[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eur J Clin Invest 2012 ABSTRACT: Purpose While pituitary adenomas are common, pituitary carcinomas are rare. It is unclear whether pituitary carcinomas arise de novo or evolve from adenomas. Methods We studied the clinical characteristics and tissue samples from eight pituitary surgeries and the autopsy from a patient with pituitary carcinoma. A 16-year-old female patient was diagnosed with an aggressive Crooke cell macroadenoma. Following transsphenoidal surgery, clinical signs of Cushing disease quickly reappeared. During the 14-year course of the illness, eight pituitary surgeries, three courses of extracranial irradiation and two (90) Yttrium-DOTATOC treatments were undertaken. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed. The patient died of metastatic disease and uncontrolled hypercortisolism due to an adrenal remnant. A systematic morphologic study (histologic staining, electron microscopy) of all available surgical and autopsy specimens was undertaken. Results Brisk mitotic activity, high Ki-67 and p53 immunolabelling were present in the pituitary samples from the onset. High proportion of tumour cells showed irregular nuclei and large nucleoli, and gradual increase in MGMT staining was observed. The tumour remained of Crooke cell type throughout the course. Autopsy disclosed a postirradiation sarcoma in the pituitary area. Conclusions The question whether pituitary carcinomas arise de novo or transform from an adenoma cannot be answered at present with certainty.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation 09/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present two cases of angio-proliferative tumors that were misdiagnosed and treated as typical hemangiomas with epidural expansion.
Two middle-aged women presented with symptoms and radiological signs characteristic for aggressive hemangioma with epidural expansion. In the first case preoperative embolization and decompressive surgery with open transpedicular vertebroplasty was performed. Within less than a year, epidural recurrence of the tumor prompted for radical excision and corpectomy. The diagnosis after the histological studies and the further clinical evolution was metastasizing leiomyomatosis. No further recurrence occured during the next 6 years. In the second case percutaneous vertebroplasty was performed and complicated by epidural polymethyl-methacrylcate (PMMA) leakage, requiring urgent decompressive surgery. Histological study of the lesion raised the possibility of myopericytoma. This was confirmed 16 months later when complete vertebrectomy was performed due to severe epidural propagation of the recurring tumor. No further recurrence occurred in next the two years.
Rare angio-proliferative tumors, like benign metastasizing leiomyoma and myopericytoma radiologically may resemble aggressive vertebral hemangiomas of the spine. Unlike hemangiomas, such tumors require radical removal due to their likely recurrence. As imaging studies may not be able to completely exclude such pathologies, bone biopsy and thorough histopathological studies are warranted prior to the therapeutic decision.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extent of tumor removal determines the effectiveness of postoperative oncotherapy. This is especially true for primary brain tumors, where peritumoral invasion usually makes radical resection impossible. The aim of the study was to determinate the specific expression pattern of invasion related molecules of different intracranial tumors and to identify molecules that are principally responsible for the peritumoral invasiveness of grade II astrocytoma mRNA expression of 26 extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules was determined in tissue samples from grade II astrocytoma, schwannoma, intracerebral metastases of non-small cell lung cancer and normal brain. Immunohistochemical staining for brevican, neurocan, tenascin-C and versican was also performed for each tumor group. Comparing astrocytoma to metastasis, schwannoma and normal brain; and metastasis and schwannoma to normal brain, 22, 17, 20, 21, and 19 molecules, respectively, were found to be significantly overexpressed at the mRNA level. Cluster analysis of mRNA expression showed a specific gene expression pattern for each histological group. Four molecules of 26 were found to be associated to astrocytoma. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the results of the mRNA analysis at the protein level. Tumors of different origin have a specific invasive phenotype that can evidently determinate on gene expression level. This characteristic expression pattern of the invasion-related molecules might help to screen exact targets for anti-invasion drugs. In case of low-grade astrocytoma. brevican, neurocan, tenascin-C and versican were found to correlate principally with the invasive phenotype of low-grade astrocytoma, thus these molecules can potentially serve as targets for anti-invasion therapy in the future.
