidase activity in brain cortex and hippocampus of SHRSP, and this increase was prevented by candesartan (P<0.01) but not amlodipine. Angiotensin II infusion, via AT1 receptor, directly increased brain superoxide by 1.8-fold (P<0.05; n=6 to 7 in each group) and impaired blood-brain barrier in salt-loaded SHRSP by 1.7-fold (P<0.05), and this increase in brain superoxide and blood-brain barrier impairment was prevented by tempol as well as candesartan.
Excess salt, via oxidative stress, accelerates stroke, and angiotensin II, via AT1 receptor, plays a pivotal role in brain superoxide production of SHRSP by excess salt.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the comparative roles of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38, in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, migration, and gene expression.
VSMCs were infected with recombinant adenovirus containing dominant-negative mutants of ERK, p38, and JNK (Ad-DN-ERK, Ad-DN-p38, and Ad-DN-JNK, respectively) to specifically inhibit the respective MAP kinases and then stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. Ad-DN-ERK attenuated PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation more potently than Ad-DN-p38 or Ad-DN-JNK, indicating the dominant role of ERK in VSMC proliferation. Ad-DN-ERK, Ad-DN-p38, and Ad-DN-JNK similarly inhibited PDGF-induced VSMC migration. Ad-DN-ERK and Ad-DN-JNK suppressed PDGF-BB-induced downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1, whereas Ad-DN-p38 decreased PDGF-BB-induced upregulation of p21Cip1. Ad-DN-ERK inhibited PDGF-BB-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and transforming growth factor-beta1 expressions, Ad-DN-p38 blocked monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and transforming growth factor-beta1 expression but not PAI-1, whereas Ad-DN-JNK suppressed only PAI-1 expression. Moreover, in vivo gene transfer of Ad-DN-p38 to rat carotid artery caused the inhibition of intimal hyperplasia by balloon injury, indicating the involvement of p38 in vascular remodeling in vivo.
We propose that these 3 MAP kinases participate in vascular diseases via differential molecular mechanisms and are new therapeutic targets for treatment of vascular diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways has been shown to be necessary for mitogen-stimulated proliferation, but its role in cell migration has not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the possible contribution of signaling pathways through c-Jun in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB directed cell migration in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) infected with a recombinant adenovirus containing the dominant-negative c-Jun (Ad-DN-c-Jun). DN-c-Jun protein was expressed dose-dependently in VSMCs infected with Ad-DN-c-Jun. Expression of DN-c-Jun significantly inhibited VSMC migration induced by PDGF-BB. Our results provide the first evidence that signaling pathways through c-Jun participates in cell migration induced by PDGF-BB in addition to other MAP kinase pathways in VSMCs.
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 03/2003; 91(2):145-8. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of the ACE inhibitor and the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist in combination on neointimal hyperplasia after balloon injury.
Temocapril (an ACE inhibitor), CS-866 (an AT1 receptor antagonist), or their combination was given orally to rats, and their effects were compared on vascular hyperplasia induced by balloon injury. The maximal preventive effect of temocapril and CS-866 alone on neointimal thickening after balloon injury was obtained at a dose of 20 and 10 mg/kg per day, respectively. However, compared with either agent alone, combined temocapril and CS-866 (20 and 10 mg/kg per day, respectively) prevented intimal thickening to a larger extent. Furthermore, compared with either agent alone, combined temocapril and CS-866 prevented vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in the intima more potently. The increase in platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosyl phosphorylation was reduced more potently by the combination of both agents compared with either agent alone. The nonpeptide bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist or the NO synthase inhibitor reduced the prevention of intimal thickening by combined temocapril and CS-866.
Compared with either agent alone, the combination of an ACE inhibitor and an AT1 receptor antagonist is more effective in the prevention of vascular hyperplasia due to bradykinin or NO.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism and treatment of hypertensive systolic heart failure are not well defined. We compared the effect of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (cilazapril, 10 mg/kg), an angiotensin receptor blocker (candesartan, 3 mg/kg), a calcium channel blocker (benidipine, 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg), and the same calcium channel blocker combined with renin-angiotensin blockers on systolic heart failure in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. DS rats were fed an 8% Na diet from 6 weeks of age and then subjected to the above drug treatments. Benidipine (1 mg/kg), cilazapril, and candesartan had compatible hypotensive effects and similar beneficial effects on cardiac hypertrophy, gene expression, and survival rate. The combination of benidipine with cilazapril or candesartan was found to have no additional beneficial effects on the above parameters, with the exception of a reduction in atrial natriuretic polypeptide gene expression. On the other hand, candesartan normalized serum creatinine, but serum creatinine was unaffected by either benidipine at 1 or 3 mg/kg or cilazapril. Further, the combined use of benidipine and either candesartan or cilazapril resulted in an additional reduction of urinary albumin excretion in DS rats. Thus systolic heart failure in DS rats is mainly mediated by hypertension, while renal dysfunction of DS rats is due to both hypertension and the AT1 receptor itself. These findings suggest that the combination of a calcium channel blocker with an AT1 receptor blocker or ACE inhibitor may be more effective in treating the renal dysfunction associated with systolic heart failure than monotherapy with either agent alone. However, further studies will be needed before reaching any definitive conclusion on the efficacy of this combination therapy in patients with heart failure.
Hypertension Research 06/2002; 25(3):461-6. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanism of glomerular injury in hypertension remains to be clarified. In this study, to examine the possible role of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors in hypertensive glomerular injury, we specifically measured glomerular PDGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in various models of hypertensive rats using immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. A high-salt diet significantly enhanced glomerular PDGF beta-receptor tyrosine phosphorylation of Dahl-salt sensitive rats (DS-rats) without an increase in its protein levels, and this enhancement was associated with an elevation of blood pressure and glomerular injury. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) at hypertensive phase also had higher glomerular PDGF beta-receptor tyrosine phosphorylation levels than control Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), while SHR did not. Thus, DS-rats and SHRSP, which are well known to represent severe glomerular injury, had the enhanced PDGF beta-receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, while SHR, a hypertensive model without significant glomerular injury had no increased tyrosine phosphorylation. Treatment of DS-rats or SHRSP with benidipine, a calcium channel blocker, significantly lessened the increase in glomerular PDGF beta-receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, reduction of urinary protein and albumin excretion. These results suggest that the enhanced activation of glomerular PDGF beta-receptors may be responsible for the development of hypertensive glomerular injury and that the suppression of this receptor activation by a calcium channel blocker may contribute to its renal protective effects.
Hypertension Research 04/2002; 25(2):295-301. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the mechanism of nephropathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a recently developed type II diabetic model, we compared the long-term effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (imidapril, 1 mg/kg/day), calcium channel blocker (amlodipine, 10 mg/kg/day), and insulin (5-10 U/kg/day) on nephropathy of OLETF rats. Both imidapril and amlodipine, but not insulin, significantly reduced blood pressure of OLETF rats. Imidapril treatment significantly decreased urinary albumin excretions and improved glomerulosclerosis of OLETF rats, while amlodipine failed to improve nephropathy of OLETF rats despite lowering of blood pressure. Insulin treatment, which significantly decreased HbA1c throughout the treatment period, did not ameliorate nephropathy of OLETF rats. Serum ACE activity in OLETF rats was significantly lower than that in genetic control nondiabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. However, glomerular and aortic ACE activities in OLETF rats were significantly higher than those in LETO rats, and were significantly decreased by treatment with imidapril. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of ACE in the kidney using specific antibodies indicated greater ACE immunostaining in the glomeruli and renal vessels of OLETF rats than in those of LETO rats. These observations demonstrate that ACE is involved in the development of nephropathy of OLETF rats and provide evidence that intrarenal ACE rather than circulating ACE may play an important role in nephropathy of this type II diabetic model.
Hypertension Research 04/2002; 25(2):287-94. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB is thought to participate in vascular disorders, the mechanism of PDGF-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is not fully understood. This study was undertaken to examine the role of c-Jun in PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic SMCs. PDGF-BB (10 ng/mL) significantly increased activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding activity in SMCs, followed by the increase in [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and cell number. SMCs were infected with recombinant adenovirus containing TAM67, a dominant-negative c-Jun lacking the transactivation domain of wild c-Jun (Ad-DN-c-Jun), to inhibit endogenous AP-1. Ad-DN-c-Jun, which specifically blocked AP-1 transcriptional activity, significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced increases in [(3)H]thymidine incorporation or cell number. As shown by flow cytometric analysis, Ad-DN-c-Jun inhibited PDGF-BB-induced entrance of SMCs into S phase, leading to a G(1) arrest. Ad-DN-c-Jun attenuated PDGF-BB-induced downregulation of p27(Kip1), as shown by Western blot analysis, and the prevented PDGF-BB-induced decrease in cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 complex-associated p27(Kip1), as shown by immunoprecipitation