Yu Lu

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (22)65.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We use a set of observational data for galaxy cold gas mass fraction and gas phase metallicity to constrain the content, inflow and outflow of gas in central galaxies hosted by halos with masses between $10^{11} M_{\odot}$ to $10^{12} M_{\odot}$. The gas contents in high redshift galaxies are obtained by combining the empirical star formation histories of Lu et al. (2014) and star formation models that relate star formation rate with the cold gas mass in galaxies. We find that the total baryon mass in low-mass galaxies is always much less than the universal baryon mass fraction since $z = 2$, regardless of star formation model adopted. The data for the evolution of the gas phase metallicity require net metal outflow at $z\lesssim 2$, and the metal loading factor is constrained to be about $0.01$, or about $60\%$ of the metal yield. Based on the assumption that galactic outflow is more enriched in metal than both the interstellar medium and the material ejected at earlier epochs, we are able to put stringent constraints on the upper limits for both the net accretion rate and the net mass outflow rate. The upper limits strongly suggest that the evolution of the gas phase metallicity and gas mass fraction for low-mass galaxies at $z < 2$ is not compatible with strong outflow. We speculate that the low star formation efficiency of low-mass galaxies is owing to some preventative processes that prevent gas from accreting into galaxies in the first place.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We measure new estimates for the galaxy stellar mass function and star formation rates for samples of galaxies at $z \sim 4,~5,~6~\&~7$ using data in the CANDELS GOODS South field. The deep near-infrared observations allow us to construct the stellar mass function at $z \geq 6$ directly for the first time. We estimate stellar masses for our sample by fitting the observed spectral energy distributions with synthetic stellar populations, including nebular line and continuum emission. The observed UV luminosity functions for the samples are consistent with previous observations, however we find that the observed $M_{UV}$ - M$_{*}$ relation has a shallow slope more consistent with a constant mass to light ratio and a normalisation which evolves with redshift. Our stellar mass functions have steep low-mass slopes ($\alpha \approx -1.9$), steeper than previously observed at these redshifts and closer to that of the UV luminosity function. Integrating our new mass functions, we find the observed stellar mass density evolves from $\log_{10} \rho_{*} = 6.64^{+0.58}_{-0.89}$ at $z \sim 7$ to $7.36\pm0.06$ $\text{M}_{\odot} \text{Mpc}^{-3}$ at $z \sim 4$. Finally, combining the measured UV continuum slopes ($\beta$) with their rest-frame UV luminosities, we calculate dust corrected star-formation rates (SFR) for our sample. We find the specific star-formation rate for a fixed stellar mass increases with redshift whilst the global SFR density falls rapidly over this period. Our new SFR density estimates are higher than previously observed at this redshift.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new technique for overcoming confusion noise in deep far-infrared \Herschel space telescope images making use of prior information from shorter $\lambda<2$\micron wavelengths. For the deepest images obtained by \Herschels, the flux limit due to source confusion is about a factor of three brighter than the flux limit due to instrumental noise and (smooth) sky background. We have investigated the possibility of de-confusing simulated \Herschel PACS-160\micron images by using strong Bayesian priors on the positions and weak priors on the flux of sources. We find the blended sources and group them together and simultaneously fit their fluxes. We derive the posterior probability distribution function of fluxes subject to these priors through Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) sampling by fitting the image. Assuming we can predict FIR flux of sources based on ultraviolet-optical part of their SEDs to within an order of magnitude, the simulations show that we can obtain reliable fluxes and uncertainties at least a factor of three fainter than the confusion noise limit of $3\sigma_{c} $=2.7 mJy in our simulated PACS-160 image. This technique could in principle be used to mitigate the effects of source confusion in any situation where one has prior information of positions and plausible fluxes of blended sources. For \Herschel, application of this technique will improve our ability to constrain the dust content in normal galaxies at high redshift.