Publications (4)7.66 Total impact
- Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society. 05/2012; 21(3):158-163.
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ABSTRACT: Cranial visceral afferent nerve transfers information about visceral organs to nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) by releasing the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Various endogenous modulators affect autonomic reflex responses by changing glutamatergic responses in the NTS. Although the expression of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors in glutamatergic terminals is known, their functional contribution on glutamate release is poorly characterized. Here, we used mechanically isolated NTS neurons to examine the mechanisms by which presynaptic GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors modulate glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). EPSC were isolated by clamping voltage at equilibrium potential for chloride (-49 mV) without any GABA receptors antagonists. In all neurons, GABA(A) agonist, muscimol (1 and 10 μM), increased EPSC frequency (284.1±57% and 278.4±87% of control, respectively), but the GABA(B) agonist, baclofen (10 μM), decreased EPSC frequency (43±8% of control). The GABA(A) antagonist, gabazine (18 μM), decreased EPSC frequency in 50% of tested neurons, whereas GABA(B) antagonist, CGP (5 μM), increased the EPSC frequency in 36% of tested neurons. External application of GABA (1 and 30 μM) facilitating the EPSC frequency. The facilitation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated release of glutamate was blocked by Na⁺-K⁺-Cl⁻ cotransporter type 1 antagonist or Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ channel inhibitors indicating GABA(A) presynaptic depolarization. Thus, tonically released GABA activates GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors to modulate the release of glutamate. These findings provide cellular mechanisms of heterosynaptic GABA-glutamate integration of peripheral visceral afferent signals in the NTS.Neuroscience 02/2012; 209:39-46. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, the clonal integration of a new human polyomavirus (Merkel cell polyomavirus or MCPyV) has been reported in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). In order to investigate the presence of MCPyV in small cell carcinomas (SCCs) and small round cell tumors (SRCTs), we collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens including 14 MCCs, 24 SCCs, 7 Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNETs) and 5 neuroblastomas. We also collected specimens of other cancers including 12 malignant melanomas, 10 breast, 10 ovarian and 20 gastric cancers. We used 3 primer sets for which the sequences were previously published (LT1, LT3, and VP1) and 3 newly designed primer sets (LT1-1, LT1-1a, and LT3a). Quantitative real-time PCR was also performed with the LTq primer set. Nested PCR using the LT3a primer set detected more cases of MCPyV infection in MCC. In total, 12 of 14 (85.7%) MCC cases were positive for MCPyV by PCR, which was consistent with published data. Some SCC specimens were also positive for MCPyV (37.5%) by PCR. PCR products from MCC and SCC cases showed premature truncation and frameshift mutation. Furthermore, one case of ES/PNET and one gastric carcinoma showed MCPyV DNA. However, MCPyV DNA and transcript were only detected in MCCs with quantitative real-time PCR analysis. In addition, 11 of 13 (84.6%) MCC cases and 6 of 23 (26.1%) SCC cases showed immunoreactivity with monoclonal antibodies against MCPyV large T-antigen. Considering both PCR and IHC results, MCPyV was detected in all MCCs tested. The presence of MCPyV in all MCC cases tested and in some SCC cases suggests that MCPyV may be involved in the malignant transformation.Histology and histopathology 10/2011; 26(10):1231-41. · 2.24 Impact Factor
- Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology 08/2011; 37(8). · 2.10 Impact Factor