[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical and animal studies have shown that treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor antagonists slows the progression of nephropathy in diabetes, indicating that Ang II plays an important role in its development. We have reported previously that insulin inhibits the stimulatory effect of high glucose levels on angiotensinogen (ANG) gene expression in rat immortalized renal proximal tubular cells (IRPTCs) via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/42 MAPK) signal transduction pathway. We hypothesize that the suppressive action of insulin on ANG gene expression might be attenuated in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) of rats with established diabetes. Two groups of male adult Wistar rats were studied: controls and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-STZ administration. Kidney proximal tubules were isolated and cultured in either normal glucose (i.e. 5 mM) or high glucose (i.e. 25 mM) medium to determine the inhibitory effect of insulin on ANG gene expression. Immunoreactive rat ANG (IR-rANG) in culture media and cellular ANG mRNA were measured by a specific radioimmunoassay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay respectively. Activation of the p44/42 MAPK signal transduction pathway in rat RPTCs was evaluated by p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation employing a PhosphoPlus p44/42 MAPK antibody kit. Insulin (10(-7) M) inhibited the stimulatory effect of high glucose levels on IR-rANG secretion and ANG gene expression and increased p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation in normal rat RPTCs. In contrast, it failed to affect these parameters in diabetic rat RPTCs. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that hyperglycaemia induces insulin resistance on ANG gene expression in diabetic rat RPTCs by altering the MAPK signal transduction pathway.
Journal of Endocrinology 03/2002; 172(2):333-44. DOI:10.1677/joe.0.1720333 · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) have antioxidant properties that could improve redox-sensitive vascular changes associated with hypertension. We determined whether vitamins C and E influence vascular function and structure in hypertension by modulating activity of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Adult stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were divided into 3 groups: control (C; n=6), vitamin C-treated (vit C, 1000 mg/day; n=7), and vitamin E-treated (vit E, 1000 IU/day; n=8). All rats were fed 4% NaCl. Blood pressure was measured weekly. After 6 weeks of treatment, the rats were killed, and mesenteric arteries were mounted as pressurized preparations. Vascular O(2)(-) generation and NADPH oxidase activity were measured by chemiluminescence. Vascular SOD activity and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were determined spectrophotometrically. Blood pressure increased from 212+/-7 to 265+/-6 mm Hg in controls. Treatment prevented progression of hypertension (vit C, 222+/-6 to 234+/-14 mm Hg; vit E, 220+/-9 to 227+/-10 mm Hg). Acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was improved (P<0.05), and media-to-lumen ratio was reduced (P<0.05) in the treated rats. O(2)(-) was lower in vitamin-treated groups compared with controls (vit C, 10+/-4 nmol. min(-1). g(-1) dry tissue weight; vit E, 9.6+/-3.5 nmol. min(-1). g(-1) dry tissue weight; C, 21+/-9 nmol. min(-1). g(-1) dry tissue weight; P<0.05). Both vitamin-treated groups showed significant improvement (P<0.01) in TAS. These effects were associated with decreased activation of vascular NADPH oxidase (vit C, 46+/-10; vit E, 50+/-9; C, 70+/-16 nmol. min(-1). g(-1) dry tissue weight, P<0.05) and increased activation of SOD (vit C, 12+/-2; vit E, 8+/-1; C, 4.6+/-1 U/mg; P<0.05). Our results demonstrate that vitamins C and E reduce oxidative stress, improve vascular function and structure, and prevent progression of hypertension in SHRSP. These effects may be mediated via modulation of enzyme systems that generate free radicals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the molecular mechanism(s) of action of catecholamines on the expression of the angiotensinogen (ANG) gene in kidney proximal tubular cells, we used opossum kidney (OK) cells with a fusion gene containing the 5'-flanking regulatory sequence of the rat ANG gene fused with a human growth hormone (hGH) gene as a reporter, pOGH (rANG N-1498/+18), permanently integrated into their genomes. The level of expression of the ANG-GH fusion gene was quantified by the amount of immunoreactive-hGH (IR-hGH) secreted into the medium. The addition of norepinephrine (NE), isoproterenol (a beta1/beta2-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist) and iodoclonidine (an alpha2-AR agonist) stimulated the expression of the ANG-GH fusion gene in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the addition of epinephrine and phenylephrine (alpha1-AR agonist) had no effect. The stimulatory effect of NE was blocked by the presence of propranolol (beta-AR blocker), atenolol (beta1-AR blocker), yohimbine (alpha2-AR blocker), Rp-cAMP (an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase AI & AII) and staurosporine (an inhibitor of protein kinase C), but was not blocked by ICI 118, 551 (beta2-AR blocker) and prazosin (alpha1-AR blocker). The addition of a combination of isoproterenol and iodoclonidine or a combination of 8-Bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) and phorbol 12-myristate (PMA) synergistically stimulated the expression of the ANG-GH fusion gene as compared to the addition of isoproterenol, iodoclonidine, 8-Br-cAMP or PMA alone. Furthermore, the addition of NE, 8-Br-cAMP or PMA stimulated the expression of pOGH (rANG N-806/-779/-53/+18), a fusion gene containing the putative cAMP responsive element (CRE, ANG N-806/-779) upstream of the ANG promoter (ANG N-53/+18) in OK cells, but had no effect on the expression of fusion genes containing the mutant of the CRE. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that the ANG-CRE binds with the DNA-binding domain (bZIP254-327) of the cAMP-responsive binding protein (CREB). The binding of the labeled ANG-CRE to CREB (bZIP254-327) was displaced by unlabeled ANG-CRE and the CRE of the somatostatin gene but not by the mutants of the ANG-CRE. Finally, NE stimulated the phosphorylation of CREB in OK cells. These studies demonstrate that the molecular mechanism(s) of NE action on the expression of the ANG gene in OK cells may be mediated via both the PKA and PKC signalling pathways and via the phosphorylation of CREB. The phosphorylated CREB then interacts with the CRE in the 5'-flanking region of the ANG gene and subsequently stimulates the gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the molecular mechanism(s) of insulin action on the expression of the angiotensinogen (ANG) gene in kidney proximal tubular cells, we constructed a fusion gene, pOGH (hANG N-1064/+27), containing the 5'-flanking regulatory sequence of the human ANG gene fused with the human growth hormone (hGH) gene as a reporter and stably integrated the fusion gene into the opossum kidney (OK) cell genomes. The level of expression of pOGH (hANG N-1064/+27) was quantified by the amount of immunoreactive hGH secreted into the medium. The addition of a high level of D(+)-glucose (25 mM) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 10(-7) M) stimulated the expression of the fusion gene in OK cells. The stimulatory effect of glucose (25 mM) was blocked by insulin and tolrestat (an inhibitor of aldose reductase). Tolrestat also inhibited the increase of cellular DAG and PKC activity stimulated by 25 mM glucose. While insulin did not affect the cellular DAG and PKC activity, it did block the stimulatory effect of high glucose (25 mM) and PMA on the expression of the fusion gene. Finally, PD98059 (an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)) enhanced the stimulatory effect of high levels of glucose and blocked the inhibitory effect of insulin on the expression of the fusion gene as well as on the phosphorylation of MEK and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In contrast, Wortmannin (an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase) did not block the inhibitory effect of insulin on the ANG gene expression. These studies demonstrate that the action of insulin, blocking the stimulatory effect of a high level of D(+)-glucose (25 mM) on the ANG gene expression is mediated, at least in part, via the 5'-flanking region of the ANG gene and MAPK signal transduction pathway.
Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 07/2000; 1(2):166-74. DOI:10.3317/jraas.2000.021 · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tyrosine kinases may regulate Ang II-induced vascular contraction. However the specific kinases involved are unknown. This study investigated the regulatory role of c-Src in Ca2+ and contractile responses mediated by Ang II in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Cultured VSMC derived from resistance arteries from healthy humans were studied. Intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured by fura 2, c-Src phosphorylation was determined by Western blot, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production was determined by radioimmunoassay. Contractile responses were examined in intact arteries mounted as pressurized systems. Ang II rapidly increased c-Src activity (4-5 fold increase). PP2, the selective Src inhibitor, but not PP3, the inactive analogue, blocked this effect. Ang II induced a biphasic [Ca2+]i response (Emax=636±123 nmol/L, pD2=8.2±0.61). PP2 but not PP3 attenuated (p
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated effects of vitamins C and E on blood pressure elevation, vascular remodeling and endothelial function in salt-loaded stroke-prone SHR (SHRSP). The role of oxidative stress was also assessed in these processes. 16 week-old SHRSP (n = 16) on a high salt diet (4% NaCl) were randomly divided into 3 groups: control (C), Vit C (1000 mg/d) and Vit E (1000 IU/d). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma antioxidant status (spectrophotometric assay system) were assessed weekly. 6 weeks after treatment rats were killed. Vascular structure (media:lumen ratio) and endothelial function (ACH-induced vasodilation) were assessed in mesenteric arteries. Vascular •O2− production was measured in aortic vessels using lucigenin (5 μM). SBP increased progressively from 204 ± 9.4 to 246 ± 5.6 mmHg in C group. Progression of hypertension was prevented in Vit C (210 ± 5 mmHg) and Vit E (209 ± 11 mmHg) groups. Ach-induced dilation was significantly improved in the treated groups. Media:lumen ratio was reduced (p < 0.001) in Vit E group (6.8 ± 0.8%) vs C group (12.3 ± 0.1%0. Total antioxidant status was significantly improved (p < 0.05) in the Vit C (1.3 ± 0.2 mM) and Vit E (1.68 ± 0.4 mM) groups compared with C (0.87 ± 0.1 mM). •O2− production was significantly lower in both Vit-treated groups compared with the untreated group.Vits C and E improved endothelial dysfunction in small arteries and prevented the progression of hypertension in salt-loaded SHRSP. Vit E also corrected vascular remodeling. These effects were associated with improved antioxidant status and reduced vascular oxidative stress. Thus beneficial effects of antioxidant vitamins in vascular damage associated with hypertension are related, in part, to alterations in vessel redox state.
American Journal of Hypertension 06/2000; 13(4). DOI:10.1016/S0895-7061(00)00350-2 · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism(s) of insulin action on angiotensinogen (ANG) secretion and gene expression in kidney proximal tubular cells exposed to high levels of glucose. Immortalized rat proximal tubular cells (IRPTC) were cultured in monolayer. The levels of rat ANG and ANG messenger RNA in the IRPTC were quantified by a specific RIA for rat ANG (RIA-rANG) and by an RT-PCR assay. Insulin inhibited the stimulatory effect of a high level of glucose (25 mM) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an activator of protein kinase C) on the secretion of ANG and the expression of the ANG messenger RNA in IRPTC. This inhibitory action of insulin on the ANG secretion and gene expression was blocked by PD98059 (an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) but not by Wortmannin (an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase). PD98059 was effective in inhibiting the phosphorylation of MEK 1/2 and p44/42 MAP kinase in IRPTC stimulated by insulin. These studies demonstrate that insulin prevents the stimulatory effect of high levels of glucose on the expression of the renal ANG gene in IRPTC, at least in part, via the MAPK kinase signal transduction pathway, subsequently inhibiting the activation of the local renal renin-angiotensin system.