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Distant star-forming galaxies show a correlation between their star-formation rates (SFR) and stellar masses, and this has deep implications for galaxy formation. Here, we present a study on the evolution of the slope and scatter of the SFR$-$stellar mass relation for galaxies at $3.5\leq z\leq 6.5$ using multi-wavelength photometry in GOODS-S from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. We describe an updated, Bayesian spectral-energy distribution fitting method that incorporates effects of nebular line emission, star-formation histories that are constant or rising with time, and different dust attenuation prescriptions (starburst and Small Magellanic Cloud). From $z$=6.5 to $z$=3.5 star-forming galaxies in CANDELS follow a nearly unevolving correlation between stellar mass and SFR that follows SFR $\sim$ $M_\star^\alpha$ with $\alpha = 0.54 \pm 0.16$ at $z\sim 6$ and $0.70 \pm 0.21$ at $z\sim 4$. This evolution requires a star-formation history that increases with decreasing redshift (on average, the SFRs of individual galaxies rise with time). The measured scatter in the SFR$-$stellar mass relation is tight, $\sigma(\log \mathrm{SFR}/\mathrm{M}_\odot$ yr$^{-1})< 0.3 -$0.4 dex, for galaxies with $\log M_\star/\mathrm{M}_\odot > 9$ dex. Assuming that the SFR is tied to the net gas inflow rate (SFR $\sim$ $\dot{M}_\mathrm{gas}$), then the scatter in the gas inflow rate is also smaller than 0.3$-$0.4 dex for star-forming galaxies in these stellar mass and redshift ranges, at least when averaged over the timescale of star-formation. We further show that the implied star-formation history of objects selected on the basis of their co-moving number densities is consistent with the evolution in the SFR$-$stellar mass relation.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We study the statistical distribution of satellites around star-forming and quiescent central galaxies at 1<z<3 using imaging from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE) and the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The deep near-IR data select satellites down to $\log(M/M_\odot)>9$ at z<3. The radial satellite distribution around centrals is consistent with a projected NFW profile. Massive quiescent centrals, $\log(M/M_\odot)>10.78$, have $\sim$2 times the number of satellites compared to star-forming centrals with a significance of 2.7$\sigma$ even after accounting for differences in the centrals' stellar-mass distributions. We find no statistical difference in the satellite distributions of intermediate-mass quiescent and star-forming centrals, $10.48<\log(M/M_\odot)<10.78$. Comparing to the Guo2011 semi-analytic model, the excess number of satellites indicates that quiescent centrals have halo masses 0.3 dex larger than star-forming centrals, even when the stellar-mass distributions are fixed. We use a simple toy model that relates halo mass and quenching, which roughly reproduces the observed quenched fractions and the differences in halo mass between star-forming and quenched galaxies only if galaxies have a quenching probability that increases with halo mass from $\sim$0 for $\log(M_h/M_\odot)\sim$11 to $\sim$1 for $\log(M_h/M_\odot)\sim$13.5. A single halo-mass quenching threshold is unable to reproduce the quiescent fraction and satellite distribution of centrals. Therefore, while halo quenching may be an important mechanism, it is unlikely to be the only factor driving quenching. It remains unclear why a high fraction of centrals remain star-forming even in relatively massive halos.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The empirical model of Lu et al. 2014 is updated with recent data and used to study galaxy star formation and assembly histories. At $z > 2$, the predicted galaxy stellar mass functions are steep, and a significant amount of star formation is hosted by low-mass haloes that may be missed in current observations. Most of the stars in cluster centrals formed earlier than $z\approx 2$ but have been assembled much later. Milky Way mass galaxies have had on-going star formation without significant mergers since $z\approx 2$, and are thus free of significant (classic) bulges produced by major mergers. In massive clusters, stars bound in galaxies and scattered in the halo form a homogeneous population that is old and with solar metallicity. In contrast, in Milky Way mass systems the two components form two distinct populations, with halo stars being older and poorer in metals by a factor of $\approx 3$. Dwarf galaxies in haloes with $M_{\rm h} < 10^{11}h^{-1}M_{\odot}$ have experienced a star formation burst accompanied by major mergers at $z > 2$, followed by a nearly constant star formation rate after $z = 1$. The early burst leaves a significant old stellar population that is distributed in spheroids.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We derive physical properties of 10 submillimeter galaxies located in the CANDELS coverage of the GOODS-S field. The galaxies were first identified as submillimeter sources with the LABOCA bolometer and subsequently targeted for 870um continuum observation with ALMA. The high angular resolution of the ALMA imaging allows secure counterparts to be identified in the CANDELS multiband dataset. The CANDELS data provide deep photometric data from UV through near-infrared wavelengths. Using synthetic spectral energy distributions, we derive photometric redshifts, stellar masses, extinction, ages, and the star formation history. The redshift range is z=1.65-4.76, with two of the galaxies located at z>4. Two SMG counterparts have stellar masses 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the rest. The remaining SMG counterparts have stellar masses around 1x10^11 Msun. The stellar population in the SMGs is typically older than the expected duration of the submillimeter phase, suggesting that the star formation history of submillimeter galaxies is more complex than a single burst. Non-parametric morphology indices suggest that the SMG counterparts are among the most asymmetric systems compared with galaxies of the same stellar mass and redshift. The HST images shows that 3 of the SMGs are associated with on-going mergers. The remaining counterparts are isolated. Estimating the dust and molecular gas mass from the submm fluxes, and comparing with our stellar masses shows that the molecular gas mass fraction of SMGs is ~28% and that the final stellar mass is likely to be (1-2)x10^11 Msun.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We introduce a semi-analytic galaxy formation model implementing a self-consistent treatment for the hot halo gas configuration and the assembly of central disks. Using the model, we explore a preventative feedback model, in which the circum-halo medium is assumed to be preheated up to a certain entropy level by early starbursts or other processes, and compare it with an ejective feedback model, in which baryons are first accreted into dark matter halos and subsequently ejected out by feedback. The model demonstrates that when the medium is preheated to an entropy comparable to the halo virial entropy the baryon accretion can be largely reduced and delayed. In addition, the preheated medium can establish an extended low density gaseous halo when it accretes into the dark matter halos, and result in a specific angular momentum of the cooling gas large enough to form central disks as extended as those observed. Combined with simulated halo assembly histories, the preventative feedback model can reproduce remarkably well a number of observational scaling relations. These include the cold baryon (stellar plus cold gas) mass fraction-halo mass relations, star formation histories, disk size-stellar mass relation and its evolution, and the number density of low-mass galaxies as a function of redshift. In contrast, the conventional ejective feedback model fails to reproduce these observational trends. Using the model, we demonstrate that the properties of disk galaxies are closely tied to the thermal state of hot halo gas and even possibly the circum-halo medium, which suggests that observational data for the disk properties and circum-galactic hot/warm medium may jointly provide interesting constraints for galaxy formation models.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We compare the predictions of three independently developed semi-analytic galaxy formation models that are being used to aid in the interpretation of results from the CANDELS survey. These models are each applied to the same set of halo merger trees extracted from the "Bolshoi" simulation and are carefully tuned to match the local galaxy stellar mass function using the powerful method of Bayesian Inference coupled with MCMC or by hand. The comparisons reveal that in spite of the significantly different parameterizations for star formation and feedback processes, the three models yield qualitatively similar predictions for the assembly histories of galaxy stellar mass and star formation over cosmic time. We show that the SAMs generally require strong outflows to suppress star formation in low-mass halos to match the present day stellar mass function. However, all of the models considered produce predictions for the star formation rates and metallicities of low-mass galaxies that are inconsistent with existing data and diverge between the models. We suggest that large differences in the metallicity relations and small differences in the stellar mass assembly histories of model galaxies stem from different assumptions for the outflow mass-loading factor. Importantly, while more accurate observational measurements for stellar mass, SFR and metallicity of galaxies at 1<z<5 will discriminate between models, the discrepancies between the models and existing data of these observables have already revealed challenging problems in understanding star formation and its feedback in galaxy formation. The three sets of models are being used to construct catalogs of mock galaxies on light cones that have the same geometry as the CANDELS survey, which should be particularly useful for quantifying the biases and uncertainties on measurements and inferences from the real observations. -ABRIDGED
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We infer mechanisms of galaxy formation for a broad family of semi-analytic models (SAMs) constrained by the K-band luminosity function and HI mass function of local galaxies using tools of Bayesian analysis. Even with a broad search in parameter space the whole model family fails to match to constraining data. In the best fitting models, the star formation and feedback parameters in low-mass haloes are tightly constrained by the two data sets, and the analysis reveals several generic failures of models that similarly apply to other existing SAMs. First, based on the assumption that baryon accretion follows the dark matter accretion, large mass-loading factors are required for haloes with circular velocities lower than 200 km/s, and most of the wind mass must be expelled from the haloes. Second, assuming that the feedback is powered by Type-II supernovae with a Chabrier IMF, the outflow requires more than 25% of the available SN kinetic energy. Finally, the posterior predictive distributions for the star formation history are dramatically inconsistent with observations for masses similar to or smaller than the Milky-Way mass. The inferences suggest that the current model family is still missing some key physical processes that regulate the gas accretion and star formation in galaxies with masses below that of the Milky Way.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We find that infalling dark matter halos (i.e., the progenitors of satellite halos) begin losing mass well outside the virial radius of their eventual host halos. The peak mass occurs at a range of clustercentric distances, with median and 68th percentile range of 1.8 +2.3/-1.0 R_(vir,host) for progenitors of z=0 satellites. The peak circular velocity for infalling halos occurs at significantly larger distances (3.7 +3.3/-2.2 R_(vir,host) at z=0). This difference arises because different physical processes set peak circular velocity (typically, ~1:5 and larger mergers which cause transient circular velocity spikes) and peak mass (typically, smooth accretion) for infalling halos. We find that infalling halos also stop having significant mergers well before they enter the virial radius of their eventual hosts. Mergers larger than a 1:40 ratio in halo mass end for infalling halos at similar clustercentric distances (~ 1.9 R_(vir,host)) as the end of overall mass accretion. However, mergers larger than 1:3 typically end for infalling halos at more than 4 virial radial away from their eventual hosts. This limits the ability of mergers to affect quenching and morphology changes in clusters. We also note that the transient spikes which set peak circular velocity may lead to issues with abundance matching on that parameter, including unphysical galaxy stellar mass growth profiles near clusters; we propose a simple observational test to check if a better halo proxy for galaxy stellar mass exists.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 787(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many approaches to obtaining cosmological constraints rely on the connection between galaxies and dark matter. However, the distribution of galaxies is dependent on their formation and evolution as well as the cosmological model, and galaxy formation is still not a well-constrained process. Thus, methods that probe cosmology using galaxies as a tracer for dark matter must be able to accurately estimate the cosmological parameters without knowing the details of galaxy formation a priori. We apply this reasoning to the method of obtaining $\Omega_m$ and $\sigma_8$ from galaxy clustering combined with the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters. To test the sensitivity of this method to variations due to galaxy formation, we consider several different models applied to the same cosmological dark matter simulation. The cosmological parameters are then estimated using the observables in each model, marginalizing over the parameters of the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD). We find that for models where the galaxies can be well represented by a parameterized HOD, this method can successfully extract the desired cosmological parameters for a wide range of galaxy formation prescriptions.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We infer the star formation rates in dark matter halos at different redshifts from the observed stellar mass functions of galaxies at different redshifts and the luminosity function of local cluster galaxies. By parametrising the star formation as a function that is explicitly dependent on halo mass and redshift, a series of nested model families with increasing complexity are explored to understand how the structure of this function is constrained by the different data sets. To match the observed stellar mass functions at different redshifts, the star formation in the central galaxies of halos with masses above $10^{12}\Msunh$ has to be boosted at high redshift beyond what is expected from a simple scaling of the dynamical time. To reproduce the faint end of the cluster galaxy luminosity function ($M_{z}-5\log_{10}(h) > -18$) and the low mass end of the local stellar mass function simultaneously, there is a characteristic redshift $z_c \approx 2$ that defines a transition in star formation efficiency (star formation rate divided by the mean baryon mass accretion rate) in low mass halos ($<10^{11}\Msunh$). The star formation efficiency is about 1/10 at $z>z_c$ and is strongly quenched at lower $z$. This gives rises to a significant amount of old stellar population in present-day dwarf galaxies below $10^{8}\Msunhh$ and steepened slopes of the high redshift stellar mass functions and star formation rate functions, both consistent with latest observations. We use our constrained models to make predictions for the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies in halos of different masses, and for a number of properties of the galaxy population.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We study the evolution of the number density, as a function of the size, of passive early-type galaxies with a wide range of stellar masses 10^10<M*/Msun<10^11.5) from z~3 to z~1, exploiting the unique dataset available in the GOODS-South field, including the recently obtained WFC3 images as a part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). In particular, we select a sample of 107 massive (M*>10^10 M_sun), passive (SSFR<10^-2 Gyr^-1) and morphologically spheroidal galaxies at 1.2<z<3, taking advantage of the panchromatic dataset available for GOODS, including VLT, CFHT, Spitzer, Chandra and HST ACS+WFC3 data. We find that at 1<z<3 the passively evolving early-type galaxies are the reddest and most massive objects in the Universe, and we prove that a correlation between mass, morphology, color and star-formation activity is already in place at that epoch. We measure a significant evolution in the mass-size relation of passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) from z~3 to z~1, with galaxies growing on average by a factor of 2 in size in a 3 Gyr timescale only. We witness also an increase in the number density of passive ETGs of 50 times over the same time interval. We find that the first ETGs to form at z>2 are all compact or ultra-compact, while normal sized ETGs (meaning ETGs with sizes comparable to those of local counterparts of the same mass) are the most common ETGs only at z<1. The increase of the average size of ETGs at 0<z<1 is primarily driven by the appearance of new large ETGs rather than by the size increase of individual galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2013; 775(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the self-consistent modeling of the conditional stellar mass functions across cosmic time by Yang et al. (2012), we make model predictions for the star formation histories (SFHs) of {\it central} galaxies in halos of different masses. The model requires the following two key ingredients: (i) mass assembly histories of central and satellite galaxies, and (ii) local observational constraints of the star formation rates of central galaxies as function of halo mass. We obtain a universal fitting formula that describes the (median) SFH of central galaxies as function of halo mass, galaxy stellar mass and redshift. We use this model to make predictions for various aspects of the star formation rates of central galaxies across cosmic time. Our main findings are the following. (1) The specific star formation rate (SSFR) at high $z$ increases rapidly with increasing redshift [$\propto (1+z)^{2.5}$] for halos of a given mass and only slowly with halo mass ($\propto M_h^{0.12}$) at a given $z$, in almost perfect agreement with the specific mass accretion rate of dark matter halos. (2) The ratio between the star formation rate (SFR) in the main-branch progenitor and the final stellar mass of a galaxy peaks roughly at a constant value, $\sim 10^{-9.3} h^2 {\rm yr}^{-1}$, independent of halo mass or the final stellar mass of the galaxy. However, the redshift at which the SFR peaks increases rapidly with halo mass. (3) More than half of the stars in the present-day Universe were formed in halos with $10^{11.1}\msunh < M_h < 10^{12.3}\msunh$ in the redshift range $0.4 < z < 1.9$. (4) ... [abridged]
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 770(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conduct Bayesian model inferences from the observed K-band luminosity function of galaxies in the local Universe, using the semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation introduced in Lu et al (2011). The prior distributions for the 14 free parameters include a large range of possible models. We find that some of the free parameters, e.g. the characteristic scales for quenching star formation in both high-mass and low-mass halos, are already tightly constrained by the single data set. The posterior distribution includes the model parameters adopted in other SAMs. By marginalising over the posterior distribution, we make predictions that include the full inferential uncertainties for the colour-magnitude relation, the Tully-Fisher relation, the conditional stellar mass function of galaxies in halos of different masses, the HI mass function, the redshift evolution of the stellar mass function of galaxies, and the global star formation history. Using posterior predictive checking with the available observational results, we find that the model family (i) predicts a Tully-Fisher relation that is curved; (ii) significantly over predicts the satellite fraction; (iii) vastly over predicts the HI mass function; (iv) predicts high-z stellar mass functions that have too many low mass galaxies and too few high mass ones. and (v) predicts a redshift evolution of the stellar mass density and the star formation history that are in moderate disagreement. These results suggest that some important processes are still missing in the current model family and we discuss a number of possible solutions to solve the discrepancies, such as interactions between galaxies and dark matter halos, tidal stripping, the bimodal accretion of gas, preheating, and a redshift-dependent initial mass function.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2011; 421(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the behaviour of multiple radiative cooling algorithms implemented in seven Semi-Analytic Models (SAMs) of galaxy formation, including a new model we propose in this paper. We use versions of the models without feedback and apply them to dark matter haloes growing in a cosmological context, which have final masses that range from 10^{11}Msun to 10^{14}Msun. First, using simplified smoothly-growing halo models, we demonstrate that the different algorithms predict cooling rates and final cold gas masses that differ by a factor of ~5 for massive haloes (>10^{12}Msun). The algorithms are in better agreement for less massive haloes because they cool efficiently and, therefore, their cooling rates are largely limited by the halo accretion rate. However, for less massive haloes, all the SAMs predict less cooling than corresponding 1D hydrodynamic models. Second, we study the gas accretion history of the central galaxies of dark matter haloes using merger trees. The inclusion of mergers alters the cooling history of haloes by locking up gas in galaxies within small haloes at early times. For realistic halo models, the dispersion in the cold gas mass predicted by the algorithms is 0.5 dex for high mass haloes and 0.1 dex for low mass haloes, while the dispersion in the accretion rate is about two times larger. Comparing to cosmological SPH simulations, we find that most SAMs systematically under-predict the gas accretion rates for low-mass haloes but over-predict the gas accretion rates for massive haloes. Although the models all include both "rapid" and "slow" mode accretion, the transition between the two accretion modes varies between models and also differs from the simulations. Finally, we construct a new model that explicitly incorporates cold halo gas to illustrate that such a class of models can better match the results from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2010; 416. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We believe that a wide range of physical processes conspire to shape the observed galaxy population but we remain unsure of their detailed interactions. The semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation uses multi-dimensional parameterisations of the physical processes of galaxy formation and provides a tool to constrain these underlying physical interactions. Because of the high dimensionality, the parametric problem of galaxy formation may be profitably tackled with a Bayesian-inference based approach, which allows one to constrain theory with data in a statistically rigorous way. In this paper we develop a SAM in the framework of Bayesian inference. We show that, with a parallel implementation of an advanced Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo algorithm, it is now possible to rigorously sample the posterior distribution of the high-dimensional parameter space of typical SAMs. As an example, we characterise galaxy formation in the current $\Lambda$CDM cosmology using the stellar mass function of galaxies as an observational constraint. We find that the posterior probability distribution is both topologically complex and degenerate in some important model parameters, suggesting that thorough explorations of the parameter space are needed to understand the models. We also demonstrate that because of the model degeneracy, adopting a narrow prior strongly restricts the model. Therefore, the inferences based on SAMs are conditional to the model adopted. Using synthetic data to mimic systematic errors in the stellar mass function, we demonstrate that an accurate observational error model is essential to meaningful inference.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2010; 416. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that the feedback from stellar bulges can play an essential role in shaping the halo gas of galaxies with substantial bulge components by conducting 1-D hydrodynamical simulations. The feedback model we consider consists of two distinct phases: 1) an early starburst during the bulge formation and 2) a subsequent long-lasting mass and energy injection from stellar winds of low-mass stars and Type Ia SNe. An energetic outward blastwave is initiated by the starburst and is maintained and enhanced by the long-lasting stellar feedback. For a MW-like galactic bulge, this blastwave sweeps up the halo gas in the proto-galaxy and heats up the surrounding medium to a scale much beyond the virial radius of the halo, thus the accretion of the halo hot gas can be completely stopped. In addition, the long-lasting feedback in the later phase powers a galactic bulge wind that is reverse-shocked at a large radius in the presence of surrounding intergalactic medium and hence maintains a hot gaseous halo. As the mass and energy injection decreases with time, the feedback evolves to a subsonic and quasi-stable outflow, which is enough to prevent halo gas from cooling. The two phases of the feedback thus re-enforce each-other's impact on the gas dynamics. The simulation results demonstrate that the stellar bulge feedback may provide a plausible solution to the long-standing problems in understanding the MW type galaxies, such as the "missing stellar feedback" problem and the "over-cooling" problem. The simulations also show that the properties of the hot gas in the subsonic outflow state depend sensitively on the environment and the formation history of the bulge. This dependence and variance may explain the large dispersion in the X-ray to B-band luminosity ratio of the low $L_X/L_B$ Es. Comment: v2, discussions added, accepted for publication in MNRAS
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2008; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Yu Lu, H. J. Mo
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    ABSTRACT: We use a one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamical code to investigate the effects of pre-heating on gas accretion and cooling in cold dark matter (CDM) haloes. In the absence of radiative cooling, pre-heating reduces the amount of gas that can be accreted into a halo, and the accreted gas fraction is determined by the ratio of the initial specific entropy of the gas to the virial entropy of the halo, Sph/Sv. In the presence of radiative cooling, pre-heating affects the gas fraction that can cool in two different ways. For small haloes with masses M < 1012 h−1 M⊙, pre-heating suppresses gas accretion, but most of the accreted gas can cool. For more massive haloes, pre-heating affects the cold gas fraction not only by reducing the amount of accreted gas, but also by reducing the cooling efficiency. For both small and massive haloes, gas cooling is delayed by pre-heating if the halo gas is assumed to be a single-phase medium. However, if the halo gas is assumed to be a multiphase medium, cooling can occur over a wider range of redshifts. Unlike in a single-phase medium where cooling is inside-out, gas cooling in a pre-heated multiphase medium can occur simultaneously over a wide range of radii. As examples, two specific pre-heating cases are investigated. In the first case, the pre-heating specific entropy is assumed to be proportional to the virial entropy of the halo, Sph∝Sv, as expected from active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. Such pre-heating effectively suppresses radiative cooling in haloes with M > 1013 h−1 M⊙, but has little effect on smaller haloes. We suggest that this may be the reason why the stellar mass function of galaxies breaks sharply at the massive end. Such pre-heating also helps create the hot diffused haloes within which the ‘radio mode’ feedback of AGNs can act effectively. In the second case, the intergalactic medium is assumed to be warm. Here, the total amount of gas that can cool in a halo scales with halo mass as ∝M2, as would be required to match the observed stellar- and H i-mass functions in the current CDM model at the small mass end. Since the accretion in a CDM universe is expected to be lumpy, we discuss the limitation of our model due to the assumption of smooth mass accretion.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2007; 377(2):617 - 629. · 5.52 Impact Factor