[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the demonstrated clinical efficacy of CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) for lymphoma therapy, the in vivo mechanisms of tumor depletion remain controversial and variable. To identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for lymphoma killing by CD20 mAb in a homologous system amenable to mechanistic studies and genetic manipulation, a mouse lymphoma model was developed using primary tumor cells from a C57BL/6 Emicro-cMyc transgenic mouse and mouse antimouse CD20 mAbs. CD20 mAb treatment of syngeneic mice with adoptively transferred lymphomas prevented tumor development or significantly prolonged mouse survival depending on tumor volume, mAb dose, and treatment timing. Cooperative FcgammaRIV, FcgammaRIII, and FcgammaRI interactions mediated optimal lymphoma depletion by CD20 mAb in vivo, whereas clodronate-mediated depletion of macrophages eliminated the therapeutic benefit of CD20 mAb. Although CD20 mAbs activated complement in vitro and in vivo, normal and malignant B-cell depletion was induced through C1q- and C3-independent mechanisms. Thus, the ability of CD20 mAbs to deplete malignant B cells in vivo required FcgammaR-dependent use of the innate mononuclear cell immune system. These findings allow for mechanism-based predictions of the biologic outcome of CD20 mAb therapy and treatment optimization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NOD mice deficient for B lymphocytes from birth fail to develop autoimmune or type 1 diabetes. To assess whether B cell depletion influences type 1 diabetes in mice with an intact immune system, NOD female mice representing early and late preclinical stages of disease were treated with mouse anti-mouse CD20 mAbs. Short-term CD20 mAb treatment in 5-wk-old NOD female mice reduced B cell numbers by approximately 95%, decreased subsequent insulitis, and prevented diabetes in >60% of littermates. In addition, CD20 mAb treatment of 15-wk-old NOD female mice significantly delayed, but did not prevent, diabetes onset. Protection from diabetes did not result from altered T cell numbers or subset distributions, or regulatory/suppressor T cell generation. Rather, impaired CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation in the lymph nodes of B cell-depleted NOD mice may delay diabetes onset. B cell depletion was achieved despite reduced sensitivity of NOD mice to CD20 mAbs compared with C57BL/6 mice. Decreased B cell depletion resulted from deficient FcgammaRI binding of IgG2a/c CD20 mAbs and 60% reduced spleen monocyte numbers, which in combination reduced Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. With high-dose CD20 mAb treatment (250 microg) in NOD mice, FcgammaRIII and FcgammaRIV compensated for inadequate FcgammaRI function and mediated B cell depletion. Thereby, NOD mice provide a model for human FcgammaR polymorphisms that reduce therapeutic mAb efficacy in vivo. Moreover, this study defines a new, clinically relevant approach whereby B cell depletion early in the course of disease development may prevent diabetes or delay progression of disease.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2008; 180(5):2863-75. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.180.5.2863 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immune and nervous systems display considerable overlap in their molecular repertoire. Molecules originally shown to be
critical for immune responses also serve neuronal functions that include normal brain development, neuronal differentiation,
synaptic plasticity, and behavior. We show here that FcγRIIB, a low-affinity immunoglobulin G Fc receptor, and CD3 are involved
in cerebellar functions. Although membranous CD3 and FcγRIIB are crucial regulators on different cells in the immune system,
both CD3ε and FcγRIIB are expressed on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Both CD3ε-deficient mice and FcγRIIB-deficient mice
showed an impaired development of Purkinje neurons. In the adult, rotarod performance of these mutant mice was impaired at
high speed. In the two knockout mice, enhanced paired-pulse facilitation of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses was shared.
