Y H Lee

National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (383)788.16 Total impact

  • Y H Lee, G G Song
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to explore whether cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) polymorphisms are associated with cervical cancer. A meta-analysis was conducted on the associations between the CTLA-4 +49 A/G, -318 C/T, IL-1B -511 C/T, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) polymorphisms and cervical cancer.We included 15 studies on cervical cancer. The meta-analysis showed a significant association between cervical cancer and the CTLA-4 +49 G allele when all studies were considered (OR = 0.822, 95% CI 0.731-0.924, p = 0.001). Stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the CTLA-4 +49 GG+GA genotype and cervical cancer in East Asians (OR = 0.708, 95% CI 0.532-0.943, p = 0.018). However, no association was found between cervical cancer and the CTLA-4 -318 C/T polymorphism. Meta-analysis showed an association between cervical cancer and the IL-1B -511 T allele (OR = 1.380, 95% CI 1.048-1.816, p = 0.022), and stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the IL-1B -511 CC+CT genotype in East Asians (OR = 1.622, 95% CI 1.227-2.43, p = 0.001). An association was found between the IL-1RN*2 allele and cervical cancer in Indians, but not in Europeans (OR = 2.154, 95% CI 1.547-2.948, p = 1.6 × 10-7; OR = 1.269, 95% CI 0.969-1.661, p = 0.083). The meta-analysis suggests that the CTLA-4 +49 A/G and IL-1B -511 C/T polymorphisms are associated with cervical cancer in East Asians, and that the IL-1RN VNTR polymorphism is associated with cervical cancer in Indians. Keywords: cervical cancer, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, interleukin-l, polymorphism, meta-analysis.
    Neoplasma 04/2014; · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Y H Lee, J-H Kim, G G Song
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether the functional chemokine receptor 5 delta32 (CCR5-Δ32) polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), vasculitis, and primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). A total of 12 studies were analyzed, including 5 on SLE, 5 on vasculitis, and 2 on pSS, encompassing 1881 patients and 2391 controls. Meta-analysis indicated no association between SLE and the CCR5-Δ32 allele (OR 0.842, 95 % CI 0.793-1.804, p = 0.657), and no association between the CCR5-Δ32 allele and SLE in Europeans (OR 0.647, 95 % CI 0.306-1.368, p = 0.255). Meta-analysis of the CCR5-Δ32 allele and the Δ32Δ32 + Δ32 W genotype showed no association with lupus nephritis (LN; OR 1.771, 95 % CI 0.475-6.595, p = 0.395; OR 2.192, 95 % CI 0.182-26.42, p = 0.537, respectively). In addition, meta-analysis revealed no association between the CCR5-Δ32 allele and vasculitis in all study subjects and in Europeans (OR 1.241, 95 % CI 0.951-1.620, p = 0.111; OR 1.359, 95 % CI 0.803-2.303, p = 0.254, respectively). However, the overall OR for the CCR5-Δ32 allele was significantly higher in Kawasaki disease (KD; OR 1.746, 95 % CI 1.003-2.955, p = 0.038) and the meta-analysis of the Δ32Δ32 + Δ32 W genotype showed a trend indicating an association with KD (OR 1.683, 95 % CI 0.921-3.077, p = 0.091). No association was found between the CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism and pSS. This meta-analysis demonstrates that the CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism is associated with KD, but does not facilitate susceptibility to SLE, LN, or pSS.
    Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 03/2014; · 0.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dual dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) techniques employed in single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) converters are used to improve the efficiency of the system-on-a-chip (SoC). One DVS technique for digital circuits is controlled by the SoC processor. This paper presents the analog DVS (ADVS) technique for analog circuits to scale voltage across the power MOSFET of the switchable digital–analog (D/A) low-dropout (LDO) regulator which is the post-regulator cascaded in series with the SIDO converter. The ADVS determines the tradeoff between voltage suppression and efficiency. Furthermore, because of the digital operation of the D/A LDO regulator, the quiescent current is further reduced at light loads while the load current requirement is minimized. In addition, the limitation of the capacitor-free LDO is significantly reduced by a few microamperes. The test chip was fabricated using a 40-nm CMOS process. Experimental results demonstrated switchable D/A LDO regulator operation with peak efficiency at 96.7% in analog operation and a 5-mV output voltage ripple at 120-mA load resulting from the advantage of ripple suppression. The power efficiency could be sustained at a value over 92.57% even when the load current decreased to 1 $mu$A.
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 01/2014; 49(3):740-750. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A high efficiency 3.3 V-to-1 V switched-capacitor (SC) step-down DC-DC converter with load-dependent frequency control (LFC) and deep-green mode (DGM) operation is proposed for system-on-a-chip (SoC) application. According to output loading current, the LFC technique can immediately and dynamically adjust the switching frequency through the use of pseudo-clock generator (PCG) and lead-lag detector (LLD) circuit to obtain high power conversion efficiency and small output voltage ripple over a wide loading current range. Therefore, adequate loading current supplying function and output voltage regulation can be guaranteed. Moreover, the DGM operation, similar to pulse skipping mode, can mask the switching clock to reduce power loss at ultra-light loads for further improving power efficiency. The test chip fabricated in 55 nm CMOS process demonstrates that the proposed fast transient converter can deliver wide load range from 10 mA to 250 mA with two small flying capacitors ($C_{F1}, C_{F2} =0.1 mu$ F) and one output capacitor ($C_{rm OUT} =1 mu$F). The peak conversion efficiency is 89% compared to the ideal value of 91% $(3* V_{rm OUT}/V_{rm IN})$. In other words, the peak normalized efficiency is equal to 98%. The overall normalized efficiency is always kept higher than 90% while the output voltage ripple is guaranteed smaller than 30 mV.
    Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on 01/2014; 61(3):911-921. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder of melanocytes. Recently, some clinical reports have suggested that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may worsen vitiligo, but their effects on melanocytes have yet to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of PPIs on melanogenesis in vivo and in vitro. We examined the effect of PPIs on melanogenesis in B16 murine melanoma cells by measuring melanin content and tyrosinase (TYR) activity. TYR and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) were monitored by western blotting. Finally, a PPI was applied to zebrafish embryos to investigate its in vivo effect on pigmentation. In agreement with our clinical experience of worsened vitiligo after PPI treatment, PPIs decreased both melanin content and TYR activity. Western blotting showed that PPIs decreased TYR and TRP-1 protein levels. In the zebrafish test, PPIs inhibited body pigmentation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the functional inhibition of melanization by PPIs may induce or aggravate vitiligo lesions in genetically predisposed patients.
    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 11/2013; · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: Export Date: 9 September 2013, Source: Scopus, CODEN: AFMDC, doi: 10.1002/adfm.201203469, Language of Original Document: English, Correspondence Address: Jeong, M.S.; WCU Department of Energy Science, Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, South Korea; email: mjeong@gist.ac.kr, References: Alivisatos, A.P., (1996) Science, 271, pp. 933-937;
    Advanced Functional Materials 01/2013; 23(29):3653-3660. · 9.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we investigate hot carrier injection (HCI) stress induced self-heating behavior for high-voltage n-type Lateral-Diffused-MOSFET (NLDMOS) multi-finger devices. A NMOS device with more poly fingers, for the first time, is found to suffer more threshold voltage drift (ΔVt) but less linear current drift (ΔIdlin) under HCI stress at high gate and drain voltages. The experiment of monitoring device temperature is carried out and TCAD simulations are performed to investigate the physical mechanisms. The effect of poly gate finger numbers (PGFN) is attributed to higher lattice temperature with more PGFN, resulting in higher electrical field in the channel region and lower electrical field in the drift region. HCI behavior in ΔVt and ΔIdlin for different PGFN devices at various ambient temperatures are verified by TCAD simulation. In addition, the effect of PGFN on AC HCI stress and DC HCI Safe-Operation-Area (SOA) are studied. All the experimental findings can be well explained by the effect of self-heating during HCI stress mode.
    Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2013 IEEE International; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Junction leakage is becoming an important reliability concern as shallow trench isolation (STI) continues to scale down. This junction leakage has to be considered to improve SRAM Vccmin degradation. The major index of junction leakage in SRAM cell is found to be off-state leakage current as the leakage phenomenon externally manifests as a current flow from butted contact (BCT) to lower pull down (LPD) transistor gate. Isolation test patterns (P+/N-well to P-Well) with well photo misalignments are designed to verify Si/STI interface damage effect on junction leakage. Process experiment with PW misalignment shows isolation leakage current (P+ to PW) increase after electrical stress. However, this type of leakage due to PW misalignment shows weak temperature and voltage dependence, indicating that the trap-assisted carrier hopping at STI Si/SiO2 interface and the PW misalignment are paramount of SRAM junction reliability. Using TCAD simulation, we have verified that carriers transport through the Si/STI interface traps along with poor PW misalignment is the root causes of the junction leakage current increase. HSPICE simulation results show that junction leakage worsen SRAM cell stability by degrading SRAM read margin (SNM) and may eventually lead to cell failure.
    Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2013 IEEE International; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: A low quiescent current asynchronous digital- LDO (D-LDO) regulator integrated with a phase-locked loop (PLL)-modulated switching regulator (SWR) that achieves the near-optimum power management supply for core processor in system-on-chip (SoC). The parallel connection of the asynchronous D-LDO regulator and the ripple-based control SWR can accomplish fast-DVS (F-DVS) operation as well as high power conversion efficiency. The asynchronous D-LDO regulator controlled by bidirectional asynchronous wave pipeline realizes the F-DVS operation, which guarantees high million instructions per second (MIPS) performance of the core processor under distinct tasks. The use of a ripple-based control SWR operating with a leading phase amplifier ensures fast response and stable operation without the need for large equivalent-series-resistance, thus reducing the output voltage ripple for the enhancement of supply quality. The fabricated chip occupies 1.04 ${rm mm}^{2}$ in 40 nm CMOS technology. Experimental results show that a 94% peak efficiency with a voltage tracking speed of 7.5 ${rm V}/mu{rm s}$ as well as the improved MIPS performance by 5.6 times was achieved.
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 01/2013; 48(4):1018-1030. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two mechanisms of data retention (DR) are investigated on logic embedded non-volatile memory (eNVM) in Multiple-Time-Programming (MTP) application. Unlike the typically observed DR degradation after endurance test in flash memory, DR window closure of logic eNVM can be recovered at higher data retention bake temperature and longer bake time due to thermally activated electron de-trapping from interface of tunnel oxide to Si substrate. In addition, a new DR degradation mechanism called Reverse Code Effect (RCE) is shown to exhibit faster DR degradation than the original DR behaviors. RCE induced DR degradation can be attributed to the combined effect of capacitive coupling [1] in between floating gate (FG) and contact-etch-stop-layer (CESL) dipole charges and charge loss due to charge recombination in FG. We also demonstrate that RCE can be effectively suppressed by adopting low-level Si-H compositions of CESL nitride film with less dipole charges to reduce the charge loss in the FG.
    Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2013 IEEE International; 01/2013
  • Y H Lee, S-C Bae, G G Song
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms confer susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and whether they influence clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis. Studies were considered relevant for our meta-analysis if at least two comparisons of an issue were available. Eleven studies with 2078 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 2581 controls were included, encompassing European and Asian studies. Meta-analysis of three European studies showed no significant association between the TLR4 Asp299Gly (rs4986790) polymorphism and rheumatoid arthritis (odds ratio = 0.897, 95% confidence interval = 0.734-1.096, P = 0.289). One Turkish study showed a significant difference between TLR9 rs187084 allele frequencies and rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls, while another study revealed a significant association between rheumatoid factor and TLR8 rs5741883. A Korean study on the numbers of guanine-thymine [(GT)(n)] repeats in intron II of the TLR2 gene found a significantly higher S-allele frequency in rheumatoid arthritis patients than in controls (30.3 vs 23.0%). Overall findings for the meta-analysis including all the studies conclude that TLR polymorphism is associated with development and clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis in Asian and Middle East populations.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2013; 12(1):328-34. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, frequency dependence of the Positive Bias Temperature Instability (PBTI) and the Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown (TDDB) at relative high frequency range (1KHz ~ 500MHz) in high-k/metal-gate (HK/MG) NMOS are investigated. An explanation of both dependencies of PBTI and TDDB with capture/emission times is proposed. This paper is divided into three parts: 1) AC PBTI and the existence of critical frequencies is discussed, 2) Frequency dependence of TDDB and its implication of the time to form leakage path, and 3) AC BTI/TDDB impacts on logic circuit, which is studied using simulated frequency degradation of ring oscillators (ROs). Based on the negligible frequency degradation of RO with worst Idsat degradations, we conclude that, for circuits operating in a continuous switching mode, BTI/TDDB will not be an unsurpassable reliability issue.
    Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2013 IEEE International; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to explore whether the CD226 rs763361 polymorphism confers susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted on the associations between the CD226 rs763361 polymorphism and autoimmune diseases using: 1) allele contrast, and 2) the recessive, 3) dominant and 4) additive models. Results: Ten articles that included 17 comparative studies on a total of 8900 patients and 10,295 controls were included in the meta-analysis. These studies were performed on seven European, five Asian and five South American sample populations. Meta-analysis of all study subjects revealed an association between the CD226 rs763361 T allele and the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases (odds ratio; OR 1.162, 95% confidence interval; CI 1.097-1.230, p < 1.0 × 10(-8)). Stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the CD226 rs763361 T allele and autoimmune disease in Europeans and South Americans (OR 1.134, 95% CI 1.079-1.191, p = 6.7 × 10(-7); OR 1.308, 95% CI 1.160-1.475, p = 1.1 × 10(-5)) and between the CD226 rs763361 TT genotype and autoimmune disease in Asians (OR 1.366, 95% CI 1.130-1.650, p = 0.001). Disease-specific meta-analysis showed an association between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the CD226 rs763361 T allele (OR 1.150, 95% CI 1.040-1.271, p = 0.006), but no association between rheumatoid arthritis and the CD226 rs763361 polymorphism (OR for the T allele 1.207, 95% CI 0.913-1.596, p = 0.187). On the other hand, associations were found between the CD226 rs763361 T allele and systemic sclerosis (SSc) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) (OR 1.126, 95% CI 1.020-1.244, p = 0.019; OR 1.353, 95% CI 1.102-1.660, p = 0.004). Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrates the CD226 rs763361 polymorphism confers susceptibility to autoimmune disease in Europeans, South Americans and Asians, and in particular, shows that the CD226 rs763361 polymorphism is associated with SLE, SSc and T1D. These results support the existence of an association between the CD226 gene and a subgroup of autoimmune diseases.
    Lupus 08/2012; · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In January 2010, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred for the first time in 8 years in Korea. The outbreaks were because of A serotype, different from the O type, which had occurred previously in 2000 and 2002. The FMD outbreaks were identified in seven farms, consisting of six cattle farms where viruses were detected and one deer farm where only FMDV antibody was detected. The seven farms were within 9.3 km of each other. All susceptible animals within 10 km radius of the outbreak farms were placed under movement restrictions for 3-11 weeks. No vaccination took place to facilitate the clinical observation of infected animals and virus detection. After clinical observations and serological tests within the control zones showed no evidence of FMD infection, the movement restrictions were lifted, followed by FMD-free declaration (23 March) at 80 days after the first outbreak on 2 January. This communication describes the outbreak of FMD A serotype, and control measures applied to eradicate the disease in Korea.
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 05/2012; · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • Y H Lee, S J Choi, J D Ji, G G Song
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to explore whether the valine/leucine(247) (Val/Leu(247)) polymorphism of β(2)-glycoprotein I (β(2)GPI) confers susceptibility to anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and thrombosis and predicts positivity for anti-β(2)GPI antibodies. A meta-analysis was conducted on the associations between the β(2)GPI Val/Leu(247) polymorphism and susceptibility to APS and thrombosis and positivity for anti-β(2)GPI. A total of 1507 patients with APS and 1450 controls in 12 comparative studies were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of the β(2)GPI Val/Leu(247) polymorphism showed significant associations between the β(2)GPI Val allele and APS, thrombosis, and anti-β(2)GPI positivity (odds ratio (OR) 1.316, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.068-1.621, p = 0.010; OR 1.908, 95% CI 1.195-3.046, p = 0.007; OR 1.630, 95% CI 1.018-2.609, p = 0.042, respectively). A direct comparison between anti-β(2)GPI-positive and -negative patients revealed that the frequency of the Val allele was significantly higher in anti-β(2)GPI-positive patents (OR 1.514, 95% CI 1.017-1.253, p = 0.041). Furthermore, a direct comparison between thrombosis-positive and -negative patients also indicated that the Val/Val + Val/Leu and the Val/Val vs. Leu/Leu genotypes of the β(2)GPI polymorphism were significantly elevated in patients with thrombosis (OR 2.817, 95% CI 1.200-6.610, p = 0.017; OR 3.312, 95% CI 1.338-8.200, p = 0.010, respectively). This meta-analysis shows that the β(2)GPI Val/Leu(247) polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to APS and thrombosis and with anti-β(2)GPI positivity.
    Lupus 03/2012; 21(8):865-71. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monolithic integration of 0.18μm 1.8/3.3V CMOS and Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) was developed by CMOS first/MEMS last scheme (CMOS-MEMS). During process development, gate oxide reliability is a major concern which can be observed due to (1) electrostatic charge damage through bonding pads during the die sawing stage of MEMS cap formation and (2) plasma induced damage (PID) during MEMS deep via etch and MEMS pattern etching. Electrostatic charge damage can be much improved by reducing the die sawing time, optimizing die saw cleaning recipe, and removing the pad oxide before MEMS cap formation. An electrostatic charge model has been developed to explain the gate oxide reliability characteristics. PID can be minimized through gated diode or P/N junction diode protection to provide another effective approach for electrical shielding of the MEMS device in our prior work [1].
    Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2012 IEEE International; 01/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Export Date: 25 July 2013, Source: Scopus, CODEN: NALEF, :doi 10.1021/nl303926y, Language of Original Document: English, Correspondence Address: Lee, Y.H.
    Nano Letters. 01/2012; 12(12):6505.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether the functional interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter -174 G/C and -572 G/C polymorphisms confer susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in ethnically different populations. Meta-analysis was conducted on the associations between the IL-6 polymorphisms and SLE using; 1) allele contrast, 2) the recessive model, 3) the dominant model, and 4) the additive model. A total of 11 studies were considered in this study, and ethnicity-specific meta-analysis was performed on European and Asian populations. Meta-analysis of the IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism showed an association between SLE and the IL-6 -174 G allele in all study subjects (odds ratio (OR) = 1.344, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.052-1.718, p = 0.018). Furthermore, stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the IL-6 -174 G allele and SLE in Europeans (OR = 1.264, 95% CI = 1.037-1.541, p = 0.020). Meta-analysis of the IL-6 -572 G/C polymorphism revealed that an association was found between SLE and the IL-6 -572 G/C polymorphism using the recessive model, but ethnicity-specific meta-analysis revealed no association between SLE and the IL-6 -572 G/C polymorphism in Asians. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrates that the IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism may confer susceptibility to SLE in Europeans, but that the IL-6 -572 G/C polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to SLE in Asians.
    Lupus 01/2012; 21(1):60-7. · 2.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: We have constructed an ultraviolet (UV)-apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope-Raman spectroscopy system by using an aluminum tip for the simultaneous measurement of topography and Raman scattering of nanomaterials with high spatial resolution. The topography, Rayleigh scattering image, and tip-enhanced Raman scattering image of the carbon nanotube film showed that a spatial resolution of around 19 nm was achieved. This spatial resolution of UV-Raman mapping image exceeds that of previous approaches, which have several hundred nanometers of spatial resolution. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 01/2012; 43(12):1931-1934. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stress-induced voiding (SIV) at a narrow metal line connected to a wide metal plate is investigated for Cu/low-k interconnects. Different from the traditional stress migration failure modes of voiding underneath the via or inside the via, new failure modes due to void formation in the narrow metal line have been observed in highly scaled Cu/low-k interconnects. Using the SIV data extracted from different geometries of test patterns, the narrow metal line related SIV failure mechanism resulted from a wide metal plate as vacancies reservoir and stress gradient in the connection of the narrow metal line to the wide metal is discovered and characterized. Process improvement which enhanced the adhesion between metallization and ILD interface has been shown to effectively reduce the vacancy migration and suppress the new failure modes.
    Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2012 IEEE International; 01/2012

Publication Stats

3k Citations
788.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • National Chiao Tung University
      • Institute of Electrical Control Engineering
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2000–2013
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering (AMSE)
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyungpook National University
      • College of Natural Sciences
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Andong National University
      • Department of Physics
      Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1997–2013
    • Korea University
      • • Division of Rheumatology
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Jeju National University
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea
  • 2009–2012
    • Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
      • School of Mechatronics
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 1992–2012
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Chungnam National University
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2006–2009
    • Cheil General Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Kwandong University
      Gangneung, Gangwon, South Korea
  • 2003–2007
    • Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science
      • Medical Metrology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2001–2007
    • Keimyung University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Nippon Telegraph and Telephone
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • CHA University
      • College of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1994–2007
    • Hanyang University
      • • Department of Molecular and Life Science
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering
      • • Department of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1996–2005
    • Ajou University
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      • • Department of Nephrology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Sangji University
      • Department of Computer and Electron Physics
      Genshū, Gangwon, South Korea
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Physiology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1995–2003
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Electronic Materials Research Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Family Health Care Nursing
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 1992–2003
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1992–2002
    • Taichung Veterans General Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 1999–2001
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
      Usan-ri, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Daejin University
      Whasung-Gun, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 1999–2000
    • Yeungnam University
      • College of Medicine
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 1993–2000
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • • School of Environmental Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Life Sciences
      Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1995–1997
    • Inha University Hospital
      Sinhyeon, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1993–1996
    • Soon Chun Hyang University Hospital
      • Department of Gastroenterology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1994–1995
    • Jeonju National University of Education
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 1991
    • Sandia National Laboratories
      • Semiconductor Material and Device Sciences Department
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
  • 1989–1991
    • AT&T Labs
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 1985–1987
    • The University of Arizona
      • College of Optical Sciences
      Tucson, Arizona, United States