[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult intussusception is a rare clinical entity that is most often caused by a tumor, such as a lipoma, adenoma, or malignant tumor. A case of adult intussusception due to intestinal tuberculosis of the ileocecal region is reported. There are few cases of intussusception due to intestinal tuberculosis.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2008; 7:16. · 1.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important pathogens in patients with chronic airway conditions, such as cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Type III secretion system-mediated virulence factors contribute to the lung damage in chronic P. aeruginosa infection. The effects of the anti-PcrV immunoglobulin (Ig)G, which blocks the type III secretion system, were evaluated in a mouse model of chronic P. aeruginosa infection. On bacteriological examination, anti-PcrV IgG showed no bactericidal effects. On bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis, total cell number and neutrophil ratios in the anti-PcrV IgG-treated groups were lower than those in the control group. In addition, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-beta concentrations in BALF were lower in the anti-PcrV IgG-treated groups when compared with controls. Plasma anti-PcrV IgG titre was elevated after administration of anti-PcrV IgG. Although plasma titre decreased gradually, a significant concentration was maintained during the experimental period. These data suggest that anti-PcrV immunoglobulin G reduces the inflammatory reaction caused by chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infection and may be useful in treating respiratory diseases.
European Respiratory Journal 06/2007; 29(5):965-8. · 6.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the discrepancy between increasing resistance and conservative clinical effects of macrolides on macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, the authors evaluated the effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of macrolides on pneumolysin. In vitro, S. pneumoniae was incubated with 1, 2 and 4 microg.mL(-1) of clarithromycin (CLR) and azithromycin (AZM) for 8 h. Western blot analysis and haemolytic assay were performed to examine the production and activities of pneumolysin. In vivo, mice were infected with S. pneumoniae intra-nasally and treated with CLR (40 or 200 mg.kg(-1) twice daily) or AZM (40 or 200 mg.kg(-1) once daily) orally for 7 days. After 72 h post-infection, western blot analysis was performed to examine pneumolysin production in lungs. Survival rates were observed for 10 days. In vitro, every concentration of macrolide inhibited pneumolysin production more than the control. CLR (2 and 4 microg.mL(-1)) and AZM (4 microg.mL(-1)) reduced the pneumolysin activities more than the control. In vivo, macrolides (200 mg.kg(-1)) reduced pneumolysin in murine lungs more than the control. CLR (40 and 200 mg.kg(-1)) and AZM (200 mg.kg(-1)) improved the survival rates more than the control. The study results show that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of macrolides reduced pneumolysin. This might be related to the effectiveness of macrolides against pneumonia caused by high-level macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate the effects of macrolides on macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.
European Respiratory Journal 06/2006; 27(5):1020-5. · 6.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the quorum sensing (QS) system and the related homoserine lactones (HSLs) observing Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion using the epithelial cell monolayer penetration assay model. Compared to the PAO1 wild-type, the QS mutants, DeltalasI and DeltarhlI, were compromised in their capacity to invade. The decreased invasiveness of DeltarhlI was restored by adding 100 microM exogenous C(4)-HSL. However, the decreased invasiveness of an efflux mutant, DeltamexAB-oprM, was not restored in the presence of exogenous HSLs. The QS system partially plays a role in P. aeruginosa invasion; however, C(4)-HSL and 3-O-C(12)-HSL are not the essential determinants for invasiveness for P. aeruginosa.
Microbiology and Immunology 02/2006; 50(5):395-401. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coinfections of bacteria and influenza are a major cause of excessive mortality during influenza epidemics. However, the mechanism of the synergy between influenza virus and bacteria are poorly understood. In this study, mice were inoculated with influenza virus, followed 2 days later by inoculation with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The kinetics of viral titres, bacterial numbers and the immune response (cytokine and chemokine production) were also analysed. Short-term survival correlated with pathological changes in the lungs of infected mice. Influenza virus or S. pneumoniae infection alone induced moderate pneumonia; however, severe bronchopneumonia with massive haemorrhage in coinfected mice, which caused death of these mice approximately 2 days after inoculation with S. pneumoniae, was noted. Intrapulmonary levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, type-1 T-helper cell cytokines and Toll-like receptors, and the related mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling molecules (phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase -1 and - 2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase), were increased in coinfected mice. These results suggest that immune mediators, including cytokines and chemokines, through Toll-like receptors/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, play important roles in the pathology of coinfection caused by influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
European Respiratory Journal 08/2004; 24(1):143-9. · 6.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We established a mouse model in which fatal pneumonia was induced by pneumococcal superinfection following influenza virus infection in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected mice. In this mouse model, influenza virus infection caused a significant increase in inflammatory cells, cytokines and severe tissue damage in the lungs of these P. aeruginosa infected mice, before pneumococcal infection. Intrapulmonary virus titres were significantly increased in mice with chronic P. aeruginosa infection, compared with control mice. Neutrophil function analysis showed significant reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and lysozyme secretion by influenza virus infection in these mice. Our results suggest that influenza virus infection may play an important role in inducing pneumococcal pneumonia in chronic P. aeruginosa infected mice. Our results suggested that our mouse model is useful for investigating the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection in patients with chronic lung infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From October 2002 to September 2003, we collected the specimen from 476 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 16 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. Of 584 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in inflammation, 578 strains were examined. The breakdown of the isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 77, Streptococcus pneumoniae 103, Haemophilus influenzae 95, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 61, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 23, Klebsiella pneumoniae 36, Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis 29, etc. Of 77 S. aureus strains, those with 2 microg/ml or less of MIC of oxacillin (MPIPC) [methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA] was 34 strains (44.2%) and those with 4 microg/ml or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) was 43 strains (55.8%). Against MSSA, imipenem (IPM) and minocycline (MINO) had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25 microg/ml. Although clindamycin (CLDM) and aminoglycosides also had the potent activity, the resistant strains against those agents were detected. Cefotiam (CTM) inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 microg/ml without the low sensitive strains. Against MRSA, vancomycin (VCM) showed the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 microg/ml. Arbekacin (ABK) also showed the relatively potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 4 microg/ml. Carbapenems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25-0.5 microg/ml. Cefozopran (CZOP) also had a preferable activity (MIC90: 1 microg/ml) and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 microg/ml. In contrast, the resistant strains for cefaclor (CCL), erythromycin (EM), CLDM, and tetracycline (TC) were detected in 50.5%, 76.7%, 50.5%, and 80.6% of all the strains, respectively. Against H. influenzae, LVFX showed the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of 92 of all the strains (96.8%) at 0.063 microg/ml. Tobramycin (TOB) showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (both mucoid and non-mucoid) and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 microg/ml. The antibacterial activity of CZOP was good and its MIC90 against mucoid and non-mucoid strains was 8 and 16 microg/ml, respectively. CZOP and cefpirome (CPR) were the most potent against K. pneumoniae with 0.125 microg/ml of MIC90. Also, all the agents generally showed potent activities against M. (B.) catarrhalis and the MIC90 of all drugs were 4 microg/ml or less. The approximately half the number (47.5%) of the patients with respiratory infection were aged 70 years or older. As for the incidence by the diseases, bacterial pneumonia and chronic bronchitis were the highest, being noted in 35.7 and 33.8% of all the patients, respectively. The bacteria frequently isolated from the patients with bacterial pneumonia were S. pneumoniae (22.6%). In contrast, S. aureus (16.6%) and P. aeruginosa (13.7%) were relatively frequently isolated from the patients with chronic bronchitis. Before the drug administration, the bacteria frequently isolated from all the patients were H. influenzae (24.5%) and S. pneumoniae (24.2%). In comparison of the isolated bacteria by pretreatment agents, P. aeruginosa was relatively frequently isolated from the patients pretreated with cephems or macrolides and H. influenzae was relatively frequently isolated from the patients pretreated with penicillins.
