C. Bruder

Universität Basel, Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland

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Publications (141)433.48 Total impact

  • Samuel Aldana, Christoph Bruder, Andreas Nunnenkamp
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    ABSTRACT: We propose to use cavity optomechanical systems in the regime of optical bistability for the detection of weak harmonic forces. Due to the optomechanical coupling an external force on the mechanical oscillator modulates the resonance frequency of the cavity and consequently the switching rates between the two bistable branches. A large difference in the cavity output fields then leads to a strongly amplified homodyne signal. We determine the switching rates as a function of the cavity detuning from extensive numerical simulations of the stochastic master equation as appropriate for continuous homodyne detection. We develop a two-state rate equation model that quantitatively describes the slow switching dynamics. This model is solved analytically in the presence of a weak harmonic force to obtain approximate expressions for the power gain and signal-to-noise ratio that we then compare to force detection with an optomechanical system in the linear regime.
    09/2014;
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    Stefan Walter, Andreas Nunnenkamp, Christoph Bruder
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    ABSTRACT: We study synchronization of two dissipatively coupled Van der Pol oscillators in the quantum regime. Due to quantum noise strict frequency locking is absent and is replaced by a crossover from weak to strong frequency entrainment. We discuss the differences to the behavior of one quantum Van der Pol oscillator subject to an external drive. Moreover, we describe a possible experimental realization of two coupled quantum van der Pol oscillators in an optomechanical setting.
    Annalen der Physik 06/2014; · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate Josephson junctions on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator in planar, step, and edge geometries. The elliptical nature of the Dirac cone representing the side surface states of the topological insulator results in a scaling factor in the Josephson current in a step junction as compared to the planar junction. In edge junctions, the contribution of the Andreev bound states to the Josephson current vanishes due to spin-momentum locking of the surface states. Furthermore, we consider a junction with a ferromagnetic insulator between the superconducting regions. In these ferromagnetic junctions, we find an anomalous finite Josephson current at zero phase difference if the magnetization is pointing along the junction (and perpendicular to the Josephson current). An out-of-plane magnetization with respect to the central region of the junction opens up an exchange gap and leads to a non-monotonic behavior of the critical Josephson current for sufficiently large magnetization as the chemical potential increases.
    05/2014;
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    Stefan Walter, Andreas Nunnenkamp, Christoph Bruder
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    ABSTRACT: Synchronization is a universal phenomenon that is important both in fundamental studies and in technical applications. Here we investigate synchronization in the simplest quantum-mechanical scenario possible, i.e., a quantum-mechanical self-sustained oscillator coupled to an external harmonic drive. Using the power spectrum we analyze synchronization in terms of frequency entrainment and frequency locking in close analogy to the classical case. We show that there is a steplike crossover to a synchronized state as a function of the driving strength. In contrast to the classical case, there is a finite threshold value in driving. Quantum noise reduces the synchronized region and leads to a deviation from strict frequency locking.
    Physical Review Letters 03/2014; 112:094102. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chiral Majorana-fermion modes are shown to emerge as edge excitations in a superconductor--topological-insulator hybrid structure that is subject to a magnetic field. The velocity of this mode is tunable by changing the magnetic-field magnitude and/or the superconductor's chemical potential. We discuss how quantum-transport measurements can yield experimental signatures of these modes. A normal lead coupled to the Majorana-fermion edge state through electron tunneling induces resonant Andreev reflections from the lead to the grounded superconductor, resulting in a distinctive pattern of differential-conductance peaks.
    New Journal of Physics 01/2014; 16(2). · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the low-energy edge states of a superconductor -- 3D topological-insulator hybrid structure (NS junction) in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. The hybridization of electron-like and hole-like Landau levels due to Andreev reflection gives rise to chiral edge states within each Landau level. We show that by changing the chemical potential of the superconductor, this junction can be placed in a regime where the sign of the effective charge of the edge state within the zeroth Landau level changes more than once resulting in neutral edge modes with a finite value of the guiding-center coordinate. We find that the appearance of these neutral edge modes is related to the level repulsion between the zeroth and the first Landau levels in the spectra. We also find that these neutral edge modes come in pairs, one in the zeroth Landau level and its corresponding pair in the first.
    EPL (Europhysics Letters) 12/2013; 108(1). · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate transport properties of a double quantum dot based Cooper pair splitter, where the superconducting lead consists of Sr$_2$RuO$_4$. The proposed device can be used to explore the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter in Sr$_2$RuO$_4$ by testing the presence of gapless chiral edge states, which are predicted to exist if the bulk superconductor is described by a chiral $p$--wave state. The odd orbital symmetry of the bulk order parameter ensures that we can realize a regime where the electrons tunneling into the double dot system come from the chiral edge states and thereby leave their signature in the conductance. The proposed Cooper pair splitter has the potential to probe order parameters in unconventional superconductors.
    08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A long-standing problem in quantum mesoscopic physics is which operator order corresponds to noise expressions like ⟨I(-ω)I(ω)⟩, where I(ω) is the measured current at frequency ω. Symmetrized order describes a classical measurement while nonsymmetrized order corresponds to a quantum detector, e.g., one sensitive to either emission or absorption of photons. We show that both order schemes can be embedded in quantum weak-measurement theory taking into account measurements with memory, characterized by a memory function which is independent of a particular experimental detection scheme. We discuss the resulting quasiprobabilities for different detector temperatures and how their negativity can be tested on the level of second-order correlation functions already. Experimentally, this negativity can be related to the squeezing of the many-body state of the transported electrons in an ac-driven tunnel junction.
    Physical Review Letters 06/2013; 110(25):250404. · 7.73 Impact Factor
  • Samuel Aldana, Christoph Bruder, Andreas Nunnenkamp
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    ABSTRACT: We study the optical bistability of an optomechanical system in which the position of a mechanical oscillator modulates the cavity frequency. The steady-state mean-field equation of the optical mode is identical to the one for a Kerr medium, and thus we expect it to have the same characteristic behavior with a lower, a middle, and an upper branch. However, the presence of position fluctuations of the mechanical resonator leads to a new feature: the upper branch will become unstable at sufficiently strong driving in certain parameter regimes. We identify the appropriate parameter regime for the upper branch to be stable, and we confirm, by numerical investigation of the quantum steady state, that the mechanical mode indeed acts as a Kerr nonlinearity for the optical mode in the low-temperature limit. This equivalence of the optomechanical system and the Kerr medium will be important for future applications of cavity optomechanics in quantum nonlinear optics and quantum information science.
    Physical Review A 06/2013; 88(4). · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We show that the interplay of cyclotron motion and Andreev reflection experienced by massless-Dirac-like charge carriers in topological-insulator surface states generates a Majorana-particle excitation. On the basis of an envelope-function description of the Dirac-Andreev edge states, we discuss the kinematic properties of the Majorana mode and find them to be tunable by changing the superconductor's chemical potential and/or the magnitude of the perpendicular magnetic field. Our proposal opens up new possibilities for studying Majorana fermions in a controllable setup.
    Physical Review Letters 05/2013; 110(18):186805. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Majorana bound states have been proposed as building blocks for qubits on which certain operations can be performed in a topologically protected way using braiding. However, the set of these protected operations is not sufficient to realize universal quantum computing. We show that the electric field in a microwave cavity can induce Rabi oscillations between adjacent Majorana bound states. These oscillations can be used to implement an additional single-qubit gate. Supplemented with one braiding operation, this gate allows us to perform arbitrary single-qubit operations.
    Physical Review Letters 03/2013; 110(10):107006. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite wide interest in organic molecular crystals and the recognition that electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling strength crucially determines the nature of charge carriers in these materials, ab-initio studies of e-ph coupling elements in these materials are still lacking. In this work [1], we calculated the e-ph coupling elements throughout the whole Brillouin zone in crystalline naphthalene using density functional perturbation theory within the generalized gradient approximation. Fourier-Wannier interpolation scheme [2] was then used to obtain the e-ph coupling constants on a fine k-point grid necessary for accurate evaluation of physical properties. Using the obtained e-ph coupling elements, we evaluated the quasiparticle residues for electrons and holes, obtaining the values of 0.74 and 0.78, respectively. These values suggest that e-ph coupling strength is insufficient for formation of small polarons in crystalline naphthalene and other oligoacene semiconductors. [1] N. Vukmirovic, C. Bruder, and V. M. Stojanovic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 126407 (2012). [2] F. Giustino, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, Phys. Rev. B 76, 165108 (2007).
    03/2013;
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    Grégory Strübi, C Bruder
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    ABSTRACT: We propose to use weak measurements away from the weak-value amplification regime to carry out precision measurements of time delays of light. Our scheme is robust to several sources of noise that are shown to only limit the relative precision of the measurement. Thus, they do not set a limit on the smallest measurable phase shift, contrary to standard interferometry and weak-value-based measurement techniques. Our idea is not restricted to phase-shift measurements and could be used to measure other small effects using a similar protocol.
    Physical Review Letters 02/2013; 110(8):083605. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose microwave-controlled rotations for qubits realized as Majorana bound states. To this end we study an inhomogeneous Kitaev chain in a microwave cavity. The chain consists of two topologically nontrivial regions separated by a topologically trivial, gapped region. The Majorana bound states at the interfaces between the left (right) regions and the central region are coupled, and their energies are split by virtual cotunneling processes. The amplitude for these cotunneling processes decreases exponentially in the number of sites of the gapped region, and the decay length diverges as the gap of the topologically trivial region closes. We demonstrate that microwave radiation can exponentially enhance the coupling between the Majorana bound states, both for classical and quantized electric fields. By solving the appropriate Liouville equation numerically we show that microwaves can drive Rabi oscillations in the Majorana sector. Our model emerges as an effective description for a topological semiconductor nanowire in a microwave cavity. Thus, our proposal provides an experimentally feasible way to obtain full single-qubit control necessary for universal quantum computation with Majorana qubits.
    New Journal of Physics 02/2013; 15(2). · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a method for implementing stabilizer-based codes with encoding schemes of the operator quantum error correction paradigm, e.g., the "standard" five-qubit and CSS codes, on solid-state qubits with Ising or XY-type interactions. Using pulse sequences, we show how to induce the effective dynamics of the stabilizer Hamiltonian, the sum of an appropriate set of stabilizer operators for a given code. Within this approach, the encoded states (ground states of the stabilizer Hamiltonian) can be prepared without measurements and preserved against both the time evolution governed by the original qubit Hamiltonian, and energy-nonconserving errors caused by the environment.
    Physical Review A 01/2013; 87(5). · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    Talitha Weiss, Christoph Bruder, Andreas Nunnenkamp
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we study cavity optomechanical systems in which the position of a mechanical oscillator modulates both the resonance frequency (dispersive coupling) and the linewidth (dissipative coupling) of a cavity mode. Using a quantum noise approach we calculate the optical damping and the optically-induced frequency shift. We find that dissipatively coupled systems feature two parameter regions providing amplification and two parameter regions providing cooling. To investigate the strong-coupling regime, we solve the linearized equations of motion exactly and calculate the mechanical and optical spectra. In addition to signatures of normal-mode splitting that are similar to the case of purely dispersive coupling, the spectra contain a striking feature that we trace back to the Fano line shape of the force spectrum. Finally, we show that purely dissipative coupling can lead to optomechanically-induced transparency which will provide an experimentally convenient way to observe normal-mode splitting.
    New Journal of Physics 11/2012; 15(4). · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in quasi two-dimensional optical lattices of varying geometry and potential depth. Based on the numerically exact Bloch and Wannier functions obtained using the plane-wave expansion method, we quantify the drag (entrainment coupling) between the condensate components. This drag originates from the (short range) inter-species interaction and increases with the kinetic energy. As a result of the interplay between interaction and kinetic energy effects, the superfluid-drag coefficient shows a non-monotonic dependence on the lattice depth. To make contact with future experiments, we quantitatively investigate the drag for mass ratios corresponding to relevant atomic species.
    Physical Review A 08/2012; · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    Andreas Wagner, Andreas Nunnenkamp, Christoph Bruder
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    ABSTRACT: We study the ground-state phase diagram of spinless and spin-1 bosons in optical superlattices using a Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian that includes spin-dependent interactions. We decouple the unit cells of the superlattice via a mean-field approach and take into account the dynamics within the unit cell exactly. The system supports Mott-insulating as well as superfluid phases. The transitions between these phases are second-order for spinless bosons and second- or first-order for spin-1 bosons. Anti-ferromagnetic interactions energetically penalize high-spin configurations and elongate all Mott lobes, especially the ones corresponding to an even atom number on each lattice site. We find that the quadratic Zeeman effect lifts the degeneracy between different polar superfluid phases leading to additional metastable phases and first-order phase transitions. Finally, we show that an energy offset between the two sites of the unit cell induces a staircase of single-atom tunneling resonances which surprisingly survives well into the superfluid regime.
    Physical Review A 07/2012; 86(2). · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a quantum simulation of small-polaron physics using a one-dimensional system of trapped ions acted upon by off-resonant standing waves. This system, envisioned as an array of microtraps, in the single-excitation case allows the realization of the anti-adiabatic regime of the Holstein model. We show that the strong excitation-phonon coupling regime, characterized by the formation of small polarons, can be reached using realistic values of the relevant system parameters. Finally, we propose measurements of the quasiparticle residue and the average number of phonons in the ground state, experimental probes validating the polaronic character of the phonon-dressed excitation.
    Physical Review Letters 06/2012; 109(25). · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We consider electron(hole)-phonon coupling in crystalline organic semiconductors, using naphthalene for our case study. Employing a first-principles approach, we compute the changes in the self-consistent Kohn-Sham potential corresponding to different phonon modes and go on to obtain the carrier-phonon coupling matrix elements (vertex functions). We then evaluate perturbatively the quasiparticle spectral residues for electrons at the bottom of the lowest-unoccupied- (LUMO) and holes at the top of the highest-occupied (HOMO) band, respectively obtaining $Z_e\approx 0.74$ and $Z_h\approx 0.78$. Along with the widely accepted notion that the carrier-phonon coupling strengths in polyacenes decrease with increasing molecular size, our results provide a strong microscopic evidence for the previously conjectured nonpolaronic nature of band-like carriers in these systems.
    Physical Review Letters 04/2012; 109(12). · 7.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
433.48 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • Universität Basel
      • Department of Physics
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2012
    • University of Belgrade
      • Institute of Physics
      Beograd, Central Serbia, Serbia
  • 2010
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993–2007
    • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
      • Institute for Theoretical Solid State Physics
      Karlsruhe, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2003
    • Stony Brook University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Stony Brook, NY, United States
  • 2001
    • Delft University Of Technology
      • Applied Geophysics and Petrophysics
      Delft, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1998
    • Antioch University, Santa Barbara
      Santa Barbara, California, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Bayreuth
      Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1994
    • University of Catania
      Catania, Sicily, Italy