ABSTRACT: Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are one of the key components of antiretroviral therapy drug regimen against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We previously described a newly synthesized small molecule, 10-chloromethyl-11-demethyl-12-oxo-calanolide A (F18), a (+)-calanolide A analog, as a novel anti-HIV-1 NNRTI (H. Xue et al., J. Med. Chem. 53:1397-1401, 2010). Here, we further investigated its antiviral range, drug resistance profile, and underlying mechanism of action. F18 consistently displayed potent activity against primary HIV-1 isolates, including various subtypes of group M, circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE, and laboratory-adapted drug-resistant viruses. Moreover, F18 displayed distinct profiles against 17 NNRTI-resistant pseudoviruses, with an excellent potency especially against one of the most prevalent strains with the Y181C mutation (50% effective concentration, 1.0 nM), which was in stark contrast to the extensively used NNRTIs nevirapine and efavirenz. Moreover, we induced F18-resistant viruses by in vitro serial passages and found that the mutation L100I appeared to be the dominant contributor to F18 resistance, further suggesting a binding motif different from that of nevirapine and efavirenz. F18 was nonantagonistic when used in combination with other antiretrovirals against both wild-type and drug-resistant viruses in infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Interestingly, F18 displayed a highly synergistic antiviral effect with nevirapine against nevirapine-resistant virus (Y181C). Furthermore, in silico docking analysis suggested that F18 may bind to the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase differently from other NNRTIs. This study presents F18 as a new potential drug for clinical use and also presents a new mechanism-based design for future NNRTI.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2012; 56(1):341-51. · 4.84 Impact Factor