Zhen Jiang

West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (27)5.06 Total impact

  • Yunsheng Wang, Jie Wu, Zhen Jiang, Feng Li
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    ABSTRACT: Delay tolerant networks (DTNs) use mobility-assisted routing, where nodes carry, store, and forward data to each other in order to overcome the intermittent connectivity and limited network capacity of this type of network. In this paper, we propose a routing protocol that includes two mechanisms: message replication and message migration. Each mechanism has two steps: message selection and node selection. In message replication, we choose the smallest hop-count message to replicate. The hop-count threshold is used to control the replication speed. We propose a metric called 2-hop activity level to measure the relay node's transmission capacity, which is used in node selection. Our protocol includes a novel message migration policy that is used to overcome the limited buffer space and bandwidth of DTN nodes. We validate our protocol via extensive simulation experiments; we use a combination of synthetic and real mobility traces.
    Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on; 01/2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We introduce a new method for non-computer-science majors to learn computer programming, in order to quickly prepare them for their own major study or research work. Traditional computer science programs ignore the need for such quick training, forcing them to take several semesters and many foundation courses with computer-science (CS) majors. Because those students lack sufficient background knowledge, they cannot achieve the education goal as a CS graduate may have in those courses. On the other hand, the existing entry-level training focuses on the systematic study of fundamental materials for the long-term CS career. It lacks attraction to students who are pursuing immediate support for their specified applications. An effective approach is needed to attract non-CS majors and to keep them working hard on those materials with a significant technical depth. Loops are one of the basic programming structures but we often overlook the challenge in its learning process. By using our practice at West Chester University as an example, we demonstrate the challenges as well as our success for our non-CS majors to quickly learn to develop loops correctly. On one hand, we adopt the disciplined training model with many subtasks that is commonly used in China m order to cover all the required materials. On the other hand, we adopt the model that is commonly used in American classes and use commercial off-the-shelf products, games, work templates, etc. in order to help students form the abstractions, understand the corresponding materials, gain the appropriate skills, and achieve each intermediate task goal. This pattern provides a solution for a complex education problem in a short time scale.
    10/2011;
  • Source
    Zhen Jiang, Zhigang Li, Jie Wu, Nong Xiao
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    ABSTRACT: In greedy routing, each relay node forwards the message to a neighbor (also called the successor) that is closer to the destination. However, the successor candidate set (SCS) is different every time the relative location of the relay node to the destination changes. The configuration in the entire network, when all succeeding paths from a relay node are blocked by local minima, is irregular and its concern region cannot be determined unless the routing actually initiates. In the real deployment environment of the wireless ad hoc networks, the link quality also changes dynamically. This brings a challenge for the local decision of the greedy advance to precisely adjust its SCS for the flip-flop of link quality that blocks the non-detour path ahead. This paper introduces a new information model to a non-detour routing, also called progressive routing, under the impact of dynamic blocks. As a result, each 1-hop advance, by sacrificing little routing flexibility, can avoid those unsafe situations and remains on a non-detour path. In our model, each node prepares the information in a proactive mode, but can use it for all different paths passing through, saving the cost and delay in the reactive mode. We focus on an “everyone” model, in which each node will apply the same generic process in a fully distributed manner, in order to achieve a scalable and reliable solution. In detail, we discuss how in a sample realistic environment the pattern of SCS can be interpreted in a single safety descriptor ∈[0,1] at each node. It indicates the maximum probability of a successful non-detour path from this node to the edge of networks. The larger value the more likely the non-detour routing will be successful and the more stable the path will be. We illustrate the effectiveness of this indirect reference information in the corresponding routing in terms of the success of non-detour path constitution and the ability of self-adjustment for dynamics in the networks, while the cost of information construction and update propagation is minimized. The results are compared with the best results known to date.
    Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing 01/2011; 71:1085-1097. · 1.12 Impact Factor
  • Xiao Chen, Qijun Gu, Zhen Jiang, Jie Wu
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose several novel fast converging mobility control protocols to achieve optimal deployment for streaming data flows in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We also identify a unique sink privacy issue in mobility control protocols and propose a new privacy-preserving scheme which can be integrated into mobility control protocols to protect the sink. The simulation and performance analysis show that the proposed privacy-preserving mobility control protocols, with the sink node well-protected, can reach near-optimal results in terms of convergence speed, energy consumption and the communication cost.
    International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology 01/2011; 6:3-17.
  • Source
    Zhen Jiang, Jie Wu, R. Ito
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new scheme to reduce the end-to-end routing delay in the mission-critical applications of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) under the duty cycle model. While greedy routing in the synchronized MAC model has been studied extensively, efficient routing in an asynchronous MAC model is considerably different because the wake-up time and availability of a node along the pre-decided path are not synchronized and can be changed by many dynamic factors. The challenge is to catch this dynamic change in time and furthermore, to minimize its impact on routing decisions. We propose a normalized evaluation value ∈ at each node under the proactive model for all different paths passing through, saving the cost and delay of the reactive information model. Its measurement interprets the existence of the fastest path to the edge of the networks in a certain direction, directing any local advance greedy in the same direction. We provide a new strategy for greedy routing. First, it waits for the appearance of the expected forwarding successor; if this fails, then it will select the backup by the “first-wake-up, first use” policy to avoid a dead wait. We focus on an “everyone” model, in which each node will apply the same generic process in a fully distributed manner in order to achieve a reliable solution. By applying our approach in the networks with a uniform wake-up schedule, we illustrate the substantial improvement of our approach in both analytical and experimental results compared with the best known results.
    Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), 2010 IEEE 7th International Conference on; 12/2010
  • Source
    Zhen Jiang, Zhigang Li, Nong Xiao, Jie Wu
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    ABSTRACT: In greedy routing, each relay node forwards the message to a neighbor (also called successor) that is closer to the destination. However, the successor candidate set (SCS) is different every time when the relative location of relay node to the destination changes. The configuration in the entire network when all the succeeding paths from a relay node are blocked by local minima is irregular and its concern region cannot be determined unless the routing actually initiates. In this paper, we introduce a new information model to determine the pattern of SCS under the impact of local minima by sacrificing little routing flexibility. As a result, each 1-hop advance can avoid those unsafe situations in order to stay along a non-detour path. In our model, each node prepares the information in a proactive model, but can use it for all different paths passing through, saving the cost and delay in the reactive model. We focus on an ``everyone" model, in which each node will apply the same generic process in a fully distributed manner, in order to achieve a reliable solution in real applications where the communication link is constituted irregularly and its quality changes dynamically. In details, we discuss how in a sample realistic environment the pattern of SCS can be interpreted in a single safety descriptor in at each node. It indicates the maximum probability of a successful non-detour path from this node to the edge of networks. The larger value the more likely the non-detour routing will be successful and the more reliable the path will be. We illustrate the effectiveness of this indirect reference information in the corresponding routing, in terms of the cost of information construction and update propagation, and the success of non-detour path constitution, compared with the best results known to date.
    Fifth International Conference on Networking, Architecture, and Storage, NAS 2010, Macau, China, July 15-17, 2010; 01/2010
  • Source
    Zhen Jiang, Jie Wu, Robert Kline
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    ABSTRACT: Recent work in wireless sensor networks, or simply called WSNs, has drawn attention to the mobility capability of each node. In Stojmenovic and Lin (IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 12: 1023–1032, 2001), it is proved that the optimal positions of the relay nodes along a single active flow must lie entirely on the line between the source and destination with each node spaced evenly along such a line. Based on this, we propose two practical solutions to control the relay nodes in WSNs to approach their optimal positions in the local relative coordinate system. One uses one-hop neighbor information and the other one uses two-hop neighbor information. Basically, each relay node will approach the midpoint on the line composed of neighbors. For the latter control scheme, we also discuss its different implementation with outdated two-hop neighbor information (lagged by one-round neighbor information exchange and update). This is an improvement since given nodes only reuse the two-hop neighbor information previously saved at its one-hop neighbors and does not require any extra neighbor information collection. All the new methods prevent oscillations by demanding minimal moving distance per round (MDPR), otherwise the node does not move. Unlike the one presented in Goldenberg et al. (Proceedings of the 5th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (Mobihoc’04), pp 163–174 2004) using only one-hop neighbor information, our methods will converge more quickly. The experimental results show a substantial improvement on the speed of achieving the optimal configuration and the total moving distance of nodes.
    Wireless Networks 01/2010; 16:141-152. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    Qijun Gu, Xiao Chen, Zhen Jiang, Jie Wu
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    ABSTRACT: As the technology of mobile sensors advances, mobility control becomes a viable option that can be utilized to minimize energy consumption in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A mobility control protocol re-deploys mobile sensors to optimal positions to minimize energy consumption for communication. We identify a unique privacy issue in mobility control protocols that discloses the physical location of the sink node to intruders in WSNs. To protect the sink node, we propose a new privacy preserving scheme to secure mobility control protocols against attacks that locate and sabotage the sink node. The privacy preserving scheme obfuscates the sink location with dummy sink nodes. Analysis shows that the scheme can effectively hide the sink location via anonymity. The scheme can also be easily integrated into current mobility control protocols without raising much additional overhead. The performance simulation and analysis show that, with the sink node well-protected, mobility control protocols achieve similar performance as original protocols.
    Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, 2009. WIMOB 2009. IEEE International Conference on; 11/2009
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    Zhen Jiang, Eduardo B. Fernandez
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    ABSTRACT: In previous work we developed the concept of Semantic Analysis Patterns (SAPs). SAPs are mini-applications realizing a few use cases selected so as to make them as generic as possible. One of the objectives of this approach is to make SAPs convenient for inexperienced modelers to build complex object-oriented concept models. In this paper we show the use of SAPs to build complex analysis patterns from the combination of simpler patterns. We also claim that this approach provides models that are also extensible and reusable. We present here a case study (a flight reservation system) that illustrates how SAPs can be composed to build complex models in a convenient way. In developing our set of patterns we created one pattern and specialized some existing patterns in the context of flight reservations. These patterns provide a common structure that has to be present in any flight reservation system, but they can also be of independent value.
    01/2009;
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    Zhen Jiang, Junchao Ma, Wei Lou, Jie Wu
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    ABSTRACT: Building a ldquostraightforwardrdquo path in wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WASNs) not only avoids wasting energy in detours, but also incurs less interference in other transmissions when fewer nodes are involved in the transmission. This plays an important role in recent WASN applications that require a streaming service to deliver large amount of data. In this paper, we extend our early work on the straightforward path routing in WASNs in the presence of the ldquolocal minimardquo, where the routing is blocked due to the lack of available forwarding successors. We bring some new insights of the safety information model for a forwarding routing that is limited in the request zone. A new routing is proposed to make a more intelligent decision in greedy advance and achieve more straightforward paths. The experimental results show substantial improvements of our approach compared with the best result known to date.
    29th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCS 2009 Workshops), 22-26 June 2009, Montreal, Québec, Canada; 01/2009
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    Zhen Jiang, Jie Wu, R. Kline, J. Krantz
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose a new control method to cover the "holes" in wireless sensor networks. Many applications often face the problem of holes when some sensor nodes are disabled from the collaboration due to their failures and misbehavior. These holes may occur dynamically, and such a problem cannot be solved completely by simply deploying more redundant sensors. With a synchronization around each hole using the directed Hamilton cycle, one (and only one) snake-like cascading replacement process will be initiated in the local area in order to fill in that vacant area with a spare node. In this way, network connectivity and coverage can be guaranteed. Our analytical and experimental results show substantial improvements of such a replacement compared with the best result known to date.
    Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, 2008. ICDCS '08. 28th International Conference on; 07/2008
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    Xiao Chen, Zhen Jiang, Jie Wu
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    ABSTRACT: In the near future, wireless sensor networks (WSN) performing sensing and communication tasks will be widely deployed as technology rapidly advances. Communication is one of the essential functionalities of these networks while power and computation resources in each sensor are limited. Recently, attention has been drawn to using mobility control to minimize energy consumption in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we are going to provide quickly converging mobility control schemes to achieve optimal configuration in a single data flow. The key idea of our schemes is to use the optimal location information of each relay node as a guide for node movement while maintaining the connectivity of relay nodes along the dataflow. Experimental results show that our schemes can speed up the convergence process to nearly the optimal and reduce the cost of it almost to the minimum, compared with the best results known to the date.
    Parallel and Distributed Processing, 2008. IPDPS 2008. IEEE International Symposium on; 05/2008
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    Zhen Jiang, Junchao Ma, Wei Lou, Jie Wu
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    ABSTRACT: In wireless ad-hoc sensor networks, an important issue often faced in geographic greedy forwarding routing is the "local minimum phenomenon" which is caused by deployment holes and blocks the forwarding process. In this paper, we provide a new information model for the geographic greedy forwarding routing that only forwards the packet within the so-called request zone. Under this new information model, the hole and its affected area are identified easily and quickly in an unsafe area with a labeling process. The greedy forwarding will be blocked if and only if a node inside the unsafe area is used. Due to the shape of the request zone, an unsafe area can be estimated as a rectangular region in the local view of unsafe nodes. With such estimate information, the new routing method proposed in this paper will avoid blocking by holes and achieve better performance in routing time while the cost of information construction is greatly reduced compared with the best results known to date.
    INFOCOM 2008. The 27th Conference on Computer Communications. IEEE; 05/2008
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    Zhen Jiang, Jie Wu, Dajin Wang
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we rewrite the minimal-connected-component (MCC) model in 2-D meshes in a fully-distributed manner without using global information so that not only can the existence of a Manhattan-distance-path be ensured at the source, but also such a path can be formed by routing-decisions made at intermediate nodes along the path. We propose the MCC model in 3-D meshes, and extend the corresponding routing in 2-D meshes to 3-D meshes. We consider the positions of source & destination when the new faulty components are constructed. Specifically, all faulty nodes will be contained in some disjoint fault-components, and a healthy node will be included in a faulty component only if using it in the routing will definitely cause a non-minimal routing-path. A distributed process is provided to collect & distribute MCC information to a limited number of nodes along so-called boundaries. Moreover, a sufficient & necessary condition is provided for the existence of a Manhattan-distance-path in the presence of our faulty components. As a result, only the routing having a Manhattan-distance-path will be activated at the source, and its success can be guaranteed by using the information of boundary in routing-decisions at the intermediate nodes. The results of our Monte-Carlo-estimate show substantial improvement of the new fault-information model in the percentage of successful Manhattan-routing conducted in 3-D meshes.
    IEEE Transactions on Reliability 04/2008; · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    Jie Wu, Zhen Jiang
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose a new control method to cover ldquoholesrdquo in wireless sensor networks. Many applications often face the problem of holes when some sensor nodes are disabled from the collaboration due to their failures and misbehavior. These holes may occur dynamically, and such a problem cannot be solved completely by simply deploying more redundant sensors. With synchronization around each hole based on a hierarchical structure, one (and only one) snake-like cascading repair process will be initiated in the local area in order to fill in that vacant space with a spare node. In this way, network connectivity and coverage can be guaranteed. The analytical and experimental results show substantial improvements of our approach compared with the best result known to date.
    Proceedings of the IEEE 19th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC 2008, 15-18 September 2008, Cannes, French Riviera, France; 01/2008
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    Zhen Jiang, Jie Wu, Afrand Agah, Bin Lu
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a new control method that makes some node adjustments in local areas in an effort to cover the "holes" in wireless sensor networks. Many security applications often face the problem of holes when some sensor nodes are disabled from the collaboration due to their failures and misbehavior. Affected by malicious attacks, these holes may occur dynamically and such a problem cannot be solved completely by simply deploying more redundant sensors. We propose a snake-like cascading replacement process in a local area in order to fill in the vacant area with trusted nodes. Only 1-hop neighborhood is used in our approach. Its implementations under both a passive model and an active model are discussed. The simulation results of our new control method show substantial improvements in total moving distance, total number of moves, and process converging speeds, compared with the best result known to date.
    IEEE 4th International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, MASS 2007, 8-11 October 2007, Pisa, Italy; 01/2007
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    Falko Dressler, Yong Guan, Zhen Jiang
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    ABSTRACT: After three years of organizing the wireless and sensor network security (WSNS) workshop, it is time for some retrospection to the workshop objectives and the visible outcome. This review is focusing on the the quality and performance of the workshop. On the one hand, it represents a good source to recapitulate recent research topics related to security in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. Additionally, it extrapolates future research directions that seem to be interesting and challenging for forthcoming research activities.
    IEEE 4th International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, MASS 2007, 8-11 October 2007, Pisa, Italy; 01/2007
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    Zhen Jiang, Jie Wu
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we focus on the minimal path fault-tolerant routing without adding any extra link. First, a depth-first search routing is provided. Unlike the routing by Y. Li and S. Peng (2001), it can handle more faulty components, even when the network is disconnected. And then, it is extended by using our limited global information model. We use limited-safety-level and limited-safety-vector to represent our limited global information in dual-cubes. In a given dual-cube, the limited-safety-level (or the limited-safety-vector) of each node a is its safety level (or safety vector) of the local cluster (an r-cube). Each cluster cube maintains its own safety level and safety vector information just like in a regular cube. Adjacent clusters exchange their safety information through the cross-edge to approximate their global safety information for the routing process. Faulty nodes and faulty links are both considered in this paper. In each local cluster cube, the minimal path routing is guaranteed based on our limited global information. We propose the whole routing process by using segments of minimal routing paths. Compared with the depth-first search routing based on neighbor information, the routing based on limited global information needs fewer extra steps by using several rounds of neighbor information exchanges for each new fault configuration. The simulation results show that the limited global information model can help our routing process to generate a minimal path or a sub-minimal path (a path with only two extra steps).
    IJPEDS. 01/2006; 21:61-77.
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    Zhen Jiang, Jie Wu, Robert Kline
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent work in mobile ad hoc networks, simply MANETs, has drawn attention to the mobility capability of each node. In (5), it is proved that the optimal positions of the relay nodes along a single active flow must lie entirely on the line between the source and destination with each node spaced evenly along such a line. Based on this, we propose two distributed schemes to control the relay nodes in MANETs to approach their optimal positions in the lo- cal relative coordinate system, one using one-hop neigh- borhood and the other using two-hop neighborhood. Unlike the one presented in (5) using only one-hop neighborhood, our methods have no oscillation problem and will converge more quickly. To reduce the overhead in synchronization, outdated neighborhood (lagging by one round of informa- tion exchange and update) is used in our two-hop neigh- borhood based approach. The simulation results shows the substantial improvement on the speed of achieving the opti- mal configuration and the total moving distance of nodes.
    2006 International Workshop on Networking, Architecture and Storages (IWNAS 2006), 1-3 August 2006, Shenyang, China; 01/2006
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    Zhen Jiang, Robert Kline, Jie Wu, Fei Dai
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the wireless sensor networks, an important issue of area coverage is to know how many sensor nodes are needed in a deployment under a certain kind of distribution. In that way, the nodes can be dense enough to form a complete and connected cover of interest area. Another issue that needs to be addressed is the "redundancy of connectivity" caused by the use of the well known sufficient condition that "the communication range is at least twice the sensing range ". In this paper, we show our result in solving these problems, a practical method to form a connected -coverage with a connected dominating set (CDS). By introducing a measure of node density called the biggest vacant square territory (BVST), we prove that the point coverage offered by a CDS implies area coverage of the area of interest. The 1-point-coverage of a CDS with a reduced and a certain number of deploying sensors guarantees -area-coverage, or simply -coverage. Such assurance is verified via a simulation study on the CDS in (7) under random node distribution.
    26th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCS 2006 Workshops), 4-7 July 2006, Lisboa, Portugal; 01/2006