study. Furthermore, protein kinase assay showed that Ad-DN-c-Jun blocked PDGF-BB-induced activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2. Our results provide the first evidence that dominant-negative c-Jun inhibits PDGF-BB-induced vascular SMC proliferation by preventing the downregulation of p27(Kip1), thereby supporting the important role of c-Jun in vascular SMC proliferation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that activator protein-1 (AP-1), containing c-Jun, is rapidly activated in balloon-injured artery. Therefore, we examined the role of c-Jun in vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, by using in vitro and in vivo gene transfer techniques. (1) Serum (2%) stimulation significantly increased AP-1 DNA binding activity in aortic SMCs, followed by the increase in both 3H-thymidine incorporation and cell number. Aortic SMCs were infected with recombinant adenovirus containing TAM67, a dominant negative c-Jun lacking transactivation domain of wild c-Jun (Ad-DN-c-Jun), to specifically inhibit AP-1. Ad-DN-c-Jun significantly inhibited serum-induced SMC proliferation, by inhibiting the entrance of SMC into S phase. (2) The effect of DN-c-Jun was examined on balloon injury-induced intimal hyperplasia in rats. Before balloon injury, DN-c-Jun was transfected into rat carotid artery using the hemagglutinating virus of Japan-liposome method. In vivo transfection of DN-c-Jun significantly inhibited vascular SMC proliferation in the intima and the media and subsequently prevented intimal thickening at 14 days after balloon injury. We obtained the first evidence that DN-c-Jun gene transfer prevented vascular SMC proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and c-Jun was involved in balloon injury-induced intimal hyperplasia. Thus, AP-1 seems to be the new therapeutic target for treatment of vascular diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), belonging to mitogen-activated protein kinases, are rapidly activated in balloon-injured artery. Therefore, we examined the role of these kinase activations in neointimal formation by using an in vivo gene transfer technique. We made the dominant-negative mutants of ERK (DN-ERK) and JNK (DN-JNK) to specifically inhibit endogenous ERK and JNK activation, respectively. Before balloon injury, these mutants were transfected into rat carotid artery using the hemagglutinating virus of Japan liposome method. In vivo transfection of DN-ERK and DN-JNK significantly suppressed the activation of ERK and JNK, respectively, after balloon injury, confirming successful expression of the transfected genes. Neointimal formation at 14 and 28 days after injury was prevented by gene transfer of DN-ERK or DN-JNK. Furthermore, bromodeoxyuridine labeling index and total cell-counting analysis at 7 days showed that either DN-ERK or DN-JNK remarkably suppressed smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation in both the intima and the media after injury. Gene transfer of wild-type ERK (W-ERK) or JNK (W-JNK) significantly enhanced neointimal hyperplasia at 14 days after injury. Furthermore, DN-ERK and DN-JNK significantly suppressed serum-induced SMC proliferation in vitro. We obtained the first evidence that in vivo gene transfer of DN-ERK or DN-JNK prevented neointimal formation in balloon-injured artery by inhibiting SMC proliferation. Thus, ERK and JNK activation triggers SMC proliferation, leading to neointimal formation. These kinases may be the new therapeutic targets for prevention of vascular diseases.
Circulation Research 07/2001; 88(11):1120-6. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism and treatment of diastolic heart failure are poorly understood. We compared the effects of an ACE inhibitor, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and their combination on diastolic heart failure in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats.
DS rats fed an 8% NaCl diet from 7 weeks of age were treated with benazepril 10 mg/kg alone, valsartan 30 mg/kg alone, or combined benazepril and valsartan at 5 and 15 mg/kg, respectively, or at 1 and 3 mg/kg, respectively. At 16 weeks of age, DS rats exhibited prominent concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function, as estimated by echocardiography. Despite comparable hypotensive effects among all drug treatments, the combination of benazepril 5 mg/kg and valsartan 15 mg/kg improved diastolic dysfunction and survival in DS rats more effectively than ACE inhibitor or ARB alone. Furthermore, the increase in LV endothelin-1 levels and hydroxyproline contents in DS rats was significantly suppressed only by combined benazepril and valsartan, and LV atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA upregulation in DS rats was suppressed to a greater extent by the combination therapy than monotherapy.
