[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Palearctic species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), in particular of the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes, were identified as putative vectors of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) on ruminant farms during the epizootic in Germany from 2006 to 2009. BTV may cause severe morbidity and mortality in ruminants and sporadically in South American camelids (SAC). However, the fauna of Culicoides spp. on SAC farms has not been investigated. Therefore, the ceratopogonid fauna was monitored on three farms with BTV-seropositive SAC in Germany. Black-light traps were set up on pastures and in stables from summer 2008 to autumn 2009. Additionally, ceratopogonids were caught in emergence traps mounted on llama dung and dung-free pasture from spring to autumn 2009. After morphological identification, selected Culicoides samples were analysed for BTV-RNA by real-time RT-PCR. The effects of the variables 'location', 'temperature' and 'humidity' on the number of Culicoides caught in black-light traps were modelled using multivariable Poisson regression. In total, 26 species of Culicoides and six other genera of biting midges were identified. The most abundant Culicoides spp. collected both outdoors and indoors with black-light traps belonged to the Obsoletus (77.4%) and Pulicaris (16.0%) complexes. The number of Culicoides peaked in summer, while no biting midges were caught during the winter months. Daily collections of Culicoides were mainly influenced by the location and depended on the interaction of temperature and humidity. In the emergence traps, species of the Obsoletus complex predominated the collections. In summary, the absence of BTV-RNA in any of the analysed Culicoides midges and in the BTV-seropositive SAC on the three farms together with the differences in the pathogenesis of BTV-8 in SAC compared to ruminants suggests a negligible role of SAC in the spread of the virus. Although SAC farms may provide similar suitable habitats for putative Culicoides vectors than ruminant farms, the results suggest that geographic and meteorological factors had a stronger influence on Culicoides abundance than the animal species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following the emergence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in 2011, 21,397 culicoid biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from targeted and non-targeted sampling activities carried out during the summer months of 2011 to 2013 and in late 2014 in various regions in Germany were analyzed for the virus by real-time RT-PCR. While no SBV was found in biting midges collected during 2011 and 2013, 2 out of 334 pools including 20 and 22 non-engorged females of the Obsoletus complex sampled in 2012 tested positive for the SBV S-segment with Ct values of 42.46 and 35.45. In addition, 673 black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) captured during the same studies were screened for the presence of SBV and proved negative. In late autumn 2014, biting midges were collected again in a limited study in eastern Germany after some cases of SBV infection had occurred in a quarantine station for cattle. Due to the unfavorable seasonal weather conditions, only few specimens were caught, and these were also negative for SBV. The German experience suggests that biting midge collections launched only after an outbreak and are not locally targeted may be ineffective as to virus detection. It rather might be advisable to collect biting midges at sentinel farms on a permanent basis so to have material available to be examined in the case of a disease outbreak.
Parasitology Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00436-015-4768-5 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological analyses of vector-associated diseases such as bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness, or epizootic hemorrhagic disease require substantiated data on the species diversity and activity patterns of vector species. To this end, Spain and Italy implemented extensive Culicoides biting midge monitoring programs since 2000, as several other countries did after the arrival of BT in northern Europe in 2006. The seasonal occurrence, spatial distribution, and abundance of Culicoides species, as the major results of such monitoring programs, are used as parameters for assessing the risk of virus introduction and transmission in a given area. However, the quality of entomological monitoring results fundamentally depends on the collection techniques. In this publication, we describe a Latin Square design trial carried out in Germany under field conditions in 2009/2010 to compare the efficacy of four commonly used light baited/suction traps in collecting Culicoides. A total of 2651 Culicoides were caught over 18 nights. In both years, the Onderstepoort and BG-Sentinel traps caught significantly more Culicoides than the Rieb and the CDC trap. Most specimens were caught by the Onderstepoort trap (1246, i.e., 76 % in 2009 and 819, i.e., 82 % in 2010). Most were classified as midges of the Culicoides obsoletus group.