The Japanese journal of antibiotics 07/2004; 57(3):213-45.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa carrying bla(IMP), a metallo-beta-lactamase gene, and the efficacy of ceftazidime, imipenem-cilastatin, and ciprofloxacin in the endogenous bacteremia model. The presence of bla(IMP) did not practically change the virulence of the parent strain, and ciprofloxacin was effective against infection with P. aeruginosa carrying bla(IMP).
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/2004; 48(5):1876-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterial strains isolated from patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 10 institutions in Japan were supplied between the period of September and December 2001. Then, the susceptibilities of them to a variety of antimicrobial agents were investigated. The number of them were 496 strains. The breakdown of these strains was Gram-positive bacteria as 29.6% and Gram-negative bacteria as 70.4%. Susceptibilities of these bacteria to antimicrobial agents were as follows; against Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin (VCM) showed a strong activity, and this drug also had a strong activity against MRSA in preventing growth of all strains at 1 microgram/mL. In addition, arbekacin (ABK) showed strong activity with the MIC90 of 2 micrograms/mL against MRSA and prevented growth of all strains at 4 micrograms/mL. ABK also showed a strong activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis in preventing growth of all strains at 0.5 microgram/mL. Ampicillin (ABPC) and cefozopran (CZOP) showed a relatively strong activity against S. epidermidis (MIC90: 8 micrograms/mL). ABPC, imipenem (IPM), and VCM showed strong activities against Enterococcus faecalis. No increase of low-susceptible strains in E. faecalis was observed against these antimicrobial agents. Against Escherichia coli, carbapenems showed the highest activities: meropenem (MEPM) prevented growth of all strains at 0.25 microgram/mL; IPM prevented growth of all strains at 0.5 microgram/mL. CZOP and cefotiam (CTM) also showed strong activities against E. coli: MIC90 of CZOP was within 0.125 microgram/mL; MIC90 of CTM was within 0.5 microgram/mL. Quinolone-resistant E. coli was detected at frequency of 9.3%, which was lower than that in the last year, and was higher level than those in up to 1999. MEPM showed the strongest activity against Citrobacter freundii in preventing growth of all strains at 0.125 microgram/mL. Almost all drugs showed strong activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis, and MEPM prevented growth of all strains within 0.125 microgram/mL. Against Serratia marcescens, the MIC90 of gentamicin (GM) was the lowest value being 2 micrograms/mL, and those of IPM and carumonam were 8 and 16 micrograms/mL, respectively. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, almost all drugs were not so active. The MIC90 of GM was 8 micrograms/mL, those of IPM and amikacin were 16 micrograms/mL, and those of all other drugs were over than 32 micrograms/mL.
The Japanese journal of antibiotics 11/2003; 56(5):396-423.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A detection system for Legionella DNA in blood samples based on the PCR was developed and evaluated in A/J mice with experimentally induced Legionella pneumonia. Primers were designed to amplify a 106 bp DNA fragment of the 16S rRNA gene specific to Legionella species. The PCR system could detect clinically relevant Legionella species including Legionella pneumophila, Legionella micdadei, Legionella bozemanae, Legionella dumoffii, Legionella longbeachae, Legionella gormanii and Legionella jordanis. The sensitivity of the PCR system was 20 fg extracted DNA. In the mouse model, the blood PCR was compared with results obtained by PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples, cultures of blood and BALF and detection of Legionella urinary antigen. Blood PCR was positive until 8 days after infection, while BALF PCR became negative on day 4. These results indicate that PCR using blood samples may be a useful, convenient and non-invasive method for the diagnosis of Legionella pneumonia.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 05/2003; 52(Pt 4):325-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tuberculin skin test (TST) was conducted in 1,087 employees of Nagasaki University Hospital. The size of erythema (T1) was 27.3 +/- 17.0 mm, and 8.6% of all participants showed < = 9 mm, 49.9% showed 10-29 mm, 41.5% showed > = 30 mm. Laboratory technologists showed significantly larger reactions than other groups. Doctors and nurses working on the tuberculosis ward showed larger reactions than those working on the non-tuberculosis wards. Reactions tended to be larger with aging, and the younger employees in their 20s showed significantly smaller reactions than those in their 40s. The second TST was carried out in 253 employees whose T1 was below 30 mm. The size of erythema enlarged from 16.1 +/- 6.6 mm (T1) to 26.4 +/- 15.4 mm (T2), with the difference (booster phenomenon) of 10.2 +/- 14.4 mm. T2 and T2-T1 were larger in nurses working on the tuberculosis ward than those on the non-tuberculosis wards. It was suggested that laboratory technologists, nurses and doctors especially working on the tuberculosis ward are at risk of tuberculosis infection, and the two-step TST was an essential means to know the baseline reactivity, and to determine recent tuberculosis infection.
Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 04/2003; 77(4):203-10.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the bacteriological, pharmacological and histopathological effects of parenterally administered ciprofloxacin (CPFX) to those of imipenem/cilastatin (IMP/CS) and cefozopran (CZOP) in a murine model of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia mimicking ventilator-associated pneumonia.
The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CPFX, IMP and CZOP were 1.0, 1.0 and 4.0 mg/l, respectively. Treatment with CPFX resulted in a significant decrease in the number of viable bacteria [control, IMP/CS, CZOP and CPFX (mean +/- SEM): 5.02 +/- 0.20, 4.96 +/- 0.38, 5.44 +/- 0.13 and 3.27 +/- 0.02 log(10) colony-forming units lung, respectively]. Histopathological examination revealed that inflammatory changes in the CPFX-treated group were less marked than in other groups. Of the drugs analyzed, the pharmacokinetic parameters of area under the time-concentration curve (AUC)/MIC, AUC exceeding MIC and the time that lung concentrations of drug remained above the MIC were highest for CPFX.
Our results suggest that parenterally administered ciprofloxacin is effective in ventilator-associated P. aeruginosa pneumonia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tuberculin skin test (TST) was conducted in 243 nurse students (19.4 +/- 1.3 years old). The second TST were carried out in 240 students who did not show blister or necrosis in the first TST. The size of erythema was 16.5 +/- 9.4 mm in the first TST (T1) and 24.3 +/- 15.6 mm in the second TST (T2). The negative reactors, whose size of erythema was below 10 mm, were decreased from 53 to 25, whereas, the strong reactors, whose size of erythema was more than 30 mm, were increased from 11 to 71. The difference of the size of erythema (T2-T1) was 9.7 +/- 11.9 mm in the group I (190 students) who received the latest TST in junior high school, whereas, that was 0.5 +/- 9.2 mm in the group II (50 students) who received the latest TST 14 months before this study. T2-T1 in the group I was weakly correlated with T1. Twenty-four negative reactors received BCG vaccination, and 23 of them converted to positive. Seventy-one strong reactors were checked by chest X-ray, and none showed the findings of tuberculosis, and required the administration of anti-TB drug. The two-step TST is an essential means to know the baseline reactivity to TST, and to distinguish newly infected tuberculosis from booster phenomenon.