The combination of ACE inhibitor and ARB, independently of the hypotensive effect, improved LV phenotypic change and increased LV endothelin-1 production and collagen accumulation, diastolic dysfunction, and survival in a rat heart failure model more effectively than either agent alone, thereby providing solid experimental evidence that the combination of these 2 agents is more beneficial than monotherapy for treatment of heart failure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether the previous in vitro evidence of a link between angiotensin II (Ang II) and growth factor receptors can apply to the in vivo situation. In this study, we examined vascular platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor activation in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and the role of Ang II. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of the growth factor receptors was determined by Western blot analysis coupled with immunoprecipitation. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of the aortic PDGF beta-receptor, but not the EGF receptor, was chronically increased in SHRSP with hypertension, compared with normotensive rats, being accompanied by increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Treatment of SHRSP with ACE inhibitors (perindopril or enalapril) significantly reduced aortic PDGF beta-receptor tyrosyl phosphorylation and ERK activity, whereas treatment with hydralazine failed to reduce these activities. Therefore, these aortic changes in SHRSP were mediated by Ang II in response to vascular ACE. Ang II was infused into rats to examine the effects on aortic growth factor receptors. Chronic Ang II infusion, via the angiotensin type 1 receptor, significantly increased activation of the aortic PDGF beta-receptor but not the EGF receptor. Thus, the aortic PDGF beta-receptor, activated by ACE-mediated Ang II, seems to be responsible for vascular remodeling in hypertensive rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro studies on the role of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK], c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase [JNK], and p38) in cardiac hypertrophic response have produced confusing and contradictory results. We examined the in vivo role of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor in cardiac MAP kinase activities during both the onset and development of cardiac hypertrophy in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). In both the acute and chronic phases of cardiac hypertrophy in SHRSP, cardiac JNK activities were significantly increased compared with those in normotensive rats, whereas there was no prominent increase in cardiac ERK or p38 activities in SHRSP. Losartan, an AT(1) receptor antagonist, prevented the onset of cardiac hypertrophy and regressed the progression of cardiac hypertrophy in SHRSP, being accompanied by the reduction of JNK activity and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in SHRSP. However, in spite of the normalization of blood pressure, hydralazine did not prevent or regress cardiac hypertrophy and did not decrease JNK or AP-1 activity in SHRSP. Inversely, hydralazine significantly increased the cardiac ERK activity in SHRSP by enhancing its phosphorylation. In conclusion, we have obtained the first evidence that the AT(1) receptor is involved in the enhanced cardiac JNK activity in both the onset and development of cardiac hypertrophy of hypertensive rats. We propose that JNK is involved in AT(1) receptor-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in vivo, in part mediated by the activation of AP-1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination therapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonists, or calcium channel antagonists may exert more beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases than monotherapy. Perindopril, candesartan cilexetil, or amlodipine alone or the combination of low doses of each agent was administered orally to stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) for 4 weeks to compare the hypotensive or cardiovascular effects. Although perindopril (2 mg/kg), candesartan cilexetil (2 mg/kg), or amlodipine (3 mg/kg) alone caused comparable hypotensive effects in SHRSP, monotherapy with perindopril or candesartan decreased left ventricular (LV) weight; mRNA levels for atrial natriuretic factor, skeletal alpha-actin, and collagen types I and III; and aortic weight and platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor tyrosine phosphorylation to a greater extent than monotherapy with amlodipine. Although monotherapy with a low dose (0.2 mg/kg) of perindopril or candesartan cilexetil did not significantly reduce the LV mRNA levels and aortic platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor phosphorylation of the SHRSP, combination therapy at such a low dose normalized these parameters more potently than the use of amlodipine (3 mg/kg) alone. Although perindopril or candesartan cilexetil alone at 0.05 mg/kg did not decrease the blood pressure of the SHRSP, such a low dose of combination therapy decreased LV weight and atrial natriuretic factor mRNA levels of the SHRSP to a greater extent than amlodipine alone or amlodipine combined with perindopril or candesartan cilexetil. Our results provide evidence that suggests the combination of an ACE inhibitor and an AT(1) receptor antagonist may be more effective in the treatment of cardiac and vascular diseases than the combination of a calcium channel blocker with an ACE inhibitor or an AT(1) receptor antagonist or monotherapy with each agent.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to the increase in aortic transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) mRNA levels in hypertensive rats. However, the molecular mechanism whereby Ang II promotes TGF-beta(1) expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in Ang II-mediated TGF-beta(1) expression in VSMCs and the role of Ang II in aortic ERK activity of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Treatment of quiescent VSMCs with 100 nmol/L Ang II induced rapid phosphorylation and activation of ERK1 and ERK2 with a peak at 5 minutes followed by an increase in activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity, as shown by gel mobility shift assay. An increase in TGF-beta(1) mRNA was shown by Northern blot analysis. Treatment of VSMCs with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of the ERK pathway, attenuated both the activation of AP-1 and the increase in TGF-beta(1) mRNA induced by Ang II. Inhibition of Ang II-induced AP-1 activation with c-fos antisense oligodeoxynucleotide led to a significant reduction of TGF-beta(1) mRNA in VSMCs. Furthermore, in vivo treatment of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats with losartan, an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist, decreased aortic ERK activity. Thus, we show that ERK, through AP-1 activation, is involved in Ang II-induced TGF-beta(1) mRNA expression in VSMCs and suggest that ERK may participate in vascular remodeling of hypertension. However, it remains to be determined whether the increase in TGF-beta(1) mRNA leads to the increase in its active protein.