Yan Liu

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peping, Beijing, China

Are you Yan Liu?

Claim your profile

Publications (28)26.79 Total impact

  • Yan Liu, Jing Lu, Lan Zhou
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We consider two particles of spin-1/2 interacting with a one-dimensional N-spin array, which is an exactly solvable model. The dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord (QD) of the spins of the two particles is investigated by regarding the 1D N-spin array as the environment. It is found that although the entanglement may suffers a sudden death and a sudden birth in the evolution, it can neither be generated nor become larger than its initial value. Different from the entanglement dynamics, QD can be amplified, and even be generated by the interaction between particles and the common environment. We also observe that QD decays asymptotically to zero and later experiences a rival when the average number of excitation in the 1D N-spin array becomes larger in the case of nonzero inter-distance between two particles.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study DNA quantification and STR typing of samples pre-treated with pyramidon.
    Fa yi xue za zhi. 06/2014; 30(3):188-90.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sequoyitol decreases blood glucose, improves glucose intolerance, and enhances insulin signaling in ob/ob mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sequoyitol on diabetic nephropathy in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the mechanism of action. Diabetic rats, induced with a high-fat diet and a low dose of streptozotocin, and were administered sequoyitol (12.5, 25.0, and 50.0 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·d(-1)) for 6 weeks. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCr) were measured. The expression levels of p22(phox), p47(phox), NF-κB, and TGF-β1 were measured using immunohistochemisty, real-time PCR, and (or) Western blot. The total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also determined. The results showed that sequoyitol significantly decreased FBG, BUN, and SCr levels, and increased the insulin levels in diabetic rats. The level of T-AOC was significantly increased, while ROS and MDA levels and the expression of p22(phox), p47(phox), NF-κB, and TGF-β1 were decreased with sequoyitol treatment both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggested that sequoyitol ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy in rats, as induced by a high-fat diet and a low dose of streptozotocin, through its glucose-lowering effects, antioxidant activity, and regulation of TGF-β1 expression.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 05/2014; 92(5):405-417. · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of sequoyitol (Sep) on high glucose-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) injury.
    03/2014; 30(2):147-52.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sequoyitol (Seq) on expression of eNOS and NOX4 in aortas of type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat and high sugar diet and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg x kg(-1)) and were administered Seq (12.5, 25 and 50 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) for 6 weeks. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body weight were tested. Acetylcholine (Ach) induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced endothelium-independent relaxation were measured in aortas for estimating endothelial function. Aortic morphological change was observed with HE staining. The level of serum insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. The total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO levels in aortas were determined according to the manufacturer's instructions. In addition, the expressions of eNOS and NOX4 in aortas were measured by immunohistochemisty, real-time PCR or Western blotting. The results showed that Seq significantly decreased FBG and insulin resistance, and improved aortic endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation function. The expressions of NOX4 and MDA content were obviously decreased, while the expression of eNOS, the levels of NO and T-AOC increased significantly in aortas of diabetic rats with Seq treatment. In conclusion, Seq protects against aortic endothelial dysfunction of type 2 diabetic rats through down-regulating expression of NOX4 and up-regulating eNOS expression.
    03/2014; 49(3):329-36.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease affecting many organs and which is predominant in females. Although various manifestations of SLE may result in sudden death, pancarditis is very rarely encountered in forensic practice. We report on a case of sudden death caused by lupus-induced pancarditis. A 24-year-old male had pneumonia and intractable fever as initial signs when he was admitted to hospital. The patient had no symptoms associated with the cardiovascular system up to 3 days before he died. The echocardiogram and electrocardiogram were normal and diagnosis was not made until necropsy. This case is reported to broaden our understanding about the complexity of manifestations associated with SLE and inform clinicians and medical examiners of the potential for this type of lupus-induced pancarditis.
    Forensic science international 08/2013; · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although it is well known that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can cause various cardiovascular abnormalities and even sudden death from cardiac arrhythmia, whether it has any effect on myocardial gap junctions, which might be one of the targets mediating MDMA-induced cardiotoxicity, remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that MDMA may affect the myocardial gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) and induce cardiac dysrhythmia. METHOD: 1. in vivo study: adult rats were treated with a single dose MDMA administration (20mg/kg, i.p.). Electrocardiogram detection and immunohistochemical analysis were performed to evaluate cardiac function and expression of Cx43, respectively; 2. in vitro study: cultured ventricular myocytes of neonatal rats were treated with MDMA (10, 100, 1000μmol/L) for 1 hour. Western blotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were performed to investigate the total Cx43 mRNA expression. Immunofluorescent analysis was used to evaluate the amount of junctional Cx43. The phosphorylation status of Cx43 at site Ser368 and intracellular Ca(2+) oscillation were also studied. RESULTS: obvious changes in electrocardiographic patterns were found in rats following MDMA administration. They were characterized by prolonged QRS duration associated with increased amplitude of QRS complex. The heart rates in treated rats were significantly decreased compared to the rats in the control group. The immunohistochemical findings revealed a significant decrease in Cx43 expression. The in vitro study also showed a marked decline in total Cx43 protein associated with reduction of Cx43 mRNA, whereas the phosphorylated Cx43 at Ser368 was increased. Decrease of junctional Cx43 was found correlated with reduction in N-cadherin induced by high concentration of MDMA. Additionally, confocal microscopy findings revealed alteration of intracellular calcium oscillation patterns characterized by high frequency and increasing influx Ca(2+). CONCLUSIONS: MDMA reduces expression of cardiac gap junction protein Cx43. The increase of phosphorylation status of Cx43 at Ser368 induced by MDMA is attributed, at least in part, to the Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Our findings provide first evidence of MDMA-mediated changes in those cardiac gap junctions that may underlie MDMA-induced cardiac arrhythmia.
    Toxicology 06/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study is to observe the effects of sequoyitol on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits p22 phox and p47 phox in rats with type 2 diabetic liver diseases. The model of high fat and high sugar diet as well as intraperitoneal injection of small dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg x kg(-1)) induced diabetic rat liver disease was used. After sequoyitol (50, 25 and 12.5 mg x kg(-1)) was administrated for 6 weeks, the contents of blood glucose (BG), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), NO and insulin (Ins) were measured, liver p22 phox and p47 phox mRNA content was determined with real-time PCR and the expression of p22 phox and p47 phox protein was examined by Western blotting. In addition, pathological changes in liver were observed with HE staining. Sequoyitol could reduce the content of fasting blood glucose, ALT, AST, Ins and H2O2, restore insulin sensitive index (ISI) and weight, elevate liver tissue T-AOC and NO content, reduce the NADPH oxidase subunit liver tissue p22 phox and p47 phox mRNA and protein expression, as well as ameliorate liver pathologic lesions. The results showed that sequoyitol can ease the type 2 diabetic rat liver oxidative stress by lowering NADPH oxidase expression.
    Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica 04/2013; 48(4):489-94.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is a food flavour enhancer and its potential harmfulness to the heart remains controversial. We investigated whether MSG could induce cardiac arrhythmias and apoptosis via the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor. Myocardial infarction (MI) was created by ligating the coronary artery and ventricular arrhythmias were monitored by electrocardiogram in the rat in vivo. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured. Cell viability was estimated by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-yl)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay. Calcium mobilization was monitored by confocal microscopy. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated by acridine orange staining, flow cytometry, DNA laddering, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. MSG (i.v.) decreased the heart rate at 0.5 g/kg and serious bradycardia at 1.5 g/kg, but could not induce ventricular tachyarrhythmias in normal rats in vivo. In rats with acute MI in vivo, however, MSG (1.5 g/kg, i.v.) induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias and these arrhythmias could be prevented by blocking the AMPA and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Selectively activating the AMPA or NMDA receptor induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias in MI rats. At the cellular level, AMPA induced calcium mobilization, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes, especially when the AMPA receptor desensitization were blocked by cyclothiazide. The above toxic cellular effects of AMPA were abolished by AMPA receptor blockade or by H2O2 scavengers. MSG induces bradycardia in normal rats, but triggers lethal tachyarrhythmias in myocardial infarcted rats probably by hindering AMPA receptors. AMPA receptor overstimulation also induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which may facilitate arrhythmia.
    Chinese medical journal 04/2013; 126(7):1323-32. · 0.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Death following situations of intense emotional stress has been linked to the cardiac pathology described as stress cardiomyopathy, whose pathomechanism is still not clear. In this study, we sought to determine, via an animal model, whether the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) and the amino peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) play a role in the pathogenesis of this cardiac entity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats in the experimental group were subjected to immobilization in a plexy glass box for 1 h, which was followed by low voltage electric foot shock for about 1 h at 10 s intervals in a cage fitted with metallic rods. After 25 days the rats were sacrificed and sections of their hearts were processed. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of cardiac tissues revealed the characteristic cardiac lesions of stress cardiomyopathy such as contraction band necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis for PGC-1α mRNA expression showed significant overexpression of PGC1-α in the stress-subjected rats (P<0.05). Fluorescence immunohistochemistry revealed a higher production of NPY in the stress-subjected rats as compared to the control rats (P=0.0027). Thus, we are led to conclude that following periods of intense stress, an increased expression of PGC1-α in the heart and an overflow of NPY may lead to stress cardiomyopathy and even death in susceptible victims. Moreover, these markers can be used to identify stress cardiomyopathy as the cause of sudden death in specific cases.
    Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 12/2012; 32(6):823-8. · 0.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Commotio cordis is a rare and fatal mechano-electric arrhythmogenic syndrome, occurring mainly during sports activities. The present study describes two similar cases of sudden death caused by commotio cordis associated with homicide. The two decedents were both 15-year-old male teenagers. Both collapsed within several minutes after being punched in the precordial region, as observed by witnesses at the scenes. Although electrocardiograms were not recorded at the scenes or the hospitals, the sudden onset of cardiovascular, respiratory, and neural symptoms were consistent with sudden cardiac death caused by commotio cordis. Autopsy and forensic morphology both revealed no cardiac or pericardiac structural damage, evident lesions of other internal organs, or underlying diseases, along with negative toxicological analysis, conforming to criteria for diagnosis of commotio cordis. The diagnosis of commotio cordis by forensic pathologists is important in deliberating a verdict of homicide, especially involuntary homicide. In rare instances, a death caused by commotio cordis may have a homicide manner of death.
    Journal of Forensic Sciences 10/2012; · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clenbuterol is a long-lasting β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) agonist and was once medicated as a bronchial dilatator, and is also used by body-building enthusiasts and athletes and in livestock breeding because of its anabolic effect on skeletal muscles and ability to promote lipolysis. Though prohibited from pharmacological uses, clenbuterol intoxication cases are frequently reported, and most of the cardiac symptoms are tachyarrhythmia. Here, we reported a different cardiovascular toxic response to clenbuterol. Using a rabbit model, we tested the dose-response pattern of the cardiovascular system to intravenous administration of clenbuterol. Routine arterial blood pressure (BP) and surface electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored. We observed that clenbuterol at a lower dose (0.4 mg/kg, n = 3) did not significantly affect the ECG, but decreased the mean BP roughly by 15-18 mmHg. At a medial dose (3.6 mg/kg, n = 3), clenbuterol induced significant hypotension (mean BP dropped by about 30 mmHg), first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block and intermittent ectopic activities with a relatively slow rate. The hypotension and arrhythmia recovered slowly, and animals did not die. Higher-dose clenbuterol (10 mg/kg, n = 6) induced severe hypotension, second-degree AV block (Mobitz type II), 2:1 ventricular capture and progressive prolongations of P-R intervals and QRS duration, and the animals soon died of cardiac asystole. Different from other reports, we had not observed lethal tachyarrhythmia in all experiments except for the slight heart rate acceleration during the recovery stage of medial clenbuterol dosage. These results indicate that acute intravenous administration of clenbuterol has serious, dose-dependent cardiovascular toxicities and is even life threatening.
    Cardiovascular toxicology 09/2012; · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nocturnal asthma is associated with circadian rhythms. Although glucocorticoids have contributed to therapeutic success, the underlying mechanism has not been studied thoroughly in asthma. Here, we report that cortisol, a member of glucocorticoids, ameliorate guinea pig tracheal spasm via a nongenomic effect. We set a concentration gradient of cortisol to mimic the functional circadian fluctuation. When administrated over a threshold (150 ng/ml), cortisol could synergize with the spasmolytic action of β-agonist (isoprenaline) in histamine-sensitized tracheal spirals in vitro. This permissive action was abolished by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, indicating that cortisol acts via its receptor. Using the RNA polymerase inhibitor, actinomycin D, we showed that this permissive action was not affected by transcription. PMA, activator of protein kinase C (PKC), could partially imitate this rapid effect, while PKC inhibition also blocked this action to some extent. It is likely that this nongenomic effect of glucocorticoid underlies the onset and susceptibility of asthma, implying novel medication target in clinical practice.
    Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 05/2012; 183(1):10-4. · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Commotio cordis is a rare and catastrophic mechano-electric feedback syndrome, and it is especially apt to occur in male children, adolescents and youths during sports activities. The authors present a case of unexpected sudden death due to commotio cordis associated with violence. In a house of detention, a 19-year-old boy was punched and kicked in the face, neck and chest during a fight with another suspect in their ward. Unfortunately, his precordium was the major injured region. The victim turned pale, then lost the ability to resist and lost consciousness immediately. When the emergency medical personnel arrived, the victim was found in a condition of cardiac and respiratory arrest and he was pronounced dead at the scene without cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Both autopsy signs and forensic morphology were in accord with the criteria for commotio cordis diagnosis, showing no cardiac or other organic fatal lesions and no underlying cardiac diseases; moreover, the toxicological screening was negative for alcohol, drug and common toxicants. In the present case, the whole fight was seen by some witnesses in their ward, and it was recorded by the monitoring unit. Based on the statements of the witnesses and the monitoring videotape, combined with the forensic pathological and toxicological examinations, all the testimonies supported the conclusion that the cause of death was commotio cordis.
    Medicine, science, and the law 04/2012; 52(2):119-21. · 0.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of methamphetamine (MA) and its metabolite amphetamine (AP) in rat models of acute and subacute MA-ethanol combination abuse. Rats were fed with 20% ethanol for 4 weeks (chronic active-drinking group), and MA was injected intraperitoneally into chronically drinking and normal rats over 5 and 14 days, respectively. Then the rats from the acute and subacute combination abuse groups were euthanized, and ethanol, MA, and AP concentrations in samples were quantified. Except for the similar ethanol concentrations among acute and subacute groups, the MA and AP levels between groups were quite different. The concentrations of MA and AP in rats' liver, lung, kidney, and brain were much higher than other tissues, regardless of combination with ethanol. Also, MA and AP levels in subacute rats groups were higher than those in acute groups, and the levels of MA and the formation of AP in rats subjected to the combination abuse with ethanol were higher than in MA-only intoxicated rats. We conclude that ethanol has no bearing on the MA and AP distribution in body fluids and tissues, yet it can increase MA levels and markedly accelerate the formation of AP in combination-abuse rats. Comparing the acute and subacute combination-abuse rats' samples, it can be deduced that various accumulated amounts of MA and AP were unaffected by ethanol, even after multi-dose injection, regardless of acute or subacute use.
    Journal of analytical toxicology 01/2012; 36(1):30-5. · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To provide references for forensic expertise by investigating the kinds of toxicant, routes of exposure and manners of poisoning deaths, etc. Six hundred and seven autopsy cases of poisoning deaths from 1957 to 2008 in Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College (Tongji Forensic Science Identification Center of Hubei), were comparatively reviewed. In 218 cases from 1999 to 2008, more than 50% of decedents were male in the ages of 30-49. The toxicants are usually taken orally and the most common manner of death was accidental. The common substances involved in poisoning death were rodenticide, poisoning gas and insecticide. Compared to the data of 1983-1998 and 1957-1982, the common toxic agents had changed significantly. The number of cases involving insecticide and cyanide poisoning decreased in recent years, and the number of cases of rodenticide, poisoning gas, alcohols poisoning displayed an increase tendency, especially for drugs abuse. Poisoning deaths of pesticides remain a major public health problem for a long time and the awareness of prevention need to be raised, especially for the prevention of deaths from multiple poisons.
    Fa yi xue za zhi 06/2011; 27(3):200-4.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents seven fatal cases of aconite poisoning encountered in the Tongji Center for Medicolegal Expertise in Hubei (TCMEH), China, from 1999 to 2008 retrospectively. In six of the cases, deaths occurred after drinking homemade medicated liquor containing aconite, and in one case death was due to ingestion of traditional Chinese medication containing aconite. Forensic autopsy and pathological examinations ruled out the presence of physical trauma or life-threatening diseases. Diagnosis of aconite poisoning was made after postmortem toxicological analysis. Animal experiment was performed in one case demonstrating that the medicated liquor could cause death rapidly. We present the autopsy and histopathological findings, toxicological analysis, and results of animal experiment done on samples from those seven cases. As an important herbal Chinese medicine, Aconitum species deserve special attention, especially because it contains poisonous alkaloids.
    Forensic science international 06/2011; 212(1-3):e5-9. · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Corneal opacity is one of the most commonly used parameters for estimating postmortem interval (PMI). This paper proposes a new method to study the relationship between changes of corneal opacity and PMI by processing and analyzing cornea images. Corneal regions were extracted from images of rabbits' eyes and described by color-based and texture-based features, which could represent the changes of cornea at different PMI. A KNN classifier was used to reveal the association of image features and PMI. The result of the classification showed that the new method was reliable and effective.
    Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 04/2010; 30(2):235-9. · 0.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study the relationship between changes of microbial ATP in four kinds of murine tissues and the postmortem interval (PMI), healthy SD rats were sacrificed and their muscles, livers, spleens and kidneys were sampled at different postmortem intervals. The concentration of microbial ATP was detected using bioluminescent assay and the data was statistically analyzed. The concentration of microbial ATP in muscle increased with PMI time. The peak appeared at the 7th day after death, and at the 10th day, microbial ATP in muscle tissue increased again. In internal organs, the peaks of microbial ATP were observed at the 8th day after death and the level decreased during 8-10 d. The differences in microbial ATP concentration in liver, spleen and kidney were not statistically significant. During day 0 to day 9 after death, the correlation was best between PMI and microbial ATP in muscle. With PMI as the independent variable, the cubic polynomial regression equation was Y=0.02X(3)-0.166X(2)-0.666X+13.412 (R (2)=0.989, P<0.01). In internal organs, the best correlation was found between PMI and microbial ATP during day 0 to day 10. With PMI as the independent variable, the cubic polynomial regression equation was Y=0.016X(3)-0.127X(2)-0.809X+13.324 (R (2)=0.986, P<0.01). There existed high correlations between PMI and microbial ATP concentration in rat tissues. Since only a small amount of tissue was needed for the detection and the sample was not affected by self-decomposition, the method may extend the time range of PMI estimation.
    Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 12/2009; 29(6):679-83. · 0.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The records of 218 poisoning deaths from a Department of Forensic Medicine in a University of China, Tongji Center for Medicolegal Expertise in Hubei (TCMEH), from 1999 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The majority (69.7%) of fatalities was between the ages of 20 and 49 years, and there was a male preponderance (male:female=1.7:1). The most common classes of substances involved in fatalities were rodenticide (19.7%), insecticide and herbicide (17.9%), carbon monoxide (16.5%), drugs (13.8%) and alcohols (12.4%). Ingestion was the predominant route of exposure (65.1%), followed in frequency by inhalation, injection and dermal. In vast majority (64.7%), the manner of death was accidental; suicidal intent was present in 25.2% of cases, homicide in 3.7%, and undetermined 6.4%. When compared to the former reports from the same institution, one for 1956-1984 and another for 1983-1999, an increase was found in the proportion of deaths due to rodenticides, CO, alcohols and drugs, as well as in accidental poisoning deaths. Poisoning deaths due to pesticides remain the major public health problem in China. Further regulatory enforcement should be carried out by government to restrict and manage the use of pesticides and rodenticides which are most toxic to humans.
    Forensic science international 10/2009; 193(1-3):88-94. · 2.10 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

41 Citations
26.79 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
      • Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (IBMS)
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2012
    • China University of Political Science and Law
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2004–2012
    • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Forensic Medicine
      Wuhan, Hubei, China