Pathology & Oncology Research 10/2011; 18(2):413-20. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 51-year-old gentleman with no significant past medical history presented with a WFNS grade 1 subarachnoid haemorrhage. Initial angiographic investigations revealed no cause, but repeat tests showed a small basilar perforator aneurysm. Following a failed attempt at endovascular treatment, a craniotomy and excision of the aneurysm was performed. Post-operatively the patient made a good recovery. This case highlights the importance of delayed repeat catheter angiography in selected patients with suspicious initial CT head results.
British Journal of Neurosurgery 03/2010; 24(3):291-3. · 0.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ineffective surgical and radiotherapy of glioblastoma is mainly due to its intensive infiltrating behavior. Contrarily, brain metastases of anaplastic carcinomas are well-circumscribed intracerebral lesions that can be easily exstirpated in most cases. The molecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a pivotal role in the peritumoral infiltration. In this study the mRNA expression of the ECM components was investigated in two types of intracerebral malignoma with different invasion activity. Our aim was to identify the ECM molecules that are responsible for the different intensity of peritumoral infiltration of tumors from different origin.
The mRNA expression of twenty-three ECM molecules was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Four pieces of glioblastoma and four pieces of intracerebral lung adenocarcinoma metastasis from neurosurgical operation were investigated. Immunohistochemical investigations were performed in case of five molecules.
The mRNA expression of nine molecules (brevican, neurocan, neuroglycan-C, syndecan-1,2,4, tenascin-C, versican and matrix-metalloproteinase-[MMP]2) differed significantly by comparison of the two tumor types. By immunohistochemistry, neurocan, syndecan, versican and MMP-2 showed alteration in staining intensity according to the mRNA expression, while MMP-9 showed higher staining intensity in the metastatic tumor.
The identified molecules can play an important role in the different infiltration activity of tumors from different origin. Thus these ECM-components could serve as targets for anti-invasion therapy in the future.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor cell invasion into the surrounding brain tissue is mainly responsible for the failure of radical surgical resection and successful treatment, with tumor recurrence as microdisseminated disease. Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), integrins and their ligands in the extracellular matrix (ECM) predominantly participate in the invasion process, including the cell adhesion to the surrounding microenvironment and cell migration. The extent of infiltration of the surrounding brain tissue by malignant tumors strongly depends on the tumor cell type. Malignant gliomas show much more intensive peritumoral invasion than do metastatic tumors. In this study, the mRNA expression of 29 invasion-related molecules (18 cell membrane receptors or receptor subunits (EGFRs and integrins) and 11 ECM components: collagens, laminins and fibronectin) was investigated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Fresh frozen human tissue samples from glioblastoma (GBM) and intracerebral bronchial adenocarcinoma metastases (five pieces from each) were evaluated. Significant differences were established in six of the 29 molecules (ErbB1, 2, 3, integrins alpha3, 7 and beta1). To confirm our results at the protein level, immunohistochemical analysis of nine molecules was performed. The staining intensity differed definitely in the case of ErbB1, 2 and integrins alpha3 and beta1. Determining the differences in invasion-related molecules in tumors of different origin can help identify the exact molecular mechanisms that facilitate peritumoral infiltration by glioblastoma cells. These results should allow the selection of target molecules for potential chemotherapeutic agents directed against highly invasive malignant gliomas.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: to retrospectively determine the long-term outcome of adult intracranial ependymoma patients treated with surgery, reoperation, and postoperative radiation therapy. Material and Methods: 61 patients were treated at our institution between 1980 and 2004. Forty patients had World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II ependymoma, and 21 patients had Grade III ependymoma. The median age was 34 years. The majority of patients were female (59%), and 35 had gross total resections (60%). Eighteen patients were reoperated, 15 only once but 2 twice and one six times. Survival times following reoperation was mostly short but some of them reached more than 5 or 10 years. Postoperative radiation therapy was delivered to 31 patients postoperative (55.4%) and to 5 after reoperation, a median total dose of 54 Gy. Results: The median follow-up of surviving patients was 10.6 years. The 5-year and 10-year disease free survival rates for all patients were 50% and 32.9% respectively. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates for all patients were 57.1% and 39.4%, respectively. A statistically significant effect on prognosis was observed with WHO tumour grade as well as with MIB-1 labelling index. Subtotal resection predicted a worse overall survival, but this failed to reach statistical significance. No statistically significant effect on prognosis was observed with tumour location and radiation therapy. Conclusion: In our experience the use of radiotherapy in adult, intracranial WHO Grade II ependymoma patients had no significant effect on prognosis. Radical surgery and eventual reoperation seems to be more favorable.
Pathology & Oncology Research 09/2009; 16(1):93-9. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect and possible timing of nonradiolabeled somatostatin analogue octreotide are still not determined in the treatment of medulloblastoma, while the presence of somatostatin receptor type-2 (SSTR2) is proved in the majority of medulloblastoma by several authors.
Daoy, SSTR2A positive medulloblastoma cell culture was tested with octreotide in monotherapy and combined with cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine. Daoy medulloblastoma mice xenograft was treated with octreotide alone.
In monolayer cell culture high-dose octreotide (44 microM) resulted in mitotic inhibition with parallel increment of apoptosis. Combination with cytostatic drugs did not result in additive or synergistic effect, but vincristine was partially antagonized. In medulloblastoma xenograft, octreotide monotherapy (100 microg/kg/day for 10 days) resulted in partial tumor growth inhibition.
High concentration of nonradiolabeled octreotide may have role in the treatment of medulloblastoma by long-term administration. Concomitant administration of octreotide with widely used cytostatic drugs against medulloblastoma will not have beneficial impact.
Pediatric Hematology and Oncology 08/2009; 26(5):363-74. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA), a subgroup of low-grade astrocytomas (LGA), are common, heterogeneous and poorly understood subset of brain tumours in children. Chromosomal 7q34 duplication leading to fusion genes formed between KIAA1549 and BRAF and subsequent constitutive activation of BRAF was recently identified in a proportion of LGA, and may be involved in their pathogenesis. Our aim was to investigate additional chromosomal unbalances in LGA and whether incidence of 7q34 duplication is associated with tumour type or location. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Illumina-Human-Hap300-Duo and 610-Quad high-resolution-SNP-based arrays and quantitative PCR on genes of interest, we investigated 84 paediatric LGA. We demonstrate that 7q34 duplication is specific to sporadic JPA (35 of 53 - 66%) and does not occur in other LGA subtypes (0 of 27) or NF1-associated-JPA (0 of 4). We also establish that it is site specific as it occurs in the majority of cerebellar JPA (24 of 30 - 80%) followed by brainstem, hypothalamic/optic pathway JPA (10 of 16 - 62.5%) and is rare in hemispheric JPA (1 of 7 - 14%). The MAP-kinase pathway, assessed through ERK phosphorylation, was active in all tumours regardless of 7q34 duplication. Gain of function studies performed on hTERT-immortalised astrocytes show that overexpression of wild-type BRAF does not increase cell proliferation or baseline MAPK signalling even if it sensitises cells to EGFR stimulation. CONCLUSIONS AND INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that variants of JPA might arise from a unique site-restricted progenitor cell where 7q34 duplication, a hallmark of this tumour-type in association to MAPK-kinase pathway activation, potentially plays a site-specific role in their pathogenesis. Importantly, gain of function abnormalities in components of MAP-Kinase signalling are potentially present in all JPA making this tumour amenable to therapeutic targeting of this pathway.
British Journal of Cancer 08/2009; 101(4):722-33. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Methods and results: Conclusions and interpretation: Materials and methods Results Discussion References Acknowledgements Figures and TablesBackground: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA), a subgroup of low-grade astrocytomas (LGA), are common, heterogeneous and poorly understood subset of brain tumours in children. Chromosomal 7q34 duplication leading to fusion genes formed between KIAA1549 and BRAF and subsequent constitutive activation of BRAF was recently identified in a proportion of LGA, and may be involved in their pathogenesis. Our aim was to investigate additional chromosomal unbalances in LGA and whether incidence of 7q34 duplication is associated with tumour type or location.
British Journal of Cancer 07/2009; 101(4):722-733. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric central nervous system tumor. Despite the adequate therapy the tumor often recurs. The primary medulloblastoma expresses somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR-2), but so far we had no experience about the receptor status in recurrent tumors. The presence of SSTR-2 may have an important role in the early detection and treatment of recurrent medulloblastomas. Our aim was to examine the state of SSTR-2 expression in recurrent childhood medulloblastomas. We examined SSTR-2 expression by immunohistochemistry in primary and recurrent medulloblastoma samples of ten children treated with recurrent medulloblastoma at Semmelweis University, Departments of Pediatrics, between 1998 and 2004. All primary and recurrent tumors have been operated at the National Institute of Neurosurgery. We examined the intensity and the percentage of SSTR-2-positive tumor cells in the primary and recurrent tumor samples. All primary tumors were receptor-positive and SSTR-2 was also expressed in all recurrent medulloblastomas. In our samples the percentage of SSTR-2-positive tumor cells was 30-90%. As a positive in vivo control Octreoscan images were available in two cases. In these cases the results of immunohistochemistry and Octreoscan imaging seemed to correlate. As a conclusion, SSTR-2-positive recurrent tumors can be detected early by Octreoscan imaging, and the presence of SSTR-2 establishes the opportunity of applying somatostatin analogues (octreotide) in the treatment of recurrent childhood medulloblastoma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular analysis of pituitary tumours has received a great deal of attention, although the majority of studies have concentrated on the genome and the transcriptome. We aimed to study the proteome of human pituitary adenomas. A protein array using 1005 monoclonal antibodies was used to study GH-, corticotrophin- and prolactin-secreting as well as non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Individual protein expression levels in the tumours were compared with the expression profile of normal pituitary tissue. Out of 316 proteins that were detected in the pituitary tissue samples, 116 proteins had not previously been described in human pituitary tissue. Four prominent differentially expressed proteins with potential importance to tumorigenesis were chosen for validation by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. In the protein array analysis heat shock protein 110 (HSP110), a chaperone associated with protein folding, and B2 bradykinin receptor, a potential regulator of prolactin secretion, were significantly overexpressed in all adenoma subtypes, while C-terminal Src kinase (CSK), an inhibitor of proto-oncogenic enzymes, and annexin II, a calcium-dependent binding protein, were significantly underexpressed in all adenoma subtypes. The immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the overexpression of HSP110 and B2 bradykinin receptor and underexpression of CSK and annexin II in pituitary adenoma cells when compared with their corresponding normal pituitary cells. Western blotting only partially confirmed the proteomics data: HSP110 was significantly overexpressed in prolactinomas and NFPAs, the B2 bradykinin receptor was significantly overexpressed in prolactinomas, annexin II was significantly underexpressed in somatotrophinomas, while CSK did not show significant underexpression in any tumour. Protein expression analysis of pituitary samples disclosed both novel proteins and putative protein candidates for pituitary tumorigenesis, though validation using conventional techniques are necessary to confirm the protein array data.
Endocrine Related Cancer 09/2008; 15(4):1099-114. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common in the general population and may coincide with disease in the central and peripheral nervous system. Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is used as treatment for HCV infection. The therapeutic benefit is assumed to result from activation of natural killer cells and CD8+ T cells. Despite its beneficial effects, it has been associated with a number of autoimmune disorders, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Several clinical reports including magnetic resonance imaging exist, but neuropathological confirmation of MS associated with IFN-alpha therapy and HCV infection is lacking. We report a case of a female patient with chronic HCV infection who developed ;acute MS'-like demyelinating disease after IFN-alpha administration, with extensive lesions throughout brain and thoracic spinal cord. The patient died after a disease duration of 6 months. Brain autopsy revealed Baló-like demyelinating plaques with positive HCV sequences within florid lesions. The development of fulminant demyelinating disease after administration of IFN-alpha suggests that autoimmune mechanisms such as T cell mediated tissue damage might be initiated or aggravated by IFN-alpha therapy. Additionally, the presence of HCV RNA within the demyelinated lesion indicates a possible role in triggering or propagating disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging data of lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas diagnosed in one institution were reviewed and compared to the corresponding literature data. CT and MRI imaging characteristics of the two tumour types are rather different, both in reported cases as well as in our material. In our series ventricular ependymomas (eight cases) were mostly hyperdense with pronounced contrast uptake. Thirteen subependymomas were hypodense, mostly without enhancement, but occasionally mild or moderate enhancement was noted. Eight subependymal giant cell astrocytomas also displayed hypodense, rarely hyperdense or mixed imaging characteristics, and always showed significant degree of contrast enhancement. Nineteen central neurocytomas showed hypo- or mixed density, but mostly mild to moderate enhancement. Ependymomas and anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas followed the characteristics of the similar extraventricular ones. In our series low-grade astrocytomas, WHO I-II [Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Canevee WK. WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007] were hypodense without contrast uptake. Our data support those of previous studies in that MRI has been found to be superior to CT for a more precise imaging of lateral ventricle gliomas. However, it is of note that for the verification of an intraventricular tumour CT is also satisfactory. Survival data were available in 65 cases, which have confirmed a favourable outcome in most of the patients with subependymoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, central neurocytomas or pilocytic astrocytoma. Survival of patients with other types of glial tumour was similar to that of patients with a similar tumour, but in an extraventricular localisation.
European journal of radiology 12/2007; 69(1):67-73. · 2.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene expression profiling has proved crucial for understanding the biology of cancer. In rare diseases, including pediatric glioblastoma (pGBM), the lack of readily available fresh frozen (FF) material limits the feasibility of this analysis, as well as its validation, on independent data sets, a step needed to ensure relevance, mandating the use of alternate RNA sources. To overcome the limitation of material number and to validate results we obtained on FF pGBM, we did microarray analysis on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival samples from pGBM and control brains, wherein we had no control on the fixation process.
RNA from 16 pGBM and 3 control brains was extracted and linearly amplified. Reverse transcription-PCR on housekeeping and formerly identified tumor-associated genes and microarray analysis were done on this RNA source. Results were validated by immunohistochemistry.
Despite extensive RNA degradation, microarray analysis was possible on 16 of 19 samples and reproduced the pattern of results obtained on FF pGBM. Gene lists and ontology subgrouping were highly concordant in both sample types. Similar to the findings on FF samples, we were able to identify two subsets of pGBM based on their association/lack of association with evidence consistent with an active Ras pathway.
Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues are an invaluable resource as they are the most widely available materials often accessible in conjunction with clinical and follow-up data. Gene expression profiling on this material is feasible and may represent a significant advance for understanding the biology of rare human diseases.
Clinical Cancer Research 12/2007; 13(21):6284-92. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the variants of medulloblastoma in the current WHO classification of nervous system tumors, the desmoplastic variant, which has been reported to constitute 5%-25% of pediatric medulloblastomas, is defined by its nodular collections of neurocytic cells bounded by desmoplastic internodular zones. We have studied the frequency, morphological features and biological behavior of medulloblastomas in two contemporaneous SIOP/UKCCSG trial cohorts of children with medulloblastomas, CNS9102 (n = 315) and CNS9204 (n = 35), focusing on tumors with nodular and desmoplastic phenotypes. In children aged 3-16 years (CNS9102), the nodular/desmoplastic medulloblastoma represented 5% of all tumors, while in infants aged <3 years (CNS9204) this variant represented 57% of medulloblastomas. Using iFISH to detect molecular cytogenetic abnormalities in medulloblastomas with a nodular architecture, we demonstrated distinct genetic profiles in desmoplastic and non-desmoplastic (classic and anaplastic) tumors; in particular, abnormalities of chromosome 17 occurred in the latter, but not the former. Significantly different outcomes were demonstrated for classic, nodular/desmoplastic and large cell/anaplastic medulloblastomas in both cohorts. In conclusion, the nodular/desmoplastic medulloblastoma appears to have clinical, genetic and biological characteristics that set it apart from other variants of this tumor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRAF is an oncogene that is commonly mutated in both melanomas and papillary thyroid carcinomas, usually at position V600E that leads to constitutive activity in the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. We speculated that this same gene may be either mutated at this site, or overexpressed, in pituitary adenomas.
We sequenced 37 pituitary adenomas for a mutation at the V600E position. In addition, we investigated B-Raf mRNA expression in normal pituitary (n = 5) and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) (n = 6) by semiquantitative PCR, and in a further 27 pituitary adenomas of various types and 10 normal pituitaries using real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, we explored B-Raf protein expression in 10 normal pituitaries and 12 NFPAs.
No sequence mutations for the substitution V600E were identified. B-Raf mRNA was overexpressed in pituitary adenomas compared to normal pituitary, and this was entirely due to overexpression in NFPAs. NFPAs also showed very variable expression of B-Raf protein, but those tumours showing highest levels of B-Raf mRNA expressed the most B-Raf protein.
Mutations previously seen in the majority of melanomas and a substantial minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas are not a frequent finding in pituitary adenomas. However, overexpression of B-Raf mRNA and protein may be a feature of NFPAs, highlighting overactivity of the Ras-B-Raf-MAP kinase pathway in these tumours.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric glioblastoma (pGBM) is a rare, but devastating brain tumor. In contrast to GBM in adults (aGBM), little is known about the mechanisms underlying its development. Our aim is to gain insight into the molecular pathways of pGBM.
Thirty-two pGBM and seven aGBM samples were investigated using biochemical and transcriptional profiling. Ras and Akt pathway activation was assessed through the phosphorylation of downstream effectors, and gene expression profiles were generated using the University Health Network Human 19K cDNA arrays. Results were validated using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry and compared with existing data sets on aGBM.
There are at least two subsets of pGBM. One subset, associated with Ras and Akt pathway activation, has very poor prognosis and exhibits increased expression of genes related to proliferation and to a neural stem-cell phenotype, similar to findings in aggressive aGBM. This subset was still molecularly distinguishable from aGBM after unsupervised and supervised analysis of expression profiles. A second subset, with better prognosis, is not associated with activation of Akt and Ras pathways, may originate from astroglial progenitors, and does not express gene signatures and markers shown to be associated with long-term survival in aGBM. Both subsets of pGBM show overexpression of Y-box-protein-1 that may help drive oncogenesis in this tumor.
Our work, the first study of gene expression profiles in pGBM, provides valuable insight into active pathways and targets in a cancer with minimal survival, and suggests that these tumors cannot be understood exclusively through studies of aGBM.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2007; 25(10):1196-208. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stereotactic radiosurgery is a controversial treatment modality in the management of cerebral cavernous malformations (CVMs). Systematic pathological studies of irradiated specimens probably could help to resolve the controversy. Light microscopic investigation of a surgically resected thalamic CVM 1 year after 40-Gy irradiation revealed endothelial cell destruction in the cavernous channels, and marked fibrosis with scar tissue formation in the connective stroma of the lesion. These histopathological findings were similar to those described in arteriovenous malformations after Gamma Knife surgery, and suggest that the ionizing effect of radiation energy evokes vascular and connective tissue stroma changes in CVMs as well.
Progress in neurological surgery 02/2007; 20:231-4.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The term radiosurgery signifies any kind of application of ionizing radiation energy, in experimental biology or clinical medicine, aiming at the precise and complete destruction of chosen target structures containing healthy and/or pathological cells, without significant concomitant or late radiation damage to adjacent tissues. The goal of this study is to explore the short- and long-term pathophysiological effects of high-dose focused irradiation on neural tissue and its pathologies with histological, electron-microscopical tissue culture and biological-biochemical methods. Radiosurgical pathology focuses its scope and microscope on tissue, cellular, genetic and molecular changes in the human organism and experimental animals, or in cell lines and other in vitro experiments, generated by the ionizing radiation delivered from radiosurgical devices.
Progress in neurological surgery 02/2007; 20:1-15.