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Publications (4)18.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) are two cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases known to cooperate to promote tumor progression and drug resistance. Combined blockade of EGFR and IGF-1R has shown improved anti-tumor activity in preclinical models. Here, we report the characterization of a stable IgG-like bispecific antibody (BsAb) dual-targeting EGFR and IGF-1R that was developed for cancer therapy. The BsAb molecule (EI-04), constructed with a stability-engineered single chain variable fragment (scFv) against IGF-1R attached to the carboxyl-terminus of an IgG against EGFR, displays favorable biophysical properties for biopharmaceutical development. Biochemically, EI-04 bound to human EGFR and IGF-1R with sub nanomolar affinity, co-engaged the two receptors simultaneously, and blocked the binding of their respective ligands with similar potency compared to the parental monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In tumor cells, EI-04 effectively inhibited EGFR and IGF-1R phosphorylation, and concurrently blocked downstream AKT and ERK activation, resulting in greater inhibition of tumor cell growth and cell cycle progression than the single mAbs. EI-04, likely due to its tetravalent bispecific format, exhibited high avidity binding to BxPC3 tumor cells co-expressing EGFR and IGF-1R, and consequently improved potency at inhibiting IGF-driven cell growth over the mAb combination. Importantly, EI-04 demonstrated enhanced in vivo anti-tumor efficacy over the parental mAbs in two xenograft models, and even over the mAb combination in the BxPC3 model. Our data support the clinical investigation of EI-04 as a superior cancer therapeutic in treating EGFR and IGF-1R pathway responsive tumors.
    mAbs 05/2011; 3(3):273-88. · 5.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibody (mAb) fragmentation can be a widespread problem across the biotechnology industry and there is a current need to better understand the underlying principles. Here, we report an example of a high-purity human IgG1 mAb prepared from CHO cells exhibiting fragmentation that can be attributed to residual proteolytic enzyme activity. The concomitant occurrence of proteolytic and non-proteolytic peptide bond cleavage is shown and the respective fragmentation patterns characterized using high-resolution LC-MS. Fragmentation rates are monitored by SE-HPLC and SDS-PAGE over the pH range 4-6 and characterized in the presence and absence of pepstatin A, an inhibitor of acidic proteases. After 20 days at 40°C, pH 4, ∼60% decrease in BIIB-mAb monomer peak occurred attributed to residual proteolytic activity. At pH 5, this value was ∼13%. These results have implications for formulation design studies and the interpretation of accelerated stability data. A simple method to screen for acidic protease activity using the proteolytic enzyme inhibitor pepstatin A is described.
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 04/2011; 108(4):977-82. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) target multiple epitopes on the same molecular target or different targets. Although interest in BsAbs has persisted for decades, production of stable and active BsAbs has hindered their clinical evaluation. Here, we describe the production and characterization of tetravalent IgG-like BsAbs that combine the activities of allosteric and competitive inhibitors of the type-I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). The BsAbs, which were engineered for thermal stability, express well, demonstrate favorable biophysical properties, and recognize both epitopes on IGF-1R. Only one BsAb with a unique geometry, denoted BIIB4-5scFv, was capable of engaging all four of its binding arms simultaneously. All the BsAbs (especially BIIB4-5scFv) demonstrated enhanced ligand blocking over the single monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), particularly at high ligand concentrations. The pharmacokinetic profiles of two IgG-like BsAbs were tested in nude mice and shown to be comparable with that of the parental mAbs. The BsAbs, especially BIIB4-5scFv, demonstrated an improved ability to reduce the growth of multiple tumor cell lines and to inhibit ligand-induced IGF-1R signaling in tumor cells over the parental mAbs. BIIB4-5scFv also led to superior tumor growth inhibition over its parental mAbs in vivo. In summary, BsAbs that bridge multiple inhibitory mechanisms against a single target may generally represent a more effective strategy for intervention in oncology or other indications compared with traditional mAb therapy.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(6):4703-4717. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) target multiple epitopes on the same molecular target or different targets. Although interest in BsAbs has persisted for decades, production of stable and active BsAbs has hindered their clinical evaluation. Here, we describe the production and characterization of tetravalent IgG-like BsAbs that combine the activities of allosteric and competitive inhibitors of the type-I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). The BsAbs, which were engineered for thermal stability, express well, demonstrate favorable biophysical properties, and recognize both epitopes on IGF-1R. Only one BsAb with a unique geometry, denoted BIIB4-5scFv, was capable of engaging all four of its binding arms simultaneously. All the BsAbs (especially BIIB4-5scFv) demonstrated enhanced ligand blocking over the single monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), particularly at high ligand concentrations. The pharmacokinetic profiles of two IgG-like BsAbs were tested in nude mice and shown to be comparable with that of the parental mAbs. The BsAbs, especially BIIB4-5scFv, demonstrated an improved ability to reduce the growth of multiple tumor cell lines and to inhibit ligand-induced IGF-1R signaling in tumor cells over the parental mAbs. BIIB4-5scFv also led to superior tumor growth inhibition over its parental mAbs in vivo. In summary, BsAbs that bridge multiple inhibitory mechanisms against a single target may generally represent a more effective strategy for intervention in oncology or other indications compared with traditional mAb therapy.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(6):4703-17. · 4.65 Impact Factor