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From October 1999 to September 2000, we collected the specimen from 430 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 17 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and antibiotics and patients' characteristics. Of 515 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in inflammation, 506 strains were investigated. The breakdown of the isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 78, Streptococcus pneumoniae 101, Haemophilus influenzae 104, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 58, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 11, Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis 41, Klebsiella pneumoniae 18, etc. Of 78 S. aureus strains, those with 4 micrograms/ml or above of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) occupied 57.7%. Vancomycin and arbekacin showed the most potent activities against MRSA without detection of ABK-resistant strain (MIC: 64 micrograms/ml) and decrease of VCM-sensitive strains those were found in 1998. The frequency of S. pneumoniae exhibiting low sensitivity to penicillin (penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae: PISP + penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae: PRSP) decreased to 34.7% from 46.0% in 1998. The frequency of PRSP was 3.0%, being the least number after 1991. Carbapenems showed strong activities against S. pneumoniae. Especially, panipenem inhibited the growth of all 101 strains with MIC of 0.063 microgram/ml. Generally, all drugs showed strong activities against H. influenzae with MIC80s of 4 micrograms/ml or below. MICs of ofloxacin ranged between 0.063 microgram/ml and 4 micrograms/ml in 1998, however, those were 0.125 microgram/ml or below in all H. influenzae in 1999 showing the strongest activity. Tobramycin and ciprofloxacin showed strong activities against P. aeruginosa (both mucoid and non-mucoid) with MIC80s of 1 microgram/ml. Number of isolated P. aeruginosa (mucoid) was little as 11, however, the susceptibilities to all drugs were better than P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid). K. pneumoniae showed good susceptibilities to all drugs except for ampicillin with decreasing of low-sensitive strains compared to those detected in 1998. Also, all drugs generally showed strong activities against M. (B.) catarrhalis. MIC80s of all drugs were 2 micrograms/ml or below. The drug which showed the strongest activity was imipenem inhibiting all 41 strains with MIC of 0.063 microgram/ml. On the patients' characteristics, the number of patients aged 80 years or older who had been increased was decreased in 1999 in the distribution by age. The percentage of the elderly patients aged 70 years or older was 47.0%, which occupied almost a half number of the total patients as in the last year. As for the incidence by disease, bacterial pneumonia and chronic bronchitis were the highest. They were noted in 37.9% and 30.5% of the patients, respectively. In 1999, bronchial asthma was frequently observed as compared in recent years. It was noted in about 10% of the patients which is the same % as in bronchiectasis. We examined the number of strains from these patients with infections before and after administration of antibiotics. In patients with bacterial pneumonia, the number of isolated strains was almost the same between those before and after administration. However, in patients with chronic bronchitis, the number of strains remarkably decreased to less than the half of the total after administration of antibiotics in the last year, but it decreased to 2/3 of the total in 1999. On the administration of antibiotics and isolated bacteria by the day of administration, the bacteria which were isolated more before administration were H. influenzae in 28.4%, S. pneumoniae in 25.7%, M. (B.) catarrhalis in 12.0% and S. aureus in 10.6%. The frequency of S. aureus after administration over 15 days was almost the same as that before administration, but the frequency of P. aeruginosa (both mucoid and non-mucoid) was 36.8% which was higher than that before administration. The frequency of isolated S. pneumoniae was decreased after administration and none of them was isolated after completion of administration. However, that of H. influenzae was decreased to 7.1% after administration within 3 days, and many H. influenzae were isolated after completion of administration as 21.4%.
The Japanese journal of antibiotics 08/2001; 54(7):331-64.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolated from patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 9 institutions in Japan were supplied between the period of August 1999 to July 2000. Then, the susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were examined and the results were compared with those obtained between 1991 and 1998. Comparison was made by classifying strains isolated from patients into those with uncomplicated UTIs and those with complicated UTIs (including with or without indwelling catheter). About E. faecalis, increase of low sensitive strains noted in the former year showed a decreasing tendency, however, one strain each with MIC of 4 micrograms/ml to vancomycin (VCM) was detected in patients with both uncomplicated and complicated UTIs. As for S. aureus, many sensitive strains to cephems, imipenem (IPM) and VCM were noted, and each MIC50 was better than that in the former years. S. aureus strains showing low susceptibility to arbekacin (ABK) were detected in patients with complicated UTIs in this year as well as in the former year, and one strain each with MIC of 16 micrograms/ml and 32 micrograms/ml was detected. Susceptibilities of E. coli were effective to all drugs except for penicillins and minocycline (MINO). Decrease of low sensitive strains was also noted in all drugs except for quinolones. Each MIC90 of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) and sparfloxacin (SPFX) in patients with complicated UTIs against E. coli was 3 degrees classes lower than that in patients with uncomplicated UTIs. As for Klebsiella pneumoniae, decrease of low sensitive strains to cephems was noted in patients with uncomplicated UTIs in 1998. In 1999, low sensitive strains decreased also in patients with complicated UTIs, and few were detected. Susceptibilities of K. pneumoniae to quinolones were effective as compared with those in the former years with the MIC80s of 0.125 microgram/ml or below without detection of low sensitive strains. One low sensitive strain of K. pneumoniae with MIC of 8 micrograms/ml was detected for gentamicin (GM). Susceptibilities of P. aeruginosa to carbapenems were notable. The MIC90 of meropenem (MEPM) and IPM was 4 micrograms/ml each which was 2 degrees better than that in 1998. Resistant P. aeruginosa strains to other drugs except for monobactams decreased in 1999.
The Japanese journal of antibiotics 07/2001; 54(6):231-322.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five-hundred forty four bacterial strains isolated from 412 patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 9 institutions in Japan were supplied between the period of August 1999 to July 2000. Then, the clinical background of patients were investigated such as sex, age and type of infections, infections and kind of bacteria, frequency of isolation of bacteria by age and infections, bacteria and infections by timing of administration of antibiotics, and bacteria and infections by surgical procedures. About the relationship between age and sex of patients and type of infections, the number of male patients aged less than 50 years was few, and complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter was the most frequent. In females, the number of patients aged less than 20 years was few. Complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter was the most frequent among female patients aged between 40 to 59 years, in other age groups, uncomplicated UTIs was most frequent. As for type of infections and kind of bacteria, Escherichia coli decreased when the infections became complicated, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis increased when the infection became complicated. Considering this result by age of patients, isolation frequency of E. coli was gradually decreased with aging in patients aged more than 20 years with uncomplicated UTIs or complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter. The isolation frequencies of E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus were gradually increased with aging in complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter. In patients with complicated UTIs with indwelling catheter, there was no difference between age group, and P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis were frequently isolated. As for type of causative organisms in UTIs before and after the administration of antibiotics, the isolation of bacteria was remarkably decreased after administration in patients with uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter. E. coli decreased after administration of antibiotics, and P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis increased after administration in patients with all infections. As for type of causative organisms in UTIs and surgical procedures, E. coli were more frequently isolated in patients with uncomplicated UTIs when surgical procedures were experienced. Also, Klebsiella spp. and E. faecalis were more frequently isolated in patients with surgical procedures. However, in complicated UTIs, type of causative organisms had no relationship with surgical procedures.
The Japanese journal of antibiotics 06/2001; 54(5):217-29.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterial strains isolated from patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 9 institutions in Japan were supplied between the period of August 1999 to July 2000. Then, the susceptibilities of them to many kinds of antimicrobial agents were investigated. The number of them were 499 strains. The breakdown of these strains was Gram-positive bacteria as 31.3% and Gram-negative bacteria as 68.7%. Susceptibilities of these bacteria to antimicrobial agents were as follows; vancomycin (VCM), ampicillin (ABPC) and imipenem (IPM) showed strong activities against Enterococcus faecalis. The increase of low-susceptible strains which was noticed in the former year showed a slight recovery in this year. VCM showed a strong activity against MRSA preventing growth of all strains with 1 microgram/ml. In addition, the activity of arbekacin (ABK) was also strong with the MIC90 of 2 micrograms/ml against MRSA. However, MSSA and MRSA showing low susceptibilities were detected in one strain each (MIC: 16 micrograms/ml and 32 micrograms/ml, respectively). Carbapenems showed high activities against Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli. Meropenem (MEPM) prevented growth of all strains within 0.125 microgram/ml. Quinolone resistant E. coli decreased in this year compared with those in the last year, that percentage was less than 5%. Almost all drugs showed strong activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. MEPM and carumonam (CRMN) prevented growth of all strains within 0.125 microgram/ml. On the other hand, one strain of K. pneumoniae showing resistance to cefaclor (CCL) and one strain of P. mirabilis showing low susceptibility to most of cephems were detected. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, almost drugs were not so active. The MIC90s of carbapenems were 8 micrograms/ml and those of all other drugs were more than 16 micrograms/ml.
The Japanese journal of antibiotics 06/2001; 54(5):185-216.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the characteristics of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) among the elderly, we reviewed 112 patients over 60 years old (median age 72 years) who were treated at hospitals in Nagasaki Prefecture with a population of 1.5 million between 1987 and 1994. Reclassification of morphological diagnosis revealed that the proportion of M3 was lower but that of M6 and the incidence of cases with trilineage dysplasia (TLD), known as poor prognostic features, were higher in the elderly than in patients less than 60 years old. Similarly, chromosomal data showed a lower frequency of favorable karyotypes such as t(8;21) and t(15;17) in the elderly. The overall survival of all 112 patients was 10.3% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis indicated that good performance status (PS), low WBC at diagnosis, standard dose multi-drug chemotherapy and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment for M3 patients, and morphological findings without TLD were significantly correlated with longer survival. Most of the long-term survivors were found among those who received standard dose therapy in this series, although no consensus has been established how to treat elderly AML patients. We propose that a prospective controlled trial is necessary to confirm the role of standard dose chemotherapy for elderly patients with de novo AML.
Leukemia Research 02/2001; 25(1):33-38. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the combination effects of ofloxacin and fluconazole against azole-resistant Candida albicans strains in vitro and in vivo. Ofloxacin alone showed no efficacy against the azole-resistant C. albicans strain, C26. The in-vitro combination effects were evaluated by the checkerboard method, calculated as the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index, but there was no synergistic effect of the combination. The activity of the drug efflux pump in the azole-resistant C. albicans strains was measured by intracellular rhodamine 6G concentration. When the cells were incubated with ofloxacin or grepafloxacin, the intracellular rhodamine 6G concentration was significantly increased in the azole-resistant C. albicans strain. In-vivo combination effects were evaluated in murine disseminated candidiasis. The survival of the mice was not prolonged, but counts of the yeast cells in the kidney and spleen were reduced following treatment with the combination of ofloxacin (20 mg/kg) and fluconazole (20 mg/kg). The combination of ofloxacin and fluconazole may represent an effective strategy to treat infections caused by azole-resistant C. albicans.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 10/2000; 6(3):151-4. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of inflammatory cytokines in a mouse model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection mimicking diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), and determined the effects of clarithromycin therapy on the production of these cytokines. The concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured serially in the lungs of mice with experimentally induced chronic respiratory P. aeruginosa infection until 60 days after inoculation. The concentrations of these cytokines during the course of the disease were significantly higher than baseline (before inoculation, P<0.01 for all cytokines). Clarithromycin significantly inhibited the production of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the lung (P<0.01). The same treatment also reduced the levels of other cytokines, albeit insignificantly. Treatment with anti-TNF-alpha antibody significantly reduced the number of pulmonary lymphocytes and concentration of IL-1beta in the lung (P<0.01), but did not change the number of viable bacteria. Our findings resemble those detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with DPB and indicate that inflammatory cytokines play an important role in chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. Our results also show that macrolides modulated the production of these cytokines, ultimately reducing lymphocyte accumulation in the lung. Our data suggest that anti-TNF-alpha antibody might be a useful new strategy for the treatment of chronic respiratory P. aeruginosa infection.