These results indicate that diverse immune molecules play critical roles in the functional establishment in the cerebellum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy using Rituximab, an unconjugated CD20 monoclonal antibody, has proven effective for treating non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and autoimmune disease. CD19 antibody immunotherapy is also effective in mouse models of lymphoma and autoimmunity. In both cases, mouse models have demonstrated that effector cell networks effectively deplete the vast majority of circulating and tissue B lymphocytes through Fcgamma receptor-dependent pathways. In mice, B cell depletion is predominantly, if not exclusively, mediated by monocytes. CD20 mAbs rapidly deplete circulating and tissue B cells in an antibody isotype-restricted manner with a hierarchy of antibody effectiveness: IgG2a/c > IgG1 > IgG2b > IgG3. Depending on antibody isotype, mouse B cell depletion is regulated by FcgammaRI-, FcgammaRII-, FcgammaRIII-, and FcgammaRIV-dependent pathways. The potency of IgG2a/c mAbs for B cell depletion in vivo results from FcgammaRIV interactions, with likely contributions from high-affinity FcgammaRI. IgG1 mAbs induce B cell depletion through preferential, if not exclusive, interactions with low-affinity FcgammaRIII, while IgG2b mAbs interact preferentially with intermediate-affinity FcgammaRIV. By contrast, inhibitory FcgammaRIIB-deficiency significantly increases CD20 mAb-induced B cell depletion at low mAb doses by enhancing monocyte function. Thus, isotype-specific mAb interactions with distinct FcgammaRs contribute significantly to the effectiveness of CD20 mAbs in vivo. These results provide a molecular basis for earlier observations that human FcgammaRII and FcgammaRIII polymorphisms correlate with the in vivo effectiveness of CD20 antibody therapy. That the innate monocyte network depletes B cells through FcgammaR-dependent pathways during immunotherapy has important clinical implications for CD19, CD20, and other antibody-based therapies for the treatment of diverse B cell malignancies and autoimmune disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficits in sensorimotor gating, a function to focus on the most salient stimulus, could lead to a breakdown of cognitive integrity, and could reflect the "flooding" by sensory overload and cognitive fragmentation seen in schizophrenia. Sensorimotor gating emerges at infancy, and matures during childhood. The mechanisms that underlie its development are largely unclear. Here, we screened the mouse genome, and found that tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is implicated in the maturation of sensorimotor gating. TPH, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of serotonin, proved to be required only during the weaning period for maturation of sensorimotor gating, but was dispensable for its emergence. Proper serotonin levels during development underlie the mature functional architecture for sensorimotor gating via appropriate actin polymerization. Thus, maintaining proper serotonin levels during childhood may be important for mature sensorimotor gating in adulthood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune complex (IC)-mediated tissue inflammation is controlled by stimulatory and inhibitory IgG Fc receptors (FcgammaRs). Systemic lupus erythematosus is a prototype of IC-mediated autoimmune disease; thus, imbalance of these two types of FcgammaRs is probably involved in pathogenesis. However, how and to what extent each FcgammaR contributes to the disease remains unclear. In lupus-prone BXSB mice, while stimulatory FcgammaRs are intact, inhibitory FcgammaRIIB expression is impaired because of promoter region polymorphism. To dissect roles of stimulatory and inhibitory FcgammaRs, we established two gene-manipulated BXSB strains: one deficient in stimulatory FcgammaRs (BXSB.gamma(-/-)) and the other carrying wild-type Fcgr2b (BXSB.IIB(B6/B6)). The disease features were markedly suppressed in both mutant strains. Despite intact renal function, however, BXSB.gamma(-/-) had IC deposition in glomeruli associated with high-serum IgG anti-DNA Ab levels, in contrast to BXSB.IIB(B6/B6), which showed intact renal pathology and anti-DNA levels. Lymphocytes in BXSB.gamma(-/-) were activated, as in wild-type BXSB, but not in BXSB.IIB(B6/B6). Our results strongly suggest that both types of FcgammaRs in BXSB mice are differently involved in the process of disease progression, in which, while stimulatory FcgammaRs play roles in effecter phase of IC-mediated tissue inflammation, the BXSB-type impaired FcgammaRIIB promotes spontaneous activation of self-reactive lymphocytes and associated production of large amounts of autoantibodies and ICs.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2006; 177(3):1646-54. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.177.3.1646 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) immunotherapy is effective for lymphoma and autoimmune disease. In a mouse model of immunotherapy using mouse anti-mouse CD20 mAbs, the innate monocyte network depletes B cells through immunoglobulin (Ig)G Fc receptor (FcgammaR)-dependent pathways with a hierarchy of IgG2a/c>IgG1/IgG2b>IgG3. To understand the molecular basis for these CD20 mAb subclass differences, B cell depletion was assessed in mice deficient or blocked for stimulatory FcgammaRI, FcgammaRIII, FcgammaRIV, or FcR common gamma chain, or inhibitory FcgammaRIIB. IgG1 CD20 mAbs induced B cell depletion through preferential, if not exclusive, interactions with low-affinity FcgammaRIII. IgG2b CD20 mAbs interacted preferentially with intermediate affinity FcgammaRIV. The potency of IgG2a/c CD20 mAbs resulted from FcgammaRIV interactions, with potential contributions from high-affinity FcgammaRI. Regardless, FcgammaRIV could mediate IgG2a/b/c CD20 mAb-induced depletion in the absence of FcgammaRI and FcgammaRIII. In contrast, inhibitory FcgammaRIIB deficiency significantly increased CD20 mAb-induced B cell depletion by enhancing monocyte function. Although FcgammaR-dependent pathways regulated B cell depletion from lymphoid tissues, both FcgammaR-dependent and -independent pathways contributed to mature bone marrow and circulating B cell clearance by CD20 mAbs. Thus, isotype-specific mAb interactions with distinct FcgammaRs contribute significantly to the effectiveness of CD20 mAbs in vivo, which may have important clinical implications for CD20 and other mAb-based therapies.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2006; 203(3):743-53. DOI:10.1084/jem.20052283 · 12.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a major therapeutic target of psychiatric disorders. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biosynthesis of 5-HT. Two isoforms (TPH1 and TPH2) having tryptophan hydroxylating activity were identified. Association studies have revealed possible TPH1 involvement in psychiatric conditions and behavioral traits. However, TPH1 mRNA was reported to be mainly expressed in the pineal gland and the periphery and to be barely detected in the brain. Therefore, contribution of TPH1 to brain 5-HT levels is not known, and the mechanisms how TPH1 possibly contributes to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders are not understood. Here, we show an unexpected role of TPH1 in the developing brain. We found that TPH1 is expressed preferentially during the late developmental stage in the mouse brain. TPH1 showed higher affinity to tryptophan and stronger enzyme activity than TPH2 in a condition reflecting that of the developing brainstem. Low 5-HT contents in the raphe nucleus were seen during development in New Zealand white (NZW) and SWR mice having common functional polymorphisms in the TPH1 gene. However, the 5-HT contents in these mice were not reduced in adulthood. In adult NZW and SWR mice, depression-related behavior was observed. Considering an involvement of developmental brain disturbance in psychiatric disorders, TPH1 may act specifically on development of 5-HT neurons, and thereby influence behavior later in life.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 02/2006; 26(2):530-4. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1835-05.2006 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-5 preferentially activates B1 cells to produce natural antibodies cross-reactive to self antigens. To determine the role of IL-5 in antibody-mediated autoimmune disease, we generated systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-prone (NZB x NZW)F1 mice congenic for IL-5 transgene (TG-F1). The transgene unexpectedly reduced the incidence of lupus nephritis. Anti-DNA antibodies in sera and those produced by splenic B cells in vitro were markedly decreased in TG-F1 mice, while total polyclonal Ig levels were comparable to those in IL-5 transgene-negative (NZB x NZW)F1 (non-TG-F1) littermates. Flow cytometry-sorted splenic B1 cells showed a significant reduction of anti-DNA antibody synthesis in response to IL-5, while proliferative responses to IL-5 did not significantly differ between TG-F1 and non-TG-F1 mice. As TG-F1 mice aged, frequencies of peripheral B1 cells progressively increased, and the mice frequently developed B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Our results suggest that dysregulated, continuous high expression of IL-5 in SLE-prone mice may directly or indirectly mediate a skewed signaling of proliferation/differentiation of self-antigen-activated B1 cells, leading to suppression of autoimmune disease, but instead to aberrant expansion of B1 cells, giving rise to B-CLL. Thus, this model may provide a clue to the pathogenesis of both SLE and B-CLL.
European Journal of Immunology 10/2004; 34(10):2740-9. DOI:10.1002/eji.200425267 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a complex multigenic disease, is characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia, autoantibody production and immune complex-type lupus nephritis. In addition to these signs and symptoms in SLE, there can be symptoms of neurological disorders, including anxiety. To clarify mechanisms governing the anxiety seen in lupus, we carried out genome-wide scans, and found that the region including interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) on NZB chromosome 4 is significantly linked to the anxiety-like behavior seen in SLE-prone New Zealand Black (NZB) x New Zealand White (NZW) F(1) (B/W F(1)) mice. This finding was confirmed by anxiety-like performances of mice with heterozygous NZB/NZW alleles in the susceptibility region onto the NZW background. In B/W F(1) mice, neuronal IFN-alpha levels were elevated, and blockade of the micro (1) opioid receptor or corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, possible downstream effectors for IFN-alpha in the brain partially overcame the anxiety-like behavior seen in the B/W F(1) mice. Consistently, neuronal corticotropin-releasing hormone levels were higher in B/W F(1) than NZW mice. Furthermore, pretreatment of micro (1) opioid receptor antagonist abolished anxiety-like behaviour seen in IFN-alpha-treated NZW mice. Anxiety is shown to be mediated by multiple mediators. Our data suggest that a genetically determined endogenous excess amount of IFN-alpha in the brain may form one aspect of anxiety-like behavior seen in SLE-prone mice.
Human Molecular Genetics 06/2003; 12(10):1079-86. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddg128 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FcgammaRIIB1 molecules serve as negative feedback regulator for B cell Ag receptor-elicited activation of B cells; thus, any impaired FcgammaRIIB1 function may possibly be related to aberrant B cell activation. We earlier found deletion polymorphism in the Fcgr2b promoter region among mouse strains in which systemic autoimmune disease-prone NZB, BXSB, MRL, and autoimmune diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic, but not NZW, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice have two identical deletion sites, consisting of 13 and 3 nucleotides. In this study, we established congenic C57BL/6 mice for NZB-type Fcgr2b allele and found that NZB-type allele down-regulates FcgammaRIIB1 expression levels in germinal center B cells and up-regulates IgG Ab responses. We did luciferase reporter assays to determine whether NZB-type deletion polymorphism affects transcriptional regulation of Fcgr2b gene. Although NZW- and BALB/c-derived segments from position -302 to +585 of Fcgr2b upstream region produced significant levels of luciferase activities, only a limited activity was detected in the NZB-derived sequence. EMSA and Southwestern analysis revealed that defect in transcription activity in the NZB-derived segment is likely due to absence of transactivation by AP-4, which binds to the polymorphic 13 nucleotide deletion site. Our data imply that because of the deficient AP-4 binding, the NZB-type Fcgr2b allele polymorphism results in up-regulation of IgG Ab responses through down-regulation of FcgammaRIIB1 expression levels in germinal center B cells, and that such polymorphism may possibly form the basis of autoimmune susceptibility in combination with other background contributing genes.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2002; 169(8):4340-6. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.169.8.4340 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune diseases involve multiple genes. While functions of these genes are largely unknown, some may be related to an
intrinsic hyperresponsiveness of B cells. B-cell responses are controlled by signaling thresholds through the B-cell antigen
receptor (BCR) complex. The B1 isoform of type II IgG Fc receptors (FcγRIIB1) is exclusively expressed on B cells and serves
as a negative regulator for inhibiting BCR-elicited activation. Thus, its allelic variants associated with functional deficits
could be examined for possible associations with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. We found that there are three types
of polymorphisms in the reported FcγRIIB transcription regulatory regions in mouse strains. Compared to normal healthy mouse strains (group III), autoimmune disease-prone
strains (group I) share three deletion sites: two in the promoter region and one in the third intron. Strains (group II) that
per se are not autoimmune-prone, but have potentials to accelerate autoimmune diseases share two deletion sites in the third
intron: one identical to that in group I and the other unique to group II. These polymorphisms correlated well with extents
of down-regulation of FcγRIIB1 expression in germinal-center B cells upon stimulation with antigens and up-regulation of IgG antibody responses. Our data
imply that these FcγRIIB polymorphisms are selected evolutionarily for natural defense against pathogens, and that such polymorphisms may, in turn,
form the basis of one aspect of autoimmune susceptibility.