Parasitology Research 09/2015; 114(12). DOI:10.1007/s00436-015-4720-8 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematophagous arthropods and the diseases associated with them represent a growing threat to human and animal health in Europe. After the eradication of endemic malaria from Europe in the middle of the last century, there has been a resurgence of mosquitoes as significant vectors of disease agents under the influence of continuing globalisation, as exotic species and mosquito-borne pathogens are being introduced with increasing frequency. At present, southern Europe is particularly affected by disease outbreaks and cases, but invasive mosquito species, including efficient vectors, have also emerged in Germany. While there is considerable knowledge on the vector potential of many tropical and subtropical mosquito species, corresponding data on the indigenous mosquito species are scarce. Exceptions are the Anopheles species, which were already vectors of malaria parasites in historic Europe. It must be assumed, however, that many further indigenous species are able to transmit pathogens under certain conditions and will by all means gain vector competence under a scenario of climate warming. Thus, the permanent surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease agents is paramount for the purposes of conducting risk analyses and modelling, in addition to research work addressing the conditions of the spread of vectors and pathogens and of pathogen transmission. Only ample data can facilitate taking appropriate prophylactic action and designing control strategies. International health organizations have realised this and started to promote data collection on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the EU. At a national levels, authorities are more reluctant, although, similar to other fields of health, it has been shown for mosquito-borne diseases that preventive measures are more cost-saving than disease case management and the coverage of follow-up costs. The present article is intended to illustrate the necessity of the re-intensification of mosquito surveillance and research in Germany and other European countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.
Bulletin of Entomological Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007485315000103 · 1.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Originally native to East Asia, Aedes japonicus japonicus, a potential vector of several arboviruses, has become one of the most invasive mosquito species in the world. After having established in the USA, it is now spreading in Europe, with new populations emerging. In contrast to the USA, the introduction pathways and modes of dispersal in Europe are largely obscure.
To find out if two recently detected populations of Ae. j. japonicus in The Netherlands and northern Germany go back to new importations or to movements within Europe, the genetic makeup of mosquito specimens from all known European populations was compared. For this purpose, seven microsatellite loci from a representative number of mosquito specimens were genotyped and part of their mitochondrial nad4 gene sequenced.
A novel nad4 haplotype found in the newly discovered Dutch population of Ae. j. japonicus suggests that this population is not closely related to the other European populations but has emanated from a further introduction event. With five nad4 haplotypes, the Dutch population also shows a very high genetic diversity indicating that either the founder population was very large or multiple introductions took place. By contrast, the recently detected North German population could be clearly assigned to one of the two previously determined European Ae. j. japonicus microsatellite genotypes and shows nad4 haplotypes that are known from West Germany.
As the European populations of Ae. j. japonicus are geographically separated but genetically mixed, their establishment must be attributed to passive transportation. In addition to intercontinental shipment, it can be assumed that human activities are also responsible for medium- and short-distance overland spread. A better understanding of the processes underlying the introduction and spread of this invasive species will help to increase public awareness of the human-mediated displacement of mosquitoes and to find strategies to avoid it.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interplay between global warming and invasive arthropods in temperate zones is of utmost interest in terms of the potential expansions of vector-borne diseases. During the last years, Aedes japonicus, an aedine vector mosquito native in Korea, Japan, Taiwan, southern China and Russia, was found in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Here, we modelled climatically suitable areas for the establishment of Aedes japonicus in Europe during the upcoming century using an ensemble of different modelling algorithms and a set of five different global climate models (biomod2; cesm1_bgc, fio_esm, giss_e2_r, inm_cm4, mpi_esm_lr; IPCC 5 scenarios rcp 4.5 and rcp 8.5). In parallel, we detected low temperature thresholds for Aedes japonicus egg survival under in a climate chamber experiment. We observe that the minimum temperature act as a stronger ecological constraint than the duration or diurnal temperature range of the treatment. Finally, we combined the outcome of the experimental procedures and species distribution models to substantially improve the compilation of risk maps by considering areas where an establishment of Aedes japonicus is unlikely due to winter conditions.
7th International Conference of the International Biogeography Society IBS2015, Bayreuth, Germany; 01/2015
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order to assess the current species occurrence, distribution and, when possible, abundance, in order to permit the early detection of invasive species and the spread of competent vectors. As active mosquito collection, e.g. by trapping adults, dipping preimaginal developmental stages or ovitrapping, is usually cost-, time- and labour-intensive and can cover only small parts of a country, passive data collection approaches are gradually being integrated into monitoring programmes. Thus, scientists in several EU member states have recently initiated programmes for mosquito data collection and analysis that make use of sources other than targeted mosquito collection. While some of them extract mosquito distribution data from zoological databases established in other contexts, community-based approaches built upon the recognition, reporting, collection and submission of mosquito specimens by citizens are becoming more and more popular and increasingly support scientific research. Based on such reports and submissions, new populations, extended or new distribution areas and temporal activity patterns of invasive and native mosquito species were found. In all cases, extensive media work and communication with the participating individuals or groups was fundamental for success. The presented projects demonstrate that passive approaches are powerful tools to survey the mosquito fauna in order to supplement active mosquito surveillance strategies and render them more focused. Their ability to continuously produce biological data permits the early recognition of changes in the mosquito fauna that may have an impact on biting nuisance and the risk of pathogen transmission associated with mosquitoes. International coordination to explore synergies and increase efficiency of passive surveillance programmes across borders needs to be established.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.
Parasitology Research 12/2014; 114(3). DOI:10.1007/s00436-014-4244-7 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes). Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany.
PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e99093. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099093 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After the repeated demonstration of Dirofilaria repens infections in German dogs, D. repens and Dirofilaria immitis DNA was detected in mosquitoes trapped in 2011, 2012 and 2013 in northeastern and southwestern Germany within the framework of culicid monitoring projects. As temperature is the most important factor dictating the extrinsic development of dirofilarial larvae in the potential vector, data of the German Weather Service (DWD) were analysed for the regions where the positive mosquitoes had been collected. Based on the mean daily temperatures recorded by weather stations most closely to the collection sites of the mosquitoes, it can be concluded that the mosquitoes were trapped in time periods that allowed for the completion of the developmental cycle of the worms in the mosquitoes and a subsequent transmission to a vertebrate host. The results of this study confirm the principal climatic suitability of certain German regions for the establishment of natural dirofilarial transmission cycles. Moreover, the theoretical climatic considerations, together with findings of D. repens infections in German dogs and mosquitoes, strongly suggest that the continuing spread of at least D. repens from its traditional habitats in the Mediterranean has reached southwestern and northeastern Germany.
Parasitology Research 06/2014; 113(8). DOI:10.1007/s00436-014-3970-1 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses. To understand the role of Culicoides in the transmission of these viruses, it is essential to correctly identify the species involved. Within the western Palaearctic region, the main suspected vector species, C. obsoletus, C. scoticus, C. dewulfi and C. chiopterus, have similar wing patterns, which makes it difficult to separate and identify them correctly.
In this study, designed as an inter-laboratory ring trial with twelve partners from Europe and North Africa, we assess four PCR-based assays which are used routinely to differentiate the four species of Culicoides listed above. The assays based on mitochondrial or ribosomal DNA or microarray hybridisation were tested using aliquots of Culicoides DNA (extracted using commercial kits), crude lysates of ground specimens and whole Culicoides (265 individuals), and non-Culicoides Ceratopogonidae (13 individuals) collected from across Europe.
A total of 800 molecular assays were implemented. The in-house assays functioned effectively, although specificity and sensitivity varied according to the molecular marker and DNA extraction method used. The Obsoletus group specificity was overall high (95-99%) while the sensitivity varied greatly (59.6-100%). DNA extraction methods impacted the sensitivity of the assays as well as the type of sample used as template for the DNA extraction.
The results are discussed in terms of current use of species diagnostic assays and the future development of molecular tools for the rapid differentiation of cryptic Culicoides species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In January 2013, a female mosquito collected during the week 18th-25th July 2012 in Lelystad (The Netherlands) during routine national vector surveillance was morphologically identified and genetically confirmed as the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus. In order to assess the extent of the infestation area, subsequent extensive mosquito surveillance in the surrounding area during 2013 consisted of visual inspection of potential habitats and adult trapping in increasing radially around the location of the initial finding. This surveillance confirmed the existence of a widely established population of Ae. j. japonicus in the municipality of Lelystad. Despite this detection, it was decided not to implement any mosquito control measures for two reasons: this would require large scale biocidal treatment and community participation in order to be effective, and this species is not a confirmed vector of disease agents in the field. As an alternative, it was decided that community information would be provided to enable management measures such as larval habitat source reduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based primarily on nucleotide polymorphisms in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA, Anopheles daciae was recently described as an additional member of the Maculipennis Group of species, separate from Anopheles messeae with which it had previously been confused due to morphological and genetic similarity. Species differentiation between A. messeae and A. daciae was possible only by ITS2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by DNA sequencing or RFLP analysis. In addition to its siblings, Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles atroparvus and A. messeae, A. daciae has been shown to occur in Germany, although with limited distribution. We here describe additional collection sites for this species in Germany, showing concentrations in East Germany and the northern Upper Rhine Valley in Southwest Germany. A species-specific multiplex PCR assay is presented that is able to differentiate the four Maculipennis Group sibling species occurring in Germany plus Anopheles sacharovi, Anopheles melanoon and Anopheles labranchiae. The correct identification and detailed knowledge of the biology of A. daciae are of relevance since it might be a vector of disease agents, as suggested by the vector potential of its siblings and the recent finding of an A. daciae female infected with Dirofilaria repens in southern Germany.
Parasitology Research 04/2014; 113(6). DOI:10.1007/s00436-014-3857-1 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have highlighted large knowledge gaps on the biology and ecology of indigenous Culicoides species. With these research gaps in mind, and as a means of assessing what potential disease outbreaks to expect in the future, an international workshop was held in May 2013 at Wageningen University, The Netherlands. It brought together research groups from Belgium, France, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom and The Netherlands, with diverse backgrounds in vector ecology, epidemiology, entomology, virology, animal health, modelling, and genetics. Here, we report on the key findings of this workshop.
BMC Veterinary Research 03/2014; 10(1):77. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-10-77 · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Asian bush or rock pool mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus is one of the most expansive culicid species of the world. Being native to East Asia, this species was detected out of its original distribution range for the first time in the early 1990s in New Zealand where it could not establish, though. In 1998, established populations were reported from the eastern US, most likely as a result of introductions several years earlier. After a massive spread the mosquito is now widely distributed in eastern North America including Canada and two US states on the western coast. In the year 2000, it was demonstrated for the first time in Europe, continental France, but could be eliminated. A population that had appeared in Belgium in 2002 was not controlled until 2012 as it did not propagate. In 2008, immature developmental stages were discovered in a large area in northern Switzerland and bordering parts of Germany. Subsequent studies in Germany showed a wide distribution and several populations of the mosquito in various federal states. Also in 2011, the species was found in southeastern Austria (Styria) and neighbouring Slovenia. In 2013, a population was detected in the Central Netherlands, specimens were collected in southern Alsace, France, and the complete northeastern part of Slovenia was found colonized, with specimens also present across borders in adjacent Croatia. Apparently, at the end of 2013 a total of six populations occurred in Europe although it is not clear whether all of them are completely isolated. Similarly, it is not known whether these populations go back to the same number of introductions. While entry ports and long-distance continental migration routes are also obscure, it is likely that the international used tyre trade is the most important mode of intercontinental transportation of the mosquito. Aedes j. japonicus does not only display an aggressive biting behaviour but is suspected to be a vector of various disease agents and to displace indigenous culicid species. Therefore, Aedes j. japonicus might both cause public health problems in the future and have a significant impact on the biodiversity of the invaded territories.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a result of globalization and climate change, Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens, the causative agents of dirofilariosis in Europe, continue to spread from endemic areas in the Mediterranean to northern and northeastern regions of Europe where autochthonous cases of dirofilarial infections have increasingly been observed in dogs and humans. Whilst D. repens was recently reported from mosquitoes in putatively non-endemic areas, D. immitis has never been demonstrated in mosquitoes from Europe outside the Mediterranean.
From 2011 to 2013, mosquitoes collected within the framework of a German national mosquito monitoring programme were screened for filarial nematodes using a newly designed filarioid-specific real-time PCR assay. Positive samples were further processed by conventional PCR amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, amplicons were sequenced and sequences blasted against GenBank.
Approximately 17,000 female mosquitoes were subjected to filarial screening. Out of 955 pools examined, nine tested positive for filariae. Two of the COI sequences indicated D. immitis, one D. repens and four Setaria tundra. Two sequences could not be assigned to a known species due to a lack of similar GenBank entries. Whilst D. immitis and the unknown parasites were detected in Culex pipiens/torrentium, D. repens was found in a single Anopheles daciae and all S. tundra were demonstrated in Aedes vexans. All positive mosquitoes were collected between mid-June and early September.
The finding of dirofilariae in German mosquitoes implies the possibility of a local natural transmission cycle. While the routes of introduction to Germany and the origin of the filariae cannot be determined retrospectively, potential culicid vectors and reservoir hosts must prospectively be identified and awareness among physicians, veterinarians and public health personnel be created. The health impact of S. tundra on the indigenous cervid fauna needs further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although very rare under natural conditions, anomalies of phenotypic sexual expression have been described for individuals of numerous families of the Diptera, including mosquitoes (Culicidae). Gynandromorphism and intersexualism are sexual aberrations generating individuals either with both male and female or with intermediate sexual characteristics. Here we describe five cases of gynandromorphism in three mosquito species. In addition, a list of species of the family Culicidae for which gynandromorphs and intersexes have been described in the literature is compiled.
Anomalien der phänotypischen Geschlechtsausprägung sind bei einer Vielzahl von Dipterenfamilien, einschließlich Stechmücken (Culicidae), beschrieben, kommen jedoch unter natürlichen Bedingungen sehr selten vor. Gynandromorphismus und Intersexualismus sind sexuelle Fehlentwicklungen, aus denen entweder Individuen mit männlichen und weiblichen oder Individuen mit intermediären sexuellen Merkmalen hervorgehen. Fünf Fälle von Gynandromorphie bei drei Stechmückenarten werden präsentiert. Zusätzlich wird eine Liste der Arten der Familie Culicidae, bei welchen Gynander und Intersexe in der Fachliteratur beschrieben wurden, zusammengestellt.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Der „Mückenatlas” – www.mueckenatlas.de – ist ein Erfolgsbeispiel für das sogenannte Citizen
Science, also Wissenschaft mit Bürgerbeteiligung. Bei diesem Projekt werden Privatpersonen
aufgefordert, Stechmücken zu fangen und zur wissenschaftlichen Weiterverwertung einzuschicken.
Das Primärziel ist es, die Gewinnung von Daten zur Stechmückenfauna Deutschlands durch
die Mitwirkung interessierter Menschen voranzutreiben. Die Medien haben das Thema intensiv
aufgegriffen und zu einer breiten Beteiligung in der Bevölkerung geführt. Der Mückenatlas hat
dabei nicht nur zu einer Zunahme des Interesses an dieser entomologischen Forschungsrichtung
geführt, sondern auch zu neuen wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen verholfen. Die qualitative
Absicherung der erhobenen Daten ist im Vergleich zu anderen Citizen Science Projekten sehr
hoch, da die Artbestimmung der gefangenen Mücken durch die Wissenschaftler vorgenommen
wird. Auf dieser Grundlage erfolgt eine Vernetzung zwischen den verantwortlichen Wissenschaftseinrichtungen (Leibniz-Zentrum für Agrarlandschaftsforschung (ZALF) und Friedrich-
Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Bundesforschungsinstitut für Tiergesundheit) sowie der Aufbau von
umfangreichen Referenzsammlungen, in die die eingeschickten Mücken eingehen. Der Erfolg
des Projekts „Mückenatlas“ lässt sich auf mehrere Faktoren zurückführen. Grundlage für das
Gelingen der Kommunikation zwischen den Akteuren des Citizen Science – Wissenschaftler,
Bürger, Medien und Kommunikationsexperten – sind die Faktoren: Dialog auf Augenhöhe,
Transparenz, Engagement und Relevanz. Zusammen ergeben sie das Wirkungsmodell für Citizen