Yoshihiko Yamazaki

CSU Mentor, Long Beach, California, United States

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Publications (35)102.19 Total impact

  • Kuniaki Chida, Kenya Kaneko, Satoshi Fujii, Yoshihiko Yamazaki
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    ABSTRACT: The axonal conduction of action potentials in the nervous system is generally considered to be a stable signal for the relaying of information, and its dysfunction is involved in impairment of cognitive function. Recent evidence suggests that the conduction properties and excitability of axons are more variable than traditionally thought. To investigate possible changes in the conduction of action potentials along axons in the central nervous system, we recorded action potentials from granule cells that were evoked and conducted antidromically along unmyelinated mossy fibers in the rat hippocampus. To evaluate changes in axons by eliminating any involvement of changes in the somata, two latency values were obtained by stimulating at two different positions and the latency difference between the action potentials was measured. A conditioning electrical stimulus of 20 pulses at 1 Hz increased the latency difference and this effect, which lasted for approximately 30 s, was inhibited by the application of an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist or a GluK1-containing kainate receptor antagonist, but not by an AMPA receptor-selective antagonist or an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist. These results indicated that axonal conduction in mossy fibers is modulated in an activity-dependent manner through the activation of GluK1-containing kainate receptors. These dynamic changes in axonal conduction may contribute to the physiology and pathophysiology of the brain.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 10/2014; · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes regulate the activity of neighboring neurons by releasing chemical transmitters, including ATP. Adenosine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of mice that express a mutant human glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes are slightly elevated compared to those in wild type mice and this might result from the observed increased release by mutant astrocytes of ATP, which can be used to produce adenosine. Using hippocampal slices from these mutant mice, we examined whether the increased endogenous adenosine levels in the hippocampus modulate the reversal of long-term potentiation (LTP), i.e. depotentiation (DP), in CA1 neurons. In hippocampal slices from wild type mice, a stable LTP was induced by tetanic stimulation consisting of 100 pulses at 100 Hz, and this was reversed by a train of low frequency stimulation (LFS) of 500 pulses at 1 Hz applied 30 min later. This induction of DP was inhibited by application of either 100 nM adenosine or 0.5 nM N6-cyclopentyladenosine, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, during LFS, indicating that the increase in extracellular adenosine levels attenuated DP induction by acting on adenosine A1 receptors. In contrast, although a stable LTP was also induced in hippocampal slices from mutant mice, induction of DP was inhibited, but DP could be induced by application, during LFS, of 50 nM 8-cyclopentyltheophylline, an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that a small increase in extracellular adenosine levels resulting from increased ATP release by astrocytes results in attenuation of DP in hippocampal CA1 neurons in the mutant mice.
    Brain Research 08/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plastic changes in white matter have received considerable attention in relation to normal cognitive function and learning. Oligodendrocytes and myelin, which constitute the white matter in the central nervous system, can respond to neuronal activity with prolonged depolarization of membrane potential and/or an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Depolarization of oligodendrocytes increases the conduction velocity of an action potential along axons myelinated by the depolarized oligodendrocytes, indicating that white matter shows functional plasticity, as well as structural plasticity. However, the properties and mechanism of oligodendrocyte depolarization-induced functional plastic changes in white matter are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the functional plasticity of white matter in the hippocampus using mice with oligodendrocytes expressing channelrhodopsin-2. Using extracellular recordings of compound action potentials at the alveus of the hippocampus, we demonstrated that light-evoked depolarization of oligodendrocytes induced early- and late-onset facilitation of axonal conduction that was dependent on the magnitude of oligodendrocyte depolarization; the former lasted for approximately 10 min, whereas the latter continued for up to 3 h. Using whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells and recordings of antidromic action potentials, we found that the early-onset short-lasting component included the synchronization of action potentials. Moreover, pharmacological analysis demonstrated that the activation of Ba2+-sensitive K+ channels was involved in early- and late-onset facilitation, whereas 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K+ channels were only involved in the early-onset component. These results demonstrate that oligodendrocyte depolarization induces short- and long-term functional plastic changes in the white matter of the hippocampus and plays active roles in brain functions. GLIA 2014
    Glia 04/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the synaptic plasticity of hippocampal CA1 neurons and spatial learning behavior in gerbils that had been loaded with a transient cerebral ischemia caused by 5 min or 10 min occlusion of the bilateral carotid arteries. The stimulus threshold to elicit the field responses after a transient cerebral ischemia was not different from that in controls, but there was a significant decrease in the magnitude of synaptic responses, which might result from the observed loss of neurons. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation after a 10 min cerebral ischemia expressed as a percentage of the pre-tetanus or pre-low frequency stimulation value were almost the same as those in controls, although the actual magnitude of the LTP and depotentiation was lower than in controls. Gerbils that were loaded with a 10 min cerebral ischemia showed impairment in a spatial learning test when this was started 10 days after the cerebral ischemia, but not when it was started 20 days after the same cerebral ischemia. These results suggest that the changes in electrophysiological properties of hippocampal CA1 neurons seen at 10 days after a 10 min cerebral ischemia contribute to the impairment of spatial learning of gerbils seen at this time, and that the extra-CA1 regions might be involved in the recovery of spatial learning seen at 20 days after cerebral ischemia.
    Biomedical Research 01/2013; 34(2):75-85. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes, a major subtype of glia, interact with neurons as a supportive partner supplying energy sources and growth factors. Astrocytes regulate the activity of neighboring neurons by releasing chemical transmitters (gliotransmitters). However, the precise role of gilotransmitters in regulating neuronal activity is still under debate. Here, we report that a subtle enhancement in the release of one gliotransmitter, ATP, affects synaptic potentiation from an analysis of mice containing an astrocyte-selective (GFAP) mutation. We found that, relative to normal mice, weaker stimulation induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in mutant mice, indicating that the threshold to induce LTP was lowered in the mutant. While excitatory transmission was normal in the mutant, inhibitory GABAergic transmission was suppressed. We found that a low concentration of adenosine selectively attenuated inhibitory neuronal activity and lowered the threshold to induce LTP in wild type mice. In comparison, adenosine A(1) receptor antagonism reversed the lowered LTP threshold back to normal in the mutant mouse. We verified that adenosine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of mutant mice were slightly elevated compared to wild type mice. This was apparently caused by an increase in ATP release from mutant astrocytes that could provide a source of augmented adenosine levels in the mutant. ATP is thought to suppress the excitability of neuronal circuits; however, a small increase in ATP release can result in a suppressed inhibitory tone and enhanced excitability of neuronal circuitry. These findings demonstrate that ATP released from astrocytes acts in a bidirectional fashion to regulate neuronal excitability depending on concentration. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Glia 09/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), activated during preconditioning low-frequency afferent stimulation (LFS), in the subsequent induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA3 neurons in hippocampal slices from mature guinea pigs. Induction of LTP in the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) by the delivery of high-frequency stimulation (HFS, a tetanus of two trains of 100 pulses at 100Hz with a 10s interval) to mossy fiber-CA3 neuron synapses was suppressed when CA3 synapses were preconditioned by the LFS of 1000 pulses at 2Hz and this effect was inhibited when the LFS preconditioning was performed in the presence of an IP3R antagonist or a protein phosphatase inhibitor. Furthermore, activation of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) during HFS canceled the effects of an IP3R antagonist given during preconditioning LFS on the subsequent LTP induction at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. These results suggest that, in hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 neuron synapses, activation of IP3Rs during a preconditioning LFS results in dephosphorylation events that lead to failure of the HFS to induce subsequent LTP.
    Brain research 02/2012; 1449:15-23. · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Y Yamazaki, S Fujii, T Aihara, K Mikoshiba
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) that were activated during preconditioning low-frequency afferent stimulation (LFS) in the subsequent induction of synaptic plasticity in CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices from mature guinea pigs. In standard perfusate, long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced in the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) by the delivery of LFS (80 pulses at 1 Hz), and was reversed by an identical LFS applied 20 min later. However, when CA1 synapses were preconditioned in the presence of an IP3R antagonist and stimulated by the second LFS in the absence of the antagonist, LTP was not reversed, but was increased, by the second LFS. In addition, when CA1 synapses were preconditioned in standard solution, but stimulated by the second LFS in the presence of an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, LTP was again not reversed, but increased. The excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) through NMDARs recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons increased significantly 20 min after a single LFS and this increase was inhibited when the LFS was delivered in the presence of an IP3R antagonist or a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor. These results suggest that activation of IP3Rs by a preconditioning LFS results in postsynaptic protein phosphorylation and/or enhancement of NMDAR activation during a subsequent LFS, leading to reversal of LTP in the field EPSP in hippocampal CA1 neurons.
    Neuroscience 01/2012; 207:1-11. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) plays a key role in pathophysiological cellular responses by regulating the levels of a lipid messenger diacylglycerol. Of DGK isozymes, DGKζ localizes to the nucleus in various cells such as neurons. We previously reported that DGKζ translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons after 20 min of transient forebrain ischemia. In this study, we examined the underlying mechanism of DGKζ translocation using hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to simulate an ischemic model of the brain. DGKζ-immunoreactivity gradually changed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in CA1 pyramidal neurons after 20 min of OGD and was never detected in the nucleus after reoxygenation. Intriguingly, DGKζ was detected in the nucleus at 10 min OGD whereas the following 60 min reoxygenation induced complete cytoplasmic translocation of DGKζ. Morphometric analysis revealed that DGKζ cytoplasmic translocation correlated with nuclear shrinkage indicative of an early process of neuronal degeneration. The translocation under OGD conditions was blocked by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) inhibitor, and was induced by activation of NMDAR. Chelation of the extracellular Ca(2+) blocked the translocation under OGD conditions. These results show that DGKζ cytoplasmic translocation is triggered by activation of NMDAR with subsequent extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC activity under OGD conditions led to nuclear retention of DGKζ in about one-third of the neurons, suggesting that PKC activity partially regulates DGKζ cytoplasmic translocation. These findings provide clues to guide further investigation of glutamate excitotoxicity mechanisms in hippocampal neurons.
    Histochemie 01/2012; 137(4):499-511. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gangliosides (sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids) play important roles in many physiological functions, including synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, which has been suggested as the basal cellular process of learning and memory in the brain. In the present study, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in CA1 hippocampal neurons and learning behavior were examined in mice treated with (D)-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol ((D)-PDMP), an inhibitor of ganglioside biosynthesis. Mice treated with (D)-PDMP, but not those treated with (L)-PDMP, showed impairment of LTP induction in hippocampal CA1 neurons without any significant change in LTD formation and also showed a failure of learning in the 4-pellet taking test. These results indicate that de novo synthesis of gangliosides in the brain is involved in synaptic plasticity of LTP in mouse hippocampal CA1 neurons and plays important roles in learning and memory.
    Biomedical Research 01/2012; 33(5):265-71. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gangliosides (sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids) play important roles in many physiological functions, including synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, which is considered as a cellular mechanism of learning and memory. In the present study, three types of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and reversal of LTP (depotentiation, DP), in the field excitatory post-synaptic potential in CA1 hippocampal neurons and learning behavior were examined in β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (β1,4 GalNAc-T; GM2/GD2 synthase) gene transgenic (TG) mice, which showed a marked decrease in b-pathway gangliosides (GQ1b, GT1b and GD1b) in the brain and isolated hippocampus compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The magnitude of the LTP induced by tetanus (100 pulses at 100 Hz) in TG mice was significantly smaller than that in control WT mice, whereas there was no difference in the magnitude of the LTD induced by three short trains of low-frequency stimulation (LFS) (200 pulses at 1 Hz) at 20 min intervals between the two groups of mice. The reduction in the LTP produced by delivering three trains of LFS (200 pulses at 1 Hz, 20 min intervals) was significantly greater in the TG mice than in the WT mice. Learning was impaired in the four-pellet taking test (4PTT) in TG mice, with no significant difference in daily activity or activity during the 4PTT between TG and WT mice. These results suggest that the overexpression of β1,4 GalNAc-T resulted in altered synaptic plasticity of LTP and DP in hippocampal CA1 neurons and learning in the 4PTT, and this is attributable to the shift from b-pathway gangliosides to a-pathway gangliosides.
    Glycobiology 07/2011; 21(10):1373-81. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal neuron synapses was induced in the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) by the delivery of HFS (a tetanus of two trains of 100 pulses at 100 Hz with a 10s interval) and was reversed (depotentiated) by a train of LFS of 1000 pulses at 2 Hz applied 60 min later. This depotentiation was triggered by activation of inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) during HFS, which may increase the postsynaptic intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, leading to a cellular process responsible for modification of LTP expression at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Furthermore, we found that activation of IP3Rs or protein phosphatase during LFS was required for the reversal of LTP expressed at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. These results suggest that, in hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 neuron synapses, activation of IP3Rs by a preconditioning HFS results in modulation of IP3R activation and/or postsynaptic protein phosphorylation during a subsequent LFS, leading to a decrease in the field EPSP and the erasure of LTP.
    Brain research 03/2011; 1387:19-28. · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Biochemical Pharmacology - BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 01/2011; 82(8):1036-1036.
  • S Fujii, Y Yamazaki, Y Kuroda, K Mikoshiba
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, both potentiation and depression of the synaptic response were induced in hippocampal CA1 neurons by systematically varying the frequency of low frequency afferent stimulation (LFS) between 0.5 and 25 Hz and the pulse number between 40 and 1000. The input-response relationship for CA1 synapses showed that LFS at a higher frequency or with a smaller pulse number increased the magnitude of potentiation of the synaptic response by increasing the contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) to induction of potentiation. One possible mechanism for this bidirectional plasticity was that specific patterns of LFS differentially activate a uniform receptor population in producing depression or potentiation of synaptic responses. However, a pharmacological study indicated that, despite their opposite effects, both the synaptic depression induced by LFS at 1 Hz and the synaptic potentiation induced by LFS at 10 Hz were triggered by co-activation of NMDARs and mGluRs at CA1 synapses. We suggest that activation of protein kinase C or inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, both coupled to group 1 mGluRs, is involved in the bidirectional synaptic plasticity induced in hippocampal CA1 neurons by 1-10 Hz LFS.
    Neuroscience 03/2010; 168(2):346-58. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, mice lacking the type 1 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) were used to study the role of type 1 IP(3)Rs in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal CA1 neurons. The magnitude of the LTP induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) consisting of 20 pulses at 30Hz in mice lacking type 1 IP(3)Rs was significantly larger than that in wild-type mice in terms of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential and population spike. By measuring changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in CA1 pyramidal neurons using fluorometry, we found that the decay time of the transient increase in the [Ca(2+)](i) evoked by the HFS in mutant mice was significantly longer than that in wild-type mice, whereas the [Ca(2+)](i) at rest and the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)](i) increases caused by the HFS were no different from those in wild-type mice. In slices from the mutant mice, paired-pulse stimulation (PPS) delivered at an interval of 10ms resulted in significantly weaker paired-pulse inhibition (PPI) than in wild-type mice, suggesting that lack of type 1 IP(3)Rs reduces the PPI induced by PPS in the CA1 region. These results indicate that a lack of type 1 IP(3)Rs causes a slower decay of the transient [Ca(2+)](i) in CA1 pyramidal neurons and attenuates the activity of inhibitory interneurons, resulting in enhancement of LTP induction.
    Neuroscience Research 03/2010; 67(2):149-55. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hippocampal inhibitory interneurons have a central role in the control of network activity, and excitatory synapses that they receive express Hebbian and anti-Hebbian long-term potentiation (LTP). Because many interneurons in the hippocampus express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), we explored whether exposure to nicotine promotes LTP induction in these interneurons. We focussed on a subset of interneurons in the stratum oriens/alveus that were continuously activated in the presence of nicotine due to the expression of non-desensitizing non-alpha7 nAChRs. We found that, in addition to alpha2 subunit mRNAs, these interneurons were consistently positive for somatostatin and neuropeptide Y mRNAs, and showed morphological characteristics of oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells. Activation of non-alpha7 nAChRs increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels at least in part via Ca(2+) entry through their channels. Presynaptic tetanic stimulation induced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-independent LTP in voltage-clamped interneurons at -70 mV when in the presence, but not absence, of nicotine. Intracellular application of a Ca(2+) chelator blocked LTP induction, suggesting the requirement of Ca(2+) signal for LTP induction. The induction of LTP was still observed in the presence of ryanodine, which inhibits Ca(2+) -induced Ca(2+) release from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores, and the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine. These results suggest that Ca(2+) entry through non-alpha7 nAChR channels is critical for LTP induction. Thus, nicotine affects hippocampal network activity by promoting LTP induction in oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells via continuous activation of non-alpha7 nAChRs.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 02/2010; 31(3):463-76. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oligodendrocytes have received much attention in relation to neurological and psychiatric disorders. The involvement of oligodendrocytes and their myelin in normal brain functions has been suggested by many lines of evidence. The conduction velocity of action potentials along axons is dramatically increased by myelination, that is, the formation of a passive insulator. There is a growing understanding of the functional roles of ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors on oligodendrocytes, and the activity-dependent facilitative effect of oligodendrocytes on conduction velocity has been demonstrated. In this article, we summarize evidence for the ability of oligodendrocytes to monitor neuronal activity and for the facilitation of axonal conduction by oligodendrocytes by mechanisms other than myelination. We suggest the underlying mechanisms for this facilitation in relation to the morphological dynamics of myelinating processes and discuss the physiological roles of the facilitation in information processing.
    The Neuroscientist 06/2009; 16(1):11-8. · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at various anatomical and cellular locations in the hippocampus differentially modulates the operation of hippocampal circuits. However, it is largely unknown how the continued presence of nicotine affects the normal operation of hippocampal circuits. Here, we used single and dual whole-cell recordings to address this question. We found that horizontally oriented interneurons in the stratum oriens/alveus continuously discharged action potentials in the presence of nicotine. In these interneurons, bath application of nicotine produced slow inward currents that were well maintained and inhibited by the non-alpha 7 antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine. Single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that nicotine-responding interneurons were consistently positive for the alpha2 subunit mRNA. These observations suggest that in the presence of nicotine, a subset of interneurons in the stratum oriens/alveus are continuously excited due to the sustained activation of alpha2* nAChRs. These interneurons were synaptically connected to pyramidal cells, and nicotine increased inhibitory baseline currents at the synapses and suppressed phasic inhibition at the same synapses. Nicotine-induced inhibitory activity increased background noise and masked small phasic inhibition in pyramidal cells, originating from other interneurons in the stratum radiatum. Thus, the continued presence of nicotine alters the normal operation of hippocampal circuits by gating inhibitory circuits through activating a non-desensitizing alpha2 nAChR subtype on a distinct population of interneurons.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 05/2009; 29(8):1588-603. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using hippocampal slices, we found that chronic ethanol consumption by rats induces tolerance to the impairing effects of acute ethanol treatment on induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 neurons. In hippocampal slices from pair-fed control rats, stable LTP was induced by tetanic stimulation consisting of 25 or more pulses at 100 Hz, but not by tetanic stimulation of 15 pulses at 100 Hz, and LTP induction was blocked if the tetanus was delivered in the presence of 8.6 mM ethanol, 1 microM muscimol, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor agonist, or 2.5 microM dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5), an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. In hippocampal slices from rats chronically fed a liquid diet containing ethanol, a tetanus consisting of 15 pulses at 100 Hz did induce stable LTP, indicating a decrease in the stimulation threshold for inducing LTP. Application of ethanol, muscimol, or AP5 did not affect LTP induction in these cells, suggesting that the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on LTP induction are mediated by a reduction in GABAergic inhibition or an increase in NMDA receptor activity in hippocampal CA1 neurons.
    Brain Research 06/2008; 1211:13-21. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Like neurons and astrocytes, oligodendrocytes have a variety of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. However, except for facilitating the rapid conduction of action potentials by forming myelin and buffering extracellular K(+), little is known about the direct involvement of oligodendrocytes in neuronal activities. To investigate their physiological roles, we focused on oligodendrocytes in the alveus of the rat hippocampal CA1 region. These cells were found to respond to exogenously applied glutamate by depolarization through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and non-NMDA receptors. Electrical stimulation of the border between the alveus and stratum oriens evoked inward currents through several routes involving glutamate receptors and inward rectifier K(+) channels. Moreover, electrical stimulation resembling in vivo activity evoked long-lasting depolarization. To examine the modulatory effects of oligodendrocytes on neuronal activities, we performed dual, whole-cell recording on CA1 pyramidal neurons and oligodendrocytes. Direct depolarization of oligodendrocytes shortened the latencies of action potentials evoked by antidromic stimulation. These results indicate that oligodendrocytes increase the conduction velocity of action potentials by a mechanism additional to saltatory conduction, and that they have active roles in information processing in the brain.
    Neuron Glia Biology 11/2007; 3(4):325-34. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alexander disease is caused by a coding mutation in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene. The pathological hallmark is the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions within astrocytes known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs), which primarily consist of GFAP and several heat shock proteins. The presence of mutant GFAP would appear to be involved in RF formation; however, overproduction of wild type human GFAP in mouse brain also results in RF formation. Here, we investigated the in vivo conditions leading to formation of RF-like aggregates. We used transgenic mice (mouse GFAP promoter-human GFAP cDNA with R239H mutation) in which the dosage of the GFAP transgene could be manipulated within the same genetic locus. We found that the presence of mutant GFAP per se was insufficient for aggregate formation. Instead, a 30% increase in GFAP content over that in wild type was also required. GFAP aggregates upregulated endogenous GFAP and nestin gene expression, and intermediate filament structure revealed by immunostaining was fragmented under these conditions. However, overall morphology of astrocytes, including their fine processes, was unaffected. In this transgenic animal model, mice did not show megalencephaly, leukodystrophy, or seizure characteristic of Alexander disease with R239H mutation. Nevertheless, their mortality after kainate challenge was dramatically increased, whereas transgenic mice lacking aggregates exhibited mortality similar to that of wild type mice. These results indicate that the presence of GFAP aggregates containing mutant GFAP is not sufficient to induce a major phenotype of Alexander disease, even though it causes some abnormalities in the mouse.
    Glia 05/2007; 55(6):617-31. · 5.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

354 Citations
102.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2002–2010
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Neurobiology and Behavior
      Irvine, CA, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • Yamagata University
      • Department of Physiology
      Ямагата, Yamagata, Japan
  • 2000
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan