Y Kawano

Kyushu University, Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

Are you Y Kawano?

Claim your profile

Publications (72)252 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective Recent evidence has suggested the importance of an aberrantly activated monocyte system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. However, the roles of each monocyte subset, namely CD14+CD16− classical monocytes, CD14dimCD16+ non-classical monocytes and CD14+CD16+ intermediate monocytes, in ALS remain unknown. We aimed to clarify the alterations in the monocyte subset proportions and the surface marker expressions on each monocyte subset in ALS. Methods Blood samples were collected from 19 ALS patients and 28 healthy controls (HC). The surface expressions of CCR2, CX3CR1, CD64 and CD62L were measured in the three monocyte subsets (classical, non-classical and intermediate) by flow cytometry. ResultsThe percentages of CCR2 and CD62L on CD14+CD16− classical monocytes were significantly lower in ALS patients than in HC (P = 0.0012 and P = 0.0296, respectively). No differences were found in CX3CR1 and CD64 on each monocyte subset. The percentage of intermediate monocytes showed a significant negative correlation with the revised ALS functional rating scale score (r = −0.631, P = 0.0038). Conclusions Reductions in chemotaxis- and adhesion-related molecules on classical inflammatory monocytes are present in ALS, further suggesting the involvement of an aberrant innate immune system in ALS pathogenesis.
    Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology. 02/2014; 5(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Interleukin 2 receptor α subunit (IL2RA) is a genetic risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Caucasians. However, the association between MS and IL2RA in Japanese idiopathic demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system has not been examined. Objective To determine whether IL2RA gene polymorphisms confer risks of developing MS or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in a Japanese population. Methods DNA samples were obtained from 115 MS patients, 75 NMO/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients, and 238 healthy controls. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2104286, rs12722489, and rs7090512 were genotyped by real-time PCR using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results No significant associations of the three IL2RA SNPs with the development of the diseases were observed. In MS patients only, the annualized relapse rates were significantly higher for the rs2104286-TT genotype than for the non-TT (CT+CC) genotype and for the rs12722489-CC genotype than for the non-CC genotype in females (p = 0.0138 for both), but not in males. Conclusions Although the possibility that IL2RA is a risk factor for MS development was not confirmed in this Japanese population, IL2RA gene polymorphisms were able to modify the disease activity in female MS patients, but had no influence on either susceptibility or disease phenotype in NMO/NMOSD patients.
    Journal of the neurological sciences 01/2014; 337(s 1–2):147–150. · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abnormal intrathecal synthesis of IgG, reflected by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OBs) and increased IgG index, is much less frequently observed in Japanese multiple sclerosis (MS) cohorts compared with Western cohorts. We aimed to clarify whether genetic and common infectious backgrounds influence CSF IgG abnormality in Japanese MS patients. We analyzed HLA-DRB1 alleles, and IgG antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in 94 patients with MS and 367 unrelated healthy controls (HCs). We defined CSF IgG abnormality as the presence of CSF OBs and/or increased IgG index (>0.658). CSF IgG abnormality was found in 59 of 94 (62.8%) MS patients. CSF IgG abnormality-positive patients had a significantly higher frequency of brain MRI lesions meeting the Barkhof criteria compared with abnormality-negative patients. Compared with HCs, CSF IgG abnormality-positive MS patients showed a significantly higher frequency of DRB1*1501, whereas CSF IgG abnormality-negative patients had a significantly higher frequency of DRB1*0405. CSF IgG abnormality-positive MS patients had a significantly higher frequency of anti-C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies compared with CSF IgG abnormality-negative MS patients, although there was no difference in the frequency of anti-C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies between HCs and total MS patients. Compared with HCs, anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies were detected significantly less frequently in the total MS patients, especially in CSF IgG abnormality-negative MS patients. The frequencies of antibodies against EBNA and VZV did not differ significantly among the groups. CSF IgG abnormality is associated with Western MS-like brain MRI features. DRB1*1501 and C. pneumoniae infection confer CSF IgG abnormality, while DRB1*0405 and H. pylori infection are positively and negatively associated with CSF IgG abnormality-negative MS, respectively, suggesting that genetic and environmental factors differentially contribute to MS susceptibility according to the CSF IgG abnormality status.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e95367. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine whether the non-synonymous 1425G/A polymorphism (rs2230500), an Asian-specific single nucleotide polymorphism that increases the kinase activity and affects the function of immune cells, of the protein kinase C-η gene (PRKCH) confers the risk of developing idiopathic demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system in a Japanese population. Methods Blood samples were collected from 96 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, 52 neuromyelitis optica (NMO)/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients and 151 healthy controls. The polymorphism rs2230500 was genotyped by sequencing. ResultsNo significant association was observed between the PRKCH rs2230500 polymorphism and the risk of either MS or NMO/NMOSD. Clinical characteristics were also unaffected by the rs2230500 status. Conclusions Although the possibility that PRKCH has some effect on MS and NMO/NMOSD risk cannot be completely excluded because of the small study sample size, the polymorphism rs2230500 did not appear to confer disease susceptibility to MS or NMO/NMOSD in this Japanese population.
    Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology. 12/2013; 4(3).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives There has been no large-scale study of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in Asian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO), despite it being widely used for acute relapse. We aimed to clarify treatment response of MS and NMO patients to methylprednisolone pulse therapy and post-pulse oral corticosteroids in real clinical practice in a multicenter study in Japan. Methods Investigators at 28 institutions collected changes in neurological symptoms/signs and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores before and within 1 week of completion of methylprednisolone pulse therapy carried out in 2010, and after post-pulse oral corticosteroids therapy, by retrospective review of medical records. ResultsIn 345 patients (95.1% of all registered patients), 457 series of methylprednisolone pulse therapy were carried out for treatment of acute relapse. EDSS scores improved by 0.8 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD) after the first course. The second and third courses also produced sufficient improvements (by 0.7 and 0.6, respectively), but much smaller improvements were observed thereafter. The target neurological symptoms and signs improved in 79.5% of patients. Improvement rates were 5–20% lower after a course of pulse therapy than after a series of pulse therapy. A half dose (500 mg/day) produced less improvement than a standard dose (1000 mg/day; 65.9 vs 79.5%). During post-pulse oral corticosteroid therapy, EDSS scores decreased by 0.6 ± 0.9. No significant adverse effects were observed. Conclusions Methylprednisolone pulse therapy is beneficial in nearly 80% of Japanese MS and NMO patients, and EDSS score improvements after therapy are compatible with those in Western MS patients.
    Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology. 12/2013; 4(3).
  • Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology. 08/2013; 4(2).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives Human peripheral blood monocytes comprise three different subtypes: CD14+CD16− (classical type), CD14lowCD16+ (non-classical type) and CD14+CD16+ (intermediate type). These subsets are known to have different functions, but little is known about their roles in multiple sclerosis (MS), especially for maintaining remission. We aimed to clarify the alterations in monocyte subsets in patients with MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO)/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in the remission phase. Methods Blood samples were collected from 19 MS patients and 10 NMO/NMOSD patients in the remission phase, and 42 healthy controls (HC). The surface expressions of CCR2, CX3CR1, CD64 (FcγR1) and CD62L were analyzed in the monocyte subsets by flow cytometry. ResultsCCR2 expression was significantly decreased in classical monocytes from MS patients, regardless of interferon-β (IFN-β) treatment, but not in those from NMO/NMOSD patients. CX3CR1 expression was also decreased in all monocyte subsets from MS patients receiving IFN-β, whereas CX3CR1 expression in classical monocytes was only decreased in NMO/NMOSD patients receiving prednisolone. In NMO/NMOSD patients on prednisolone, the percentages of CD14+CD16+ intermediate monocytes, CD14lowCD16+ non-classical monocytes and CD64+CD14+CD16+ monocytes among total monocytes were significantly lower than in HC. CD62L expression on the monocyte subsets showed no significant differences among the patients and HC. Conclusions Our findings suggest that alterations in chemokine receptor expressions on peripheral blood monocytes can occur in MS and NMO/NMOSD during the remission phase. Down-modulation of CCR2 in MS, and CX3CR1 in MS and NMO/NMOSD could partly contribute to sustained remission by preventing monocyte infiltration into the central nervous system.
    Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology. 08/2013; 4(2).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether genetic and common infectious backgrounds are distinct, according to anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody status in Japanese patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). METHODS: We analysed human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 and HLA-DPB1 alleles, and IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, varicella zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) in 116 patients with NMO, including 39 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), 145 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 367 unrelated healthy controls. 77 NMO/NMOSD patients were seropositive for AQP4 antibody while 39 were seronegative. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, NMO/NMOSD patients showed a significantly lower frequency of DRB1*0901 and significantly higher frequencies of DRB1*1602 and DPB1*0501, which conferred susceptibility to anti-AQP4 antibody positive NMO/NMOSD, but not antibody negative NMO/NMOSD. DRB1*0901 was a common protective allele, irrespective of the presence or absence of anti-AQP4 antibody. Anti-H pylori and anti-C pneumoniae antibodies were more commonly detected in anti-AQP4 antibody positive NMO/NMOSD patients than healthy controls. Antibody negative NMO/NMOSD patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding the presence of these antibodies. The presence or absence of antibodies against varicella zoster virus and EBNA did not vary among the groups. The frequencies of antibodies against these four pathogens were not significantly different between MS patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that HLA-DRB1*1602 and DPB1*0501 alleles and H pylori and Chlamydia pneumonia infection are risk factors only for anti-AQP4 antibody positive NMO/NMOSD but not for anti-AQP4 antibody negative NMO/NMOSD.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 10/2012; · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To clarify the clinical relevance of anti-aquaporin-4 (anti-AQP4) antibody titers and immunoglobulin (IgG) subclass. Using a bridging enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a flow cytometric assay (FCMA) and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for anti-AQP4 antibodies, sera from 142 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) as defined by the McDonald criteria (2005), 29 with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) who fulfilled the 1999 criteria, 19 with recurrent and/or longitudinally extensive myelitis (RM/LM), 86 with other non-inflammatory neurological diseases (OND) and 28 healthy controls (HC) were studied. Anti-AQP4 antibody positivity rates by IFA, FCMA, and ELISA were 41.4%, 51.7% and 48.3%, respectively, in NMO (1999) patients, and 0% in the OND and HC groups. Twenty-six MS patients (18.3%) were positive for the antibody; 17 met the 2006 NMO criteria, including positivity for anti-AQP4 antibody, and five had longitudinally extensive myelitis (LM). Among the cases with anti-AQP4 antibody detected by FCMA, IgG1, 2, 3, and 4 anti-AQP4 antibodies were found in 97.8%, 37.0%, 6.5% and 6.5% respectively. There was no association of either antibody positivity or level of anti-AQP4 antibody IgG subclasses with clinical parameters after adjustment of p values for multiple comparisons. FCMA and bridging ELISA are useful for detecting and quantifying anti-AQP4 antibodies.
    Multiple Sclerosis 04/2012; 18(11):1541-51. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nationwide surveys conducted in Japan over the past thirty years have revealed a four-fold increase in the estimated number of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, a decrease in the age at onset, and successive increases in patients with conventional MS, which shows an involvement of multiple sites in the central nervous system, including the cerebrum and cerebellum. We aimed to clarify whether genetic and infectious backgrounds correlate to distinct disease phenotypes of MS in Japanese patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed HLA-DRB1 and -DPB1 alleles, and IgG antibodies specific for Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, varicella zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) in 145 MS patients and 367 healthy controls (HCs). Frequencies of DRB1*0405 and DPB1*0301 were significantly higher, and DRB1*0901 and DPB1*0401 significantly lower, in MS patients as compared with HCs. MS patients with DRB1*0405 had a significantly earlier age of onset and lower Progression Index than patients without this allele. The proportion and absolute number of patients with DRB1*0405 successively increased with advancing year of birth. In MS patients without DRB1*0405, the frequency of the DRB1*1501 allele was significantly higher, while the DRB1*0901 allele was significantly lower, compared with HCs. Furthermore, DRB1*0405-negative MS patients were significantly more likely to be positive for EBNA antibodies compared with HCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that MS patients harboring DRB1*0405, a genetic risk factor for MS in the Japanese population, have a younger age at onset and a relatively benign disease course, while DRB1*0405-negative MS patients have features similar to Western-type MS in terms of association with Epstein-Barr virus infection and DRB1*1501. The recent increase of MS in young Japanese people may be caused, in part, by an increase in DRB1*0405-positive MS patients.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e48592. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Neurology 06/2011; 76(24):2125-7. · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 30-year-old man who developed severe dysphagia owing to neuroborreliosis. He showed dysphagia, diplopia, hiccups, and walking difficulty Neurological examination revealed mild disturbance of consciousness, diplopia on left lateral gaze, left-side-dominant blephaloptosis, gaze-evoked horizontal nystagmus on left lateral gaze, mild bilateral muscle weakness, palatoplegia, dysphagia, dysarthria, and truncal ataxia An increased pharyngeal reflex caused dysphagia in this patient. An EEG revealed intermittent high amplitude slow wave activity. However, head MRI, blood count, serum chemistry, and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed no abnormality. Initially, brainstem encephalitis with unknown etiology was diagnosed. The hiccups, diplopia, and ptosis were improved by corticosteroid therapy, but other symptoms were refractory to corticosteroid therapy and IVIg. After these immunotherapies, anti-Borrelia IgG and IgM antibodies were found to be positive, and symptoms, including dysphagia, were improved by doxycycline and cefotaxime. Because the clinical symptoms of Borrelia infection are widely variable, neuroborreliosis should be considered in patients with brainstem encephalitis refractory to conventional immunotherapies.
    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 04/2010; 50(4):265-7.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epistatic interactions between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles alter multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in Caucasians. Such interactions have never been studied in Asian MS patients. To investigate the influence of HLA-DRB1 alleles, including epistatic interactions at this locus, in Japanese MS patients with and without the anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody. The HLA-DRB1 locus was genotyped in 108 MS patients and 127 healthy controls. MS patients were further classified into two groups according to anti-AQP4 antibody status (27 positive and 81 negative). HLA-DRB1*09 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.243, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.099-0.533) and HLA-DRB1*01 (adjusted OR = 0.327, 95% CI 0.103-0.873) decreased the incidence of anti-AQP4 antibody-negative MS. By contrast, HLA-DRB1*12 increased the risk of anti-AQP4 antibody-positive MS (adjusted OR = 3.691, 95% CI 1.233-10.565). Individuals with HLA-DRB1*09/15 decreased the risk of anti-AQP4 antibody-negative MS (adjusted OR = 0.164, 95% CI 0.026-0.593), while those with HLA-DRB1*12/15 increased the risk of anti-AQP4 antibody-positive MS (adjusted OR = 10.870, 95% CI 2.004-81.752). The ability of HLA-DRB1*09 to reduce the risk of anti-AQP4 antibody-negative MS may arise from an interaction with HLA-DRB1*15. By contrast, HLA-DRB1*12 increases susceptibility to anti-AQP4 antibody-positive MS, possibly via an interaction with HLA-DRB1*15.
    Multiple Sclerosis 12/2009; 16(2):147-55. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We previously reported the occurrence of myelitis in patients with atopic disorders (atopic myelitis [AM]). To uncover the spectrum of neural damage associated with atopy, we conducted a cross-sectional nationwide survey of AM and atopy-related peripheral neuritis (APN), including Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), in individuals with atopic diathesis. Cases with AM diagnosed between 1996 and 2006 and cases with APN between 2000 and 2006 were collected from all over Japan. Detailed data on 109 patients with AM and 133 patients with APN were collated. Patients with APN showed a preponderance of women, higher age at onset, and greater eosinophil counts than patients with AM. Patients with AM most commonly showed cervical cord involvement, whereas patients with APN preferentially exhibited mononeuritis multiplex predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Among patients with AM, motor weakness and muscle atrophy were significantly more frequent in those with bronchial asthma than in those with other atopic disorders. Patients with APN who met the criteria for CSS showed a higher age at onset, higher frequencies of systemic organ involvement, and greater disability than those who did not. Abnormalities suggesting peripheral nervous system involvement were seen in 25.7% of patients with AM, whereas 18.8% of patients with APN had abnormalities indicating CNS involvement. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that atopic dermatitis increased the risk of myelitis, whereas high age at onset and bronchial asthma decreased that risk. Atopy-related neural inflammation multifocally affects CNS and peripheral nervous system tissues. Both preceding atopic disorders and age seem to influence the distribution of neural damage.
    Neurology 10/2009; 73(10):790-7. · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using neuroimaging, we analyzed the nature of extensive brain lesions in five anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Extensive brain lesions involved white matter in three, and basal ganglia and corpus callosum in one each. Four patients showed high diffusivity on apparent diffusion coefficient maps and three demonstrated increased choline/creatine ratios and decreased N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine ratios on (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These findings suggested that the lesions were vasogenic edema associated with inflammation. Unusual brain symptoms associated with such lesions included recurrent limbic encephalitis, parkinsonism, and coma. Anti-AQP4 antibody is considered to be associated with the neuroimaging appearances of vasogenic edema.
    Multiple Sclerosis 08/2009; 15(9):1113-7. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are found in a fraction of Japanese opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS) patients. However, it remains unknown whether anti-AQP4 antibody-positive and negative OSMS patients possess an identical disease. The objective of the current study was to clarify immunological differences between the two groups of patients. We studied the serum antibody titers against AQP4 in 191 patients with idiopathic central nervous system demyelinating diseases and clarified their relationships with immunological parameters. Anti-AQP4 antibody positivity rate was higher in patients with OSMS (21/58, 36.2%), idiopathic recurrent myelitis (4/17, 23.5%), and recurrent optic neuritis (7/26, 26.9%), than in conventional MS (CMS) patients (6/90, 6.7%) and patients with other diseases (0/87). Anti-AQP4 antibody titer was significantly higher in patients with SS-A/B antibodies than in those without them. Anti-AQP4 antibody-negative OSMS patients showed significantly higher CD4(+)IFN-gamma(+)IL-4(-)T cell percentages and intracellular IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratios than anti-AQP4 antibody-positive patients, anti-AQP4 antibody-negative CMS patients, and healthy controls, and CD4(+)IFN-gamma(+)IL-4(-)T cell percentages were negatively correlated with anti-AQP4 antibody titers. Anti-AQP4 antibody-positive patients are immunologically distinct from anti-AQP4 antibody-negative OSMS patients owing to a Th2 shift in the former group in comparison to a Th1 shift in the latter.
    Multiple Sclerosis 08/2009; 15(7):834-47. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are two subtypes of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Asians: the opticospinal (OSMS) form that shows a selective involvement of the optic nerve and the spinal cord and the conventional (CMS) form that has disseminated lesions in the central nervous system including the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem. Both show distinct human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II associations. OSMS has similar features to the relapsing form of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in Western populations. Recently, it was shown that antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are specifically detected in NMO patients and in some Japanese patients with OSMS or recurrent optic neuritis or myelitis. To clarify the immunogenetic background of anti-AQP4 antibody production, we studied HLA-DRB1 and -DPB1 gene polymorphisms in anti-AQP4 antibody-positive and -negative patients with idiopathic demyelinating diseases, such as MS, recurrent optic neuritis and recurrent myelitis. The phenotypic frequency of the HLA-DPB1*0501 allele was significantly increased in anti-AQP4 antibody-positive patients (89.5%, odds ratio = 4.8; 95% confidence interval = 1.6-14.3, n = 38, P(corr) = 0.032) compared with controls (64.0%, n = 125) but not in either anti-AQP4 antibody-negative OSMS (75.0%, n = 32) or CMS (69.2%, n = 52) patients. There was no significant correlation between any HLA-DRB1 allele and the existence of anti-AQP4 antibody. These findings suggest that the emergence of anti-AQP4 antibody is reinforced by the presence of the HLA-DPB1*0501 allele in Japanese.
    Tissue Antigens 03/2009; 73(2):171-6. · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is claimed to be a distinct disease entity from multiple sclerosis (MS) because of its strong association with NMO-IgG/anti-AQP4 antibody; however, the in vivo role of the antibody remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to clarify whether the presence of anti-AQP4 antibody is associated with any abnormalities in multimodality-evoked potentials in 111 patients with relapsing-remitting or relapsing-progressive MS, including the opticospinal form of MS, 18 of whom were seropositive for anti-AQP4 antibody. More patients with anti-AQP4 antibody showed a lack of the P100 component on visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) than those without the antibody (11/17, 64.7% vs. 20/84, 23.8%, p=0.003), whereas the frequency of delayed P100 latency was significantly higher in the latter group than in the former (1/17, 5.9% vs. 28/84, 33.3%, p=0.021). The frequencies of non-responses and delayed central sensory conduction times in median and posterior tibial nerve somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) were not significantly different between anti-AQP4 antibody-positive and -negative patients. In terms of upper and lower limb motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), the frequencies of non-responses and delayed central motor conduction times did not differ significantly based on the presence or absence of anti-AQP4 antibody. The frequency of optic nerve lesions on MRI was significantly higher in anti-AQP4 antibody-positive patients than in anti-AQP4 antibody-negative patients (p=0.0137). Multiple logistic analyses revealed that anti-AQP4 antibody positivity (OR=8.406, p=0.02) and unevoked VEP responses (OR=35.432, p<0.001) were significantly related to development of severe visual impairment. Such an association of anti-AQP4 antibody with disability was not found for either severe motor or sensory impairment. These findings suggest a distinctive nature of optic nerve lesions between anti-AQP4 antibody-positive and -negative patients; lesions are supposed to be more necrotic in the former group and more demyelinating in the latter.
    Journal of the neurological sciences 03/2009; 281(1-2):34-40. · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Asian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a paucity of brain lesions and longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCLs) extending three or more vertebral segments are characteristic findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We aimed to disclose possible factors contributing to the development of such MRI features. Genotyping of HLA-DRB1 and -DPB1 alleles was performed in 121 consecutive Japanese patients with clinically definite MS based on the Poser criteria and 125 healthy controls. Possible factors associated with MRI features were determined by multiple logistic analysis. Patients with MS were classified based on the presence or absence of brain lesions fulfilling the Barkhof criteria (Barkhof brain lesions) and LESCLs. Barkhof brain lesion-negative (-) patients had a markedly lower frequency of HLA-DRB1*0901 than controls (P(corr) < 0.05), whereas the frequency of DRB1*1501 was increased in the Barkhof brain lesion-positive (+) group, although this increase was not significant after correction. No Barkhof(-)LESCL(+) patients carried DRB1*0901 (P(corr) < 0.05), despite this being the most common allele in Japanese. The Barkhof(-)LESCL(-) group showed a significant increase in the frequency of DRB1*0405 compared with controls (P(corr) < 0.05). None of the DPB1 alleles were significantly different among the groups. Using multiple logistic analysis, the absence of oligoclonal bands was positively associated with an absence of Barkhof brain lesions, whereas a higher EDSS score was positively associated with the presence of LESCLs; however, the presence of anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies was not associated with either feature. The characteristic MRI features in Asians are partly related to distinct HLA-DRB1 gene alleles and an absence of oligoclonal bands.
    Multiple Sclerosis 11/2008; 14(9):1181-90. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We reported the emergence of a distinct myelitis in patients with atopic diathesis (atopic myelitis [AM]) by a nationwide survey throughout Japan. Similar cases have recently been reported in Caucasians. Pathologic studies of biopsied spinal cord specimens revealed chronic active inflammation with eosinophilic infiltration. To clarify the cytokine/chemokine alterations in CSF from patients with AM in comparison to other causes of myelitis. We measured 27 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors simultaneously in CSF from 22 patients with AM, 20 with opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS), 11 with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM), 9 with Sjögren syndrome-related myelitis (SM), and 20 with other noninflammatory neurologic diseases (OND), using a fluorescent bead-based immunoassay. In patients with AM, CCL11 and interleukin (IL)-9 were significantly increased as compared with patients with OND and other myelitis while in patients with OSMS interferon-gamma and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels were significantly higher than in patients with OND and other causes of myelitis. Significant increase of IL-17 in comparison to patients with OND was found only in patients with OSMS, irrespective of presence or absence of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody. In patients with HAM, CXCL10 and CCL5 were higher than in patients with OND and other myelitis. In patients with SM, CCL3 and CCL4 were higher than in patients with OND. In patients with AM, CCL11, IL-9, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) showed positive correlations with the final Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale scores while IL-1ra and IL-12(p70) had positive correlations with disease duration. Intrathecal upregulation of CCL11 and Th2 cytokines is characteristic of atopic myelitis, which is distinct from interleukin-17/interferon-gamma-related autoimmune condition of opticospinal multiple sclerosis.
    Neurology 10/2008; 71(13):974-81. · 8.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
252.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • Kyushu University
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Faculty of Medical Sciences
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2004–2008
    • Kyoto University
      • Institute for Virus Research
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 2007
    • Chiba Institute of Technology
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
  • 1997
    • Kitasato University
      • Department of Neurology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan