Yuval Shaked

Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel

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Publications (83)597.98 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Weekly gemcitabine therapy is the major treatment offered for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma cancer; however, relative resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy, rapid regrowth, and metastasis are the main causes of death within a year. Recently, the daily continuous administration of chemotherapy in low doses - called metronomic chemotherapy (MC) - has been shown to inhibit primary tumor growth and delay metastases in several tumor types; however, its use as a single therapy is still in question due to its moderate therapeutic benefit. Here, we show that the combination of weekly gemcitabine with MC of the same drug delays tumor regrowth and inhibits metastasis in mice implanted orthotopically with pancreatic tumors. We further demonstrate that weekly gemcitabine, but not continuous MC gemcitabine or the combination of the two drug regimens, promotes rebound myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) mobilization and increases angiogenesis in this tumor model. Furthermore, Bv8 is highly expressed in MDSCs colonizing pancreatic tumors in mice treated with weekly gemcitabine compared to MC gemcitabine or the combination of the two regimens. Blocking Bv8 with antibodies in weekly gemcitabine-treated mice results in a significant reduction in tumor regrowth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Overall, our results suggest that pro-tumorigenic effects induced by weekly gemcitabine are mediated in part by MDSCs expressing Bv8. Therefore, both Bv8 inhibition and MC can be used as legitimate 'add-on' treatments for preventing post-chemotherapy pancreatic cancer recurrence, progression, and metastasis following weekly gemcitabine therapy.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 06/2014; · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Tali Voloshin, Ella Fremder, Yuval Shaked
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    ABSTRACT: A wide spectrum of both normal and diseased cell types shed extracellular vesicles that facilitate intercellular communication without direct cell-to-cell contact. Microparticles (MPs) are a subtype of extracellular vesicles that participate in multiple biological processes. They carry abundant bioactive molecules including different forms of nucleic acids and proteins that can markedly modulate cellular behavior. MPs are involved in several hallmarks of cancer such as drug resistance, thrombosis, immune evasion, angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. Such MPs originate from either cancer or other host cells. As MPs are secreted and can be detected in various body fluids, they can be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as well as vehicles for delivery of cytotoxic drugs. This review summarizes accumulating evidence on the biological properties of MPs in cancer, with reference to their potential usage in clinical settings.
    Cancer Microenvironment 04/2014;
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Weekly gemcitabine therapy is the major treatment offered for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma cancer; however, relative resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy, rapid regrowth, and metastasis are the main causes of death within a year. Recently, the daily continuous administration of chemotherapy in low doses – called metronomic chemotherapy (MC) – has been shown to inhibit primary tumor growth and delay metastases in several tumor types; however, its use as a single therapy is still in question due to its moderate therapeutic benefit. Here, we show that the combination of weekly gemcitabine with MC of the same drug delays tumor regrowth and inhibits metastasis in mice implanted orthotopically with pancreatic tumors. We further demonstrate that weekly gemcitabine, but not continuous MC gemcitabine or the combination of the two drug regimens, promotes rebound myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) mobilization and increases angiogenesis in this tumor model. Furthermore, Bv8 is highly expressed in MDSCs colonizing pancreatic tumors in mice treated with weekly gemcitabine compared to MC gemcitabine or the combination of the two regimens. Blocking Bv8 with antibodies in weekly gemcitabine-treated mice results in a significant reduction in tumor regrowth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Overall, our results suggest that pro-tumorigenic effects induced by weekly gemcitabine are mediated in part by MDSCs expressing Bv8. Therefore, both Bv8 inhibition and MC can be used as legitimate 'add-on' treatments for preventing post-chemotherapy pancreatic cancer recurrence, progression, and metastasis following weekly gemcitabine therapy.
    Neoplasia. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Fourth Metronomic and Anti-angiogenic Therapy Meeting was held in Milan 24-25 June 2014. The meeting was a true translational meeting where researchers and clinicians shared their results, experiences, and insights in order to continue gathering useful evidence on metronomic approaches. Several speakers emphasised that exact mechanisms of action, best timing, and optimal dosage are still not well understood and that the field would learn a lot from ancillary studies performed during the clinical trials of metronomic chemotherapies. From the pre-clinical side, new research findings indicate additional possible mechanisms of actions of metronomic schedule on the immune and blood vessel compartments of the tumour micro-environment. New clinical results of metronomic chemotherapy were presented in particular in paediatric cancers [especially neuroblastoma and central nervous system (CNS) tumours], in angiosarcoma (together with beta-blockers), in hepatocellular carcinoma, in prostate cancer, and in breast cancer. The use of repurposed drugs such as metformin, celecoxib, or valproic acid in the metronomic regimen was reported and highlighted the potential of other candidate drugs to be repurposed. The clinical experiences from low- and middle-income countries with affordable regimens gave very encouraging results which will allow more patients to be effectively treated in economies where new drugs are not accessible. Looking at the impact of metronomic approaches that have been shown to be effective, it was admitted that those approaches were rarely used in clinical practice, in part because of the absence of commercial interest for companies. However, performing well-designed clinical trials of metronomic and repurposing approaches demonstrating substantial improvement, especially in populations with the greatest unmet needs, may be an easier solution than addressing the financial issue. Metronomics should always be seen as a chance to come up with new innovative affordable approaches and not as a cheap rescue strategy.
    ecancermedicalscience 01/2014; 8:463.
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor derived microparticles (TMPs) have recently been shown to contribute to tumor re-growth partially by inducing the mobilization and tumor homing of specific bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells (BMDCs). Since antiangiogenic drugs block proangiogenic BMDC mobilization and tumor homing, we asked whether TMPs from cells exposed to an antiangiogenic drug may affect BMDC activity and trafficking. Here we show that the level of VEGF-A is reduced in TMPs from EMT/6 breast carcinoma cells exposed to the anti-VEGF-A antibody, B20. Consequently, these TMPs exhibit reduced angiogenic potential as evaluated by a Matrigel plug and Boyden chamber assays. Consistently, BMDC mobilization, tumor angiogenesis, microvessel density and BMDC-colonization in growing tumors are reduced in mice inoculated with TMPs from B20-exposed cells as compared to mice inoculated with control TMPs. Collectively, our results suggest that the neutralization of VEGF-A in cultured tumor cells can block TMP-induced BMDC mobilization and colonization of tumors and hence provide another mechanism of action by which antiangiogenic drugs act to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e95983. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metronomic, low dose chemotherapy may have anti-angiogenic effects and augment the effects of lenalidomide in MDS and CMML. We evaluated the clinical efficacy, tolerability and anti-angiogenic effects of melphalan 2 mg and lenalidomide 10 mg for 21 days/28 in CMML (n = 12) and higher risk MDS (n = 8) patients in a prospective phase II study. The primary endpoint was overall response and secondary endpoints included survival, progression-free survival toxicity and biomarkers of angiogenesis. The median age was 73 years, 55% were pretreated and transfusion dependent. The overall response rate was 3(15%) of 19 evaluable patients but 25% in CMML and 33% in pCMML. Dose reductions and/or delays occurred were common due to myelosuppression. Transient spikes in circulating endothelial cells that declined below baseline were seen in responders and patients with CMML, suggesting anti-angiogenic activity. Conclusions: Lenalidomide and metronomic low dose melphalan demonstrate signals of clinical and possible anti-angiogenic activity in patients with pCMML that require future validation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrial.gov under # NCT00744536.
    Leukemia research 01/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute chemotherapy can induce rapid bone-marrow derived pro-angiogenic cell (BMDC) mobilization and tumor homing, contributing to tumor regrowth. In order to study the contribution of tumor cells to tumor regrowth following therapy, we focused on tumor-derived microparticles (TMPs). EMT/6 murine-mammary carcinoma cells exposed to paclitaxel chemotherapy exhibited an increased number of TMPs and significantly altered their angiogenic properties. Similarly, breast cancer patients had increased levels of plasma MUC-1+TMPs following chemotherapy. In addition, TMPs from cells exposed to paclitaxel induced higher BMDC mobilization and colonization but had no increased effect on angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs and tumors than TMPs from untreated cells. Since TMPs abundantly express osteopontin, a protein known to participate in BMDC trafficking, the impact of osteopontin-depleted TMPs on BMDC mobilization, colonization, and tumor angiogenesis was examined. While EMT/6 tumors grown in mice inoculated with osteopontin-depleted TMPs had lower numbers of BMDC infiltration and microvessel density compared with EMT/6 tumors grown in mice inoculated with wild-type TMPs, no significant difference in tumor growth was seen between the two groups. However, when BMDCs from paclitaxel-treated mice were injected into wild-type EMT/6-bearing mice, a substantial increase in tumor growth and BMDC infiltration was detected compared to osteopontin-depleted EMT/6-bearing mice injected with BMDCs from paclitaxel-treated mice. Collectively, our results suggest that osteopontin expressed by TMPs play an important role in BMDC mobilization and colonization of tumors, but is not sufficient to enhance the angiogenic activity of BMDCs in tumors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the host response to certain chemotherapies can induce primary tumor regrowth, angiogenesis, and even metastases in mice, but the possible impact of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) therapy in this context has not been fully explored. We therefore used combinations of anti-VEGF-A with chemotherapy on various tumor models in mice including primary tumors, experimental lung metastases, and spontaneous lung metastases of 4T1-breast and CT26-colon murine cancer cell lines. Our results show that a combined treatment with anti-VEGF-A and folinic acid/5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) but not with anti-VEGF-A and gemcitabine/cisplatinum (Gem/CDDP) enhances the treatment outcome partly due to reduced angiogenesis, in both primary tumors and in experimental lung metastases models. However, neither treatment group exhibited an improved treatment outcome in the spontaneous lung metastases model nor were changes in endothelial cell numbers found at metastatic sites. Since chemotherapy has recently been shown to induce tumor cell invasion, we tested the invasion properties of tumor cells when exposed to plasma from FOLFOX-treated mice or cancer patients. While plasma from FOLFOX-treated mice or patients induced invasion properties of tumor cells, the combination of anti-VEGF-A and FOLFOX abrogated these effects, despite the reduced plasma VEGF-A levels detected in FOLFOX-treated mice. These results suggest that the therapeutic impact of antiangiogenic drugs varies in different tumor models, and that anti-VEGF-A therapy can block the invasion properties of tumor cells in response to chemotherapy. These results may implicate an additional therapeutic role for anti-VEGF-A when combined with chemotherapy.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 10/2013; · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a secreted enzyme that catalyzes the cross-linking of collagen, plays an essential role in developmental angiogenesis. We found that administration of the LOXL2 neutralizing antibody AB0023 inhibited bFGF-induced angiogenesis in Matrigel plug assays and suppressed recruitment of angiogenesis promoting bone marrow cells. ShRNA-mediated inhibition of LOXL2 expression or inhibition of LOXL2 using AB0023 reduced the migration and network forming ability of endothelial cells suggesting that the inhibition of angiogenesis results from a direct effect on endothelial cells. To examine the effects of AB0023 on tumour angiogenesis, AB0023 was administered to mice bearing tumours derived from SKOV-3 ovarian carcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. AB0023 treatment significantly reduced the microvascular density in these tumours, but did not inhibit tumour growth. However, treatment of mice bearing SKOV-3-derived tumours with AB0023 also promoted increased coverage of tumour vessels with pericytes and reduced tumour hypoxia, providing evidence that anti-LOXL2 therapy results in the normalization of tumour blood vessels. In agreement with these data, treatment of mice bearing LLC-derived tumours with AB0023 improved the perfusion of the tumour-associated vessels as determined by ultra-sonography. Improved perfusion and normalization of tumour vessels after treatment with anti-angiogenic agents was previously found to improve the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into tumours, and to result in an enhancement of chemotherapeutic efficiency. Indeed, treatment with AB0023 significantly enhanced the anti-tumourigenic effects of taxol. Our results suggest that inhibition of LOXL2 may prove beneficial for the treatment of angiogenic tumours.
    Carcinogenesis 07/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to its direct effects on tumor cells, chemotherapy can rapidly activate various host processes that contribute to therapy resistance and tumor regrowth. The host response to chemotherapy consists of changes in numerous cell types and cytokines. Examples include the acute mobilization and tumor homing of pro-angiogenic bone marrow-derived cells, activation of cells in the tumor microenvironment to produce systemic or paracrine factors, and tissue-specific responses that provide a protective niche for tumor cells. All of these factors reduce chemotherapy efficacy, and blocking the host response at various levels may therefore significantly improve treatment outcome. However, before the combination of conventional chemotherapy with agents blocking specific aspects of the host response can be implemented into clinical practice, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the host response is required.Oncogene advance online publication, 25 March 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.94.
    Oncogene 03/2013; · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • Tali Voloshin, Emile E Voest, Yuval Shaked
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    ABSTRACT: Almost any type of anti-cancer treatment including chemotherapy, radiation, surgery and targeted drugs can induce host molecular and cellular immunological effects which, in turn, can lead to tumor outgrowth and relapse despite an initial successful therapy outcome. Tumor relapse due to host immunological effects is attributed to angiogenesis, tumor cell dissemination from the primary tumors and seeding at metastatic sites. This short review will describe the types of host cells that participate in this process, the types of factors secreted from the host following therapy that can promote tumor re-growth, and the possible implications of this unique and yet only partially-known process. It is postulated that blocking these specific immunological effects in the reactive host in response to cancer therapy may aid in identifying new host-dependent targets for cancer, which in combination with conventional treatments can prolong therapy efficacy and extend survival. Additional studies investigating this specific research direction - both in preclinical models and in the clinical setting - are essential in order to advance our understanding of how tumors relapse and evade therapy.
    Experimental Cell Research 03/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paclitaxel (PTX) and alendronate (ALN) are effective drugs used for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases. Growing evidence suggests that low-dose taxanes and bisphosphonates possess anti-angiogenic properties. However, PTX is water-insoluble and toxic, even if administered at anti-angiogenic dosing schedule. Polymer conjugation of PTX will increase water-solubility and improve its pharmacokinetic profile directing it to the tumor site. We further propose to combine it with ALN for active bone targeting. We conjugated ALN and PTX with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) forming self-assembled micelles where PTX molecules are located at the inner core and the water-soluble ALN molecules at the outer shell. PTX-PEG-ALN micelles exhibited similar in vitro cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic activity as the free drugs. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated preferential tumor accumulation of FITC-labeled PTX-PEG-ALN micelles. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed longer t(1/2) of the conjugate than free PTX. PTX-PEG-ALN micelles achieved improved efficacy and safety profiles over free PTX in syngeneic and xenogeneic mouse models of mCherry-infected mammary adenocarcinoma in the tibia, as monitored intravitally non-invasively by a fluorescence imaging system. The described data warrants the potential use of PTX-PEG-ALN as bone-targeted anticancer and anti-angiogenic therapy for breast cancer bone metastases.
    Biomaterials 02/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    F Bertolini, Y Shaked, P Mancuso
    British Journal of Cancer 02/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Liat Benayoun, Yuval Shaked
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    ABSTRACT: This unit describes protocols for culturing and subsequently enriching cancer stem cells (CSCs), also referred to as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), from human established cell lines. TICs are thought to display the major cell population in the tumor with the proliferative capacity to seed tumors, implying that they( )are critical in initiating and driving tumorigenesis. The protocols show the methods for enriching and subsequently characterizing TIC populations from a series of human tumors including glioblastoma, breast, and pancreatic tumors. Protocols evaluating the morphology, phenotypic, and functional properties of TICs are described. Long-term cultures grown either as monolayers ("TIC-low") or as non-adherent tumor spheres ("TIC-high") are generated. As a result, cells from the TIC-high culture exhibit increased expression of stem cell surface markers, such as CD133, CD44, and CD24, high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and elevated expression levels of p21, in comparison to cells from the TIC-low culture. Studying TICs by using such protocols is cost effective and is considered as a suitable and simple way for studying them. Curr. Protoc. Stem Cell Biol. 24:3.7.1-3.7.15. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Current protocols in stem cell biology 02/2013; Chapter 3:Unit3.7.
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor relapse and tumor cell repopulation has been explained partially by the drug-free break period between successive conventional treatments. Strategies to overcome tumor relapse have been proposed, such as the use of chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation in small, frequent fractionated doses without an extended break period between treatment intervals. Yet, tumors usually acquire resistance and eventually escape the therapy. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the resistance of tumors to therapy, one of which involves the cancer stem cell or tumor-initiating cell (TIC) concept. TICs are believed to resist many conventional therapies, in part due to their slow proliferation and self-renewal capacities. Therefore, emerging efforts to eradicate TICs are being undertaken. Here we show that treatment with Photofrin II, among the most frequently used photosensitizers, sensitized a TIC-enriched U-87MG human glioblastoma cell to radiation, and improve treatment outcome when used in combination with radiotherapy. A U-87MG tumor cell population enriched with radiation-resistant TICs becomes radio-sensitive, and an inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis are found in the presence of Photofrin II. Furthermore, U-87MG tumors implanted in mice treated with Photofrin II and radiation exhibit a significant reduction in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, and an increased percentage of apoptotic TICs when compared with tumors grown in mice treated with radiation alone. Collectively, our results offer a new possible explanation for the therapeutic effects of radiosensitizing agents, and suggest that combinatorial treatment modalities can effectively prolong treatment outcome of glioblastoma tumors by inhibiting tumor growth mediated by TICs.
    Cancer biology & therapy 10/2012; 14(1). · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low-dose metronomic (LDM) chemotherapy represents an emerging concept in the treatment of cancer. Directed against tumor cells and other types of cells, such as endothelial and immune cells, this treatment regimen alters the tumor microenvironment and suppresses innate features which support tumor growth. Ongoing Phase III clinical studies explore various applications of LDM chemotherapy, mostly combined with other anticancer agents, to act as complementary treatments to conventional maximum tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy. In this article we summarize preclinical and clinical experience with LDM chemotherapy, emphasizing the potential contribution of this new treatment modality to future paradigms in the systemic treatment of patients with cancer.
    Drug discovery today 08/2012; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a subtype of tumor cells believed to be critical for initiating tumorigenesis. We sought to determine the angiogenic properties of TICs in different tumor types including U-87MG (glioblastoma), HT29 (colon), MCF7 (breast), A549 (non-small-cell lung), and PANC1 (pancreatic) cancers. Long-term cultures grown either as monolayers ("TIC-low") or as nonadherent tumor spheres ("TIC-high") were generated. The TIC-high fractions exhibited increased expression of stem cell surface markers, high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, high expression of p21, and resistance to standard chemotherapy in comparison to TIC-low fractions. Furthermore, TICs from U-87MG and HT29 but not from MCF7, A549, and PANC1 tumor types possess increased angiogenic activity. Consequently, the efficacy of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) neutralizing antibody is limited only to those tumors that are dependent on VEGF-A activity. In addition, such therapy had little or reversed antiangiogenic effects on tumors that do not necessarily rely on VEGF-dependent angiogenesis. Differential angiogenic activity and antiangiogenic therapy sensitivity were also observed in TICs of the same tumor type, suggesting redundant angiogenic pathways. Collectively, our results suggest that the efficacy of antiangiogenic drugs is dependent on the angiogenic properties of TICs and, therefore, can serve as a possible biomarker to predict antiangiogenic treatment efficacy.
    Stem Cells 07/2012; 30(9):1831-41. · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Results obtained from preclinical studies have shown that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a crucial role in tumor growth and metastasis. In the clinic, EPCs are present in the peripheral blood of cancer patients in higher numbers than in healthy subjects. These cells are mobilized from the bone marrow compartment to the periphery in response to certain cytokines and growth factors. Growing body of evidence suggests that following acute cytotoxic drug therapy levels of circulating EPCs (CEPs) can change significantly in both mouse and human. These changes may predict the efficacy of some anticancer drug treatments. Therefore, the validation and standardization of a procedure to detect CEPs and monitor their kinetic is an important step towards the use of such cells as a possible biomarker to predict clinical outcome. In this chapter, we describe a flow cytometry technique to detect CEPs obtained from human blood specimens stored in both fresh and frozen conditions.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 904:165-72. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CCL2 CCR2 axis is likely to contributes to the development and progression of cancer diseases by two major mechanisms; autocrine effect of CCL2 as a survival/growth factor for CCR2+ cancer cells and, the attraction of CCR2+ CX₃CR1+tumor associated macrophages that in the absence of CCR2 hardly migrate. Thus far no in vivo system has been set up to differentiate the selective contribution of each of these features to cancer development. Here we employed a chimera animal model in which all non-malignant cells are CCR2-/-, but all cancer cells are CCR2+, combined with an adoptive transfer system of bone marrow (BM) CX₃CR1+ cells from CCR2+ mice harboring a targeted replacement of the CX₃CR1gene by an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene (cx₃cr1(gfp)), together with the CD45.1 congene. Using this system we dissected the selective contribution of CX₃CR1+CCR2+ cells, which comprise only about 7% of CD11b+ BM cells, to tumor development and angiogenesis. Showing that aside for their direct pro-angiogenic effect they are essential for the recruitment of other CD11b+ cells to the tumor site. We further show that the administration of CCR2-Ig, that selectively and specifically neutralize CCL2, to mice in which CCR2 is expressed only on tumor cells, further suppressed tumor development, implicating for the key role of this chemokine supporting tumor survival in an autocrine manner. This further emphasizes the important role of CCL2 as a target for therapy of cancer diseases.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e28305. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metronomic chemotherapy refers to the close, regular administration of conventional chemotherapy drugs at relatively low, minimally toxic doses, with no prolonged break periods; it is now showing encouraging results in various phase II clinical trials and is currently undergoing phase III trial evaluation. It is thought to cause antitumor effects primarily by antiangiogenic mechanisms, both locally by targeting endothelial cells of the tumor neovasculature and systemically by effects on bone marrow-derived cells, including circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP). Previous studies have shown reduction of CEPs by metronomic administration of a number of different chemotherapeutic drugs, including vinblastine, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel, topotecan, and tegafur plus uracil (UFT). However in addition to, or even instead of, antiangiogenic effects, metronomic chemotherapy may cause suppression of tumor growth by other mechanisms such as stimulating cytotoxic T-cell responses or by direct antitumor effects. Here we report results evaluating the properties of metronomic administration of an oral prodrug of gemcitabine LY2334737 in nontumor-bearing mice and in preclinical models of human ovarian (SKOV3-13) and breast cancer (LM2-4) xenografts. Through daily gavage (at 6 mg/kg/d), the schedules tested were devoid of toxicity and caused antitumor effects; however, a suppressive effect on CEPs was not detected. Unexpectedly, metronomic LY2334737 administration caused increased blood flow in luciferase-tagged LM2-4 tumor xenografts, and this effect, readily measured using contrast micro-ultrasound, coincided with a relative increase in tumor bioluminescence. These results highlight the possibility of significant antitumor effects mediated by metronomic administration of some chemotherapy drugs without a concomitant inhibition of systemic angiogenesis.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 12/2011; 11(3):680-9. · 5.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
597.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
      H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel
  • 2011–2013
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
      Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 2003–2012
    • IEO - Istituto Europeo di Oncologia
      • Division of Haemato-Oncology
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2004–2011
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Medical Biophysics
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2005–2008
    • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      • Division of Molecular and Cell Biology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada