Yoshihiro Nakashima

Gifu University Hospital, Gihu, Gifu, Japan

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Publications (15)46.07 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Costello syndrome is characterized by poor postnatal growth, mental retardation, curly hair, coarse face, loose skin of the hands and feet, and nasal papillomata. Patients with Costello syndrome have a high incidence of cardiac involvement, such as arrhythmias, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or congenital anomalies. The importance of cardiac involvement in Costello syndrome has not been strongly emphasized thus far, although arrhythmia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are both serious forms of cardiac involvement. We report the case of a Japanese girl with Costello syndrome, who experienced life-threatening cardiac involvement throughout her life.
    Clinical Genetics 11/1996; 50(4):244-7. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS). We found two separate deletions of nearly 8.0 and 6.0 kb in the GALNS gene, including some exons. There are Alu repetitive elements near the breakpoints of the 8.0-kb deletion, and this deletion resulted from an Alu—Alu recombination. The other 6.0-kb deletion involved illegitimate recombinational events between incomplete short direct repeats of 8 bp at deletion breakpoints. The same rearrangement has been observed in a heteroallelic state in four unrelated patients. This is the first documentation of a common double deletion a gene that is not a member of a gene cluster.
    Genomics 05/1995; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seven different restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) at the N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) locus were analyzed using Southern blotting and polymerase chain reaction based techniques to search for the frequency of each RFLP produced by StyI, SphI, HaeIII, StuI, HapII, XhoI, and BamHI restriction endonucleases, respectively, in 36 mutant alleles, including two sibling cases and 100 normal alleles. Calculation of heterozygosity indexes showed that these RFLPs were polymorphic, ranging from 0.31 to 0.69 in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) patients compared with 0.21 to 0.65 in normal individuals. There was some significant difference in several RFLPs and in the combination with four kinds of RFLPs (SphI, StuI, HapII, XhoI polymorphisms). The normal alleles were composed of 13 different RFLPs haplotypes; the most common among the Japanese population carrying normal alleles was haplotype 8 (bDEF1) (31.3%), the others being dispersed. The same haplotype 8 was the most frequent in the mutant alleles (44.4%), with seven further haplotypes. These findings revealed the striking variety of polymorphic haplotypes in the MPS IVA gene. By using these five kinds of RFLPs, we examined the theoretical informativity of haplotype analysis in heterozygote detection in nine unrelated MPS IVA families and ten unrelated normal families. All the members of the MPS IVA families studied were diagnosed as a patient, carrier, or noncarrier. We propose that prenatal diagnosis or family analysis in cases in which mutations have not been characterized is now feasible.
    Human Genetics 02/1995; 95(3):257-264. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the design of oral sustained-release theophylline dosing after conversion from constant aminophylline infusion. Twelve children with bronchial asthma (9 boys and 3 girls) were evaluated in this study. Each patient received a constant intravenous administration of aminophylline for 4-10 days. Three hours after conversion from constant aminophylline infusion, they received oral sustained-release theophylline twice daily at 12-hour intervals. Blood samples were obtained at least once during the aminophylline infusion, just before conversion from the aminophylline infusion, and 0, 3 and 6 hours, and 4-5 days after administering oral theophylline. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using the serum theophylline concentrations that were obtained during constant aminophylline infusion. These estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters were used to predict the serum theophylline concentrations during oral theophylline therapy. Predicted serum theophylline concentrations using individual pharmacokinetic parameters were fitted with actual measured values in this study. When switching a patient from intravenous aminophylline to sustained-release oral theophylline, the use of Bayesian analysis of serum theophylline concentration values obtained during intravenous therapy works well in predicting serum theophylline concentrations and in determining oral dosages that maximize the drug's effectiveness.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 12/1994; 32(11):625-31. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is used in the treatment of a wide range of autoimmune disorders. However, the mechanisms of the action of IVIGs remain poorly understood. To analyse the mechanisms of effects of IVIGs on immunoglobulin (Ig) production of B cells, the effects of IVIGs on B lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (LCLs) were investigated. The productions of IgG or IgM of LCLs were dose-dependently suppressed by polyethylene glycol (PEG)-treated IVIG or pH 4-treated IVIG though the productions were not or only slightly suppressed by pepsin-treated IVIG. The suppression by IVIGs was blocked by anti-human IgG Fc or anti-Fc gamma RII. C mu gene expression and mu s C terminal gene expression of LCLs were suppressed by PEG-treated IVIG, whereas neither C mu gene expression nor mu s C terminal gene expression of LCLs were suppressed by pepsin-treated IVIG. Although the increase in intracellular calcium concentration in LCLs was not suppressed by pepsin-treated IVIG, the increase was suppressed by PEG-treated IVIG. This suppressing effect of PEG-treated IVIG on intracellular calcium concentration of LCLs was blocked by anti-human IgG Fc or anti- Fc gamma RII. Our results suggest that IVIGs suppressed the Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction through Fc gamma R on B-cell membrane, consequently, the transcription of C mu mRNA, especially secreted mu mRNA was suppressed in the B cells.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 08/1994; 40(1):37-42. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is used in the treatment of a wide range of autoimmune disorders. However, the mechanisms of the action of IVIGs remain poorly understood. To analyse the mechanisms of effects of IVIGs on immunoglobulin (Ig) production of B cells, the effects of IVIGs on B lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (LCLs) were investigated. The productions of IgG or IgM of LCLs were dose-dependently suppressed by polyethylene glycol (PEG)-treated IVIG or pH 4-treated 1VIG though the productions were not or only slightly suppressed by pepsin-treated IVIG. The suppression by IVIGs was blocked by anti-human IgG Fc or anti-Fc γ RII. C μ gene expression and μ s C terminal gene expression of LCLs were suppressed by PEG-treated IVIG, whereas neither C μ gene expression nor μ s C terminal gene expression of LCLs were suppressed by pepsin-treated IVIG. Although the increase in intracellular calcium concentration in LCLs was not suppressed by pepsin-treated IVIG, the increase was suppressed by PEG-treated IVIG. This suppressing effect of PEG-treated IVIG on intracellular calcium concentration of LCLs was blocked by anti-human IgG Fc or anti- Fc γ RII. Our results suggest that IVIGs suppressed the Ca2+ -dependent signal transduction through Fc γ R on B-cell membrane, consequently, the transcription of C γ mRNA, especially secreted γ mRNA was suppressed in the B cells.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 07/1994; 40(1):37-42. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis IV A (MPS IV A) is the result of a genetic deficiency in a lysosomal hydrolase, N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS). To investigate MPS IV A patients at the level of the genome, we analyzed the structure of the human GALNS-encoding gene. From the genomic library of a normal subject in λEMBL3, we isolated five overlapping clones covering the coding region of the GALNS cDNA and determined the structural organization. The gene is about 50 kb long and contains 14 exons. The 5′-flanking region lacks a canonical TATA box and CCAAT sequences, but is G+C-rich (70.5%), with four GC boxes, characteristic of a housekeeping gene promoter. The transcription initiation site was determined by primer extension analysis, using RNA from human liver and HeLa cells. Transcription was found to initiate at a few sites, the major ones being 58 and 22 bp upstream of the translation initiation codon. The 5′-flanking region had promoter activity by transient expression, determined using a CAT assay. In addition, this region retained promoter activity, even in reverse orientation. The region -98 to -1 upstream of the ATG codon was defined by deletion analysis to be a minimal promoter. One GC box in this region is likely to be a binding site of a regulatory element.
    Genomics 04/1994; 20(1):99-104. · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 02/1994; 17(5):601-5. · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • S. Tomatsu, T. Hori, Y. Nakashima
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in N-acetylgalactosamine -6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Studies on the molecular basis of MPS IVA have been facilitated following cloning of the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA. In this study we detected mutations from 20 Caucasian and 19 Japanese MPS IVA patients using SSCP system and compared mutations of Caucasian origin with those of Japanese origin. The results showed the presence of 16 various mutations (3 small, deletions, 2 nonsense and 11 missense mutations) for Caucasian patients and 15 (1 deletion, 1 large alteration and 13 missense mutations) for Japanese. Moreover, two common mutations existed; one is double gene deletion characteristic for Japanese (6 alleles; 15%) and the other is a point mutation (1113F AâT transition) characteristic for Caucasian (9 alleles; 22.5%). And the clear genotype/phenotype relationship among 1342delCA, IVS1(-2), P151S, Q148X, R386C, I113F, Q473X, W220G, P151L, A291T, R90W, and P77R, for a severe type, G96B N204K and V138A for a milder type, was observed. Only R386 mutation was seen in both of the populations. Further, the precise DNA analysis for double gene deletion of a common double gene deletion has been performed by defining the breakpoints and the results showed that one deletion was caused by homologous recombination due to Alu repetitive sequences and the other was due to nonhomologous recombination of short direct repeat. Haplotype analysis for six alleles with double deletion were different, indicating the different origin of this mutation or the frequent recombination events before a mutational event. Thus the mutations in GALNS gene are very heterogeneous and the racial difference is characteristic.
    American Journal of Human Genetics - AMER J HUM GENET. 01/1994; 55.
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to ovalbumin (OA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in children with atopic dermatitis (AD) who are sensitive to hen's egg or cow's milk were significantly higher than those of healthy children and hen's egg- or cow's milk-sensitive children with immediate symptoms. Azelastine hydrochloride is an antiallergic drug used in the treatment of rhinitis and asthma. In this study, we have shown that the proliferative responses of PBMCs to OA are concentration-dependently inhibited by azelastine in patients with AD. Moreover, the inhibition resulted from the effects of azelastine on T-cells.
    Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 01/1994; 4(2):67-70. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The numbers of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the expression of mRNA for secreted type of immunoglobulin heavy chains were investigated in healthy children, compared with the percentages of surface immunoglobulin-bearing cells and the expression of mRNA for membrane-bound type of immunoglobulin heavy chains, respectively. Although a difference between expression of mu s mRNA and mu m mRNA was unclear, mu mRNA was well transcribed. The expression of gamma s mRNA or alpha s mRNA was markedly higher than that of gamma m mRNA or alpha m mRNA. However, although the detection methods could be of different sensitivities, the percentage of IgM-, IgG-, or IgA-secreting cells was markedly low, compared with the percentage of surface IgM-, IgG-, or IgA-bearing cells, respectively. Therefore, additional regulation of the pattern of the immunoglobulin gene expression may be exerted at the translational and post-translational stages.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 11/1993; 38(4):320-2. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmid clones of three independent genomic fragments of the gene for human N -acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS; EC 3.1.6.4) were utilized in a fluorescence in situ suppression hybridization study to assign the locus to chromosome 16q24. Enzyme assay for GALNS in a patient with del(16)(q22.1) confirmed this finding.
    Genomics 07/1993; · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Pediatric Asthma Allergy &amp Immunology 01/1993; 7(4):239-242.
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) results from a genetic deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate (Gal-NAc6S) sulfatase. We have identified two different exonic mutations causing GalNAc6S sulfatase deficiency in two unrelated Japanese families, in one patient with classical Morquio disease, and in two brothers with a mild form of MPS IVA. The nucleotide sequence of the full-length cDNA derived from a patient with classical Morquio disease revealed a two-base deletion at nucleotide position 1343-1344 (1344-1345 or 1345-1346) that altered the reading frame (designated 1342delCA). This mutation, inherited from the proband's consanguineous parents, was revealed by TaqI restriction analysis of a cDNA fragment amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. In the proband with the mild form of the disease, a C to G transversion at nucleotide 667 predicted the substitution of Lys for Asn204 (N204K). Since a new AluI site was created by the N204K mutation, restriction analysis indicated that the affected brothers were homozygous for this mutation, as confirmed by the finding that both their parents had this lesion. Transient expression in GalNAc6S sulfatase deficient fibroblasts of these two mutant alleles showed completely deficient or markedly decreased enzyme activities, thereby indicating that these two mutations were responsible for the enzyme deficiency.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 10/1992; 90(3):1049-53. · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We cloned and sequenced a full-length cDNA of human placental N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase, the enzyme deficient in Morquio disease. The 2339-nucleotide sequence contained 1566 nucleotides which encoded a polypeptide of 522 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence was composed of a 26-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide and a mature polypeptide of 496 amino acid residues including two potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites. Expression of the cDNA in transfected deficient fibroblasts resulted in higher production of this sulfatase activity than in untransfected deficient fibroblasts. The cDNA clone was hybridized to only a 2,3-kilobase species of RNA in human fibroblasts. The amino acid sequence of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase showed a high degree of homology with those of other sulfatases such as human arylsulfatases A, B or C, glucosamine-6-sulfatase, iduronate-2-sulfatase and sea urchin arylsulfatase.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/1992; · 2.28 Impact Factor