Y H Lee

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited, Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (451)1053.77 Total impact

  • Y H Lee, G G Song
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may play a role in the susceptibility to glioma, to elucidate their potential mechanisms, and to generate SNP-to-gene-to-pathway hypotheses.A genome-wide association study (GWAS) dataset of glioma including 509,345 SNPs from 1,856 glioma patients and 4,955 control subjects of European descent was used in this study. Identify candidate Causal SNPs and Pathways (ICSNPathway) analysis was applied to the GWAS dataset.ICSNPathway analysis identified 6 candidate SNPs, 5 genes, and 9 pathways, which revealed 5 hypothetical biological mechanisms. The hypothetical mechanisms, beginning with the strongest, are summarized as follows: (i) rs667128 alters the role of taste receptor, type 2, member 8 (TAS2R8) in taste receptor activity and taste transduction pathways (p < 0.001, false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.001; p = 0.001, FDR = 0.012, respectively), (ii) rs619381 modulates the effect of taste receptor, type 2, member 7 (TAS2R7) on taste receptor activity and taste transduction (p < 0.001, FDR < 0.001; p = 0.001, FDR = 0.012), (iii) rs1033583 modulates delta-like protein 1 (DLL1), regulating cell adhesion and segment specification (p < 0.001, FDR = 0.011; p = 0.001, FDR = 0.032), (iv) rs2232580 affects the role of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in the response to lipopolysaccharide, positive regulation of interleukin-6 production, acute inflammatory response, and in macrophage activation (0.002 ≤ p ≤ 0.013; 0.012 ≤ FDR ≤ 0.030), and (v) rs4644 and rs4652 regulate lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3 (LGALS3), affecting immunoglobulin binding (p = 0.010; FDR = 0.040).Using the ICSNPathway to analyze glioma GWAS data, 6 candidate SNPs, 5 genes (TAS2R8, TAS2R7, DLL1, LBP, and LGALS3), and 9 pathways that may contribute to the susceptibility of glioma were identified. Keywords: glioma, genome-wide association study, pathway-based analysis.
    Neoplasma 01/2015; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drill string acoustic telemetry is an effective transmission method to retrieve downhole data. Finite-difference simulations produce the comb-filter-like channel response (patterns of pass bands and stop bands) due to the presence of coupling joints in the metallic drill string. Practical pipes used for drilling deep wells have slight variation in length. The selection and arrangement of downhole pipes is important for improving the transmission efficiency of extensional waves transmitted through the drill string. Downhole drill string channel is studied using the transmission coefficients calculated from the transmission matrix method, and the resultant transfer function produces identical results similar to the finite-difference simulations. Reciprocity of the drill string structure is proved by comparing the pass band responses using the ascend-only (AO) and descend-only pipe arrangements. Transferred energies calculated up to 180 pipes of random length at the end of the drill strings using transmission coefficients for the three different pipe arrangements, namely, AO, descend-then-ascend, and ascend-then-descend (ATD), are compared to find the optimal pipe arrangement for single measurement. For the situations when pipes are distributed in sets, multiple measurements are required. In this paper, two sets of AO and two sets of ATD arrangements are analyzed for multiple measurements. ATD and $n$xATD arrangements are proposed as optimal pipe arrangements to produce the best possible telemetry performance in terms of optimal acoustic energy transfer via one- and two-way acoustic communication for single and multiple measurements, respectively.
    IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 11/2014; 52(11):6999-7007. · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Y H Lee, S-C Bae
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore whether the miR-146a polymorphism (rs2910164) confers susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
    Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 10/2014; · 0.46 Impact Factor
  • J.X. Yeo, Y.H. Lee, J.T. Ong
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    ABSTRACT: Attenuation measurements from two Ku- and a Ka-band satellite beacon signals in a tropical site, Singapore are presented. A new Z–R relationship (Z = 61.75 · R1.61) is derived using rainfall rate data from rain gauge. Rainfall rates predicted from Radar data using the proposed relationship and the Singapore data set are used to compute the earth–satellite path rain attenuation. The measured attenuations from satellite beacon receivers match well with that computed values using the Radar data.
    AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications 10/2014; · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of this study was to explore whether polymorphisms in miR-146a, miR-499 and IRAK1 are associated with susceptibility to inflammatory arthritis. Methods Manual searches performed in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were used to identify published articles in which the roles of microRNA (miRNA) and IRAK1 polymorphisms in inflammatory arthritis were determined. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate associations of the miR-146a rs2910164, miR-499 rs3746444, IRAK1 rs3027898 and IRAK1 rs1059703 polymorphisms with susceptibility to inflammatory arthritis. Results Nine studies containing 1224 patients and 1841 controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed no association between inflammatory arthritis and the rs2910164 C allele of miR-146a (odds ratio, OR = 0.974; 95 % confidence interval, CI = 0.810–1.091; p = 0.650). Stratification by ethnicity or disease type revealed no association between the miR-146a C allele and inflammatory arthritis in European, Middle Eastern or Asian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). However, the meta-analysis revealed an overall association between RA and the miR-499 rs374644 C (OR = 1.123, 95 % CI = 1.019–2.586, p = 0.041); stratification by ethnicity revealed a particular association in Middle Eastern populations (OR = 1.943, 95 % CI = 1.508–2.504, p = 2.7 × 10–8). The meta-analysis of IRAK1 polymorphisms revealed an association between inflammatory arthritis and the rs3027898 CC genotype (OR = 2.602, 95 % CI = 1.387–4.879, p = 0.003). An analysis using the homozygote contrast showed the same pattern for the rs3027898 CC genotype (OR = 2.472, 95 % CI = 1.300–4.700, p = 0.006). No association between inflammatory arthritis and the rs1059703 polymorphism was found. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that the miR-499 rs374644 and IRAKI rs3027898 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to inflammatory arthritis.
    Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 10/2014; · 0.46 Impact Factor
  • Y H Lee, J-H Kim, G G Song
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to pre-eclampsia.
    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 09/2014; 182C:202-207. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether functional mannose-binding lectin gene (MBL) polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS).
    Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie. 07/2014;
  • Y H Lee, S-C Bae, J-H Kim, G G Song
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A transmembrane (MICA-TM) polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
    Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 07/2014; · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim in this study was to determine whether solute carrier family 22, member 4 (SLC22A4), and runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in populations of different ethnicities.
    Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie. 06/2014;
  • Y H Lee, S-C Bae, J-H Kim, G G Song
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphisms in programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1 or PD1) are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and type 1 diabetes (T1D).
    Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, frequency dependency of the Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) in a wide frequency range (10kHz ~ 500MHz) is investigated using on-chip test structure. The designed test structure allows measurement in AC and DC mode. Statistically meaningful AC/DC lifetime ratios are extracted after accelerated reliability stress and show a non-monotonic behavior. Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) trap analysis of a single defect is also carried out which reveals that trap located near interface with time constant 10-10~10-4s are responsible for such behavior. A model from trap occupancy of individual defects point of view is also proposed to justify with plausible reasons the non-monotonic behavior of AC/DC ratio in wide frequency range.
    2014 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a Stress Migration (SM) failure mode in the metal line was explored and the failure was found to associate with unstable Cu microstructure in the narrow line and fast surface drift velocity at weak interface adhesion. In this work, we further investigate SM behavior in different material and process at Cu/barrier and Cu/ESL interfaces. We observed that vacancies from the wide metal plate initially migrate through Cu grains to Cu/barrier interface, they then move to Cu/ESL interface, and eventually voiding is formed in the narrow metal line. This SM failure mode can be eliminated through a new nose structure with special narrow metal line design consisting of two branch widths (BW). In addition, we successfully demonstrated that, by process optimization at Cu/barrier and Cu/ESL interfaces, migration path of vacancies can be effectively suppressed and thus SM effect can be dramatically eliminated.
    2014 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: For the first time, the physical mechanisms for both AC TDDB improvement and degradation are investigated. For an optimized gate stack, the AC TDDB improvement is due to more charge de-trapping. For a non-optimized gate stack, the AC TDDB degradation can be explained through a proposed model which combines the charge redistribution and charge recovery. In addