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ABSTRACT: Three-dimension technologies offer great promise in providing improvements in the overall circuit performance. Physical design plays a major role in the ability to exploit the flexibilities offered in the third dimension, and this article gives an overview of placement and routing methods for FPGA- and ASIC-style designs. We describe CAD techniques for placement and routing in 3D ICs, developed under our 3D analysis and design optimization framework. These approaches address a dichotomy of design styles, both FPGA and ASIC. The factors that are important in each style are different, so that a one-size-fits-all approach is impractical, and therefore, we present separate approaches for 3D physical design for each of these technologies. Hence, our FPGA placement method uses a two-step optimization process that minimizes inter-tier vias first, followed by further optimization within and across tiers. In contrast, the ASIC flow uses cost function weighting to discourage, but not minimize, inter-tier crossings.
IEEE Design and Test of Computers 12/2005; · 1.62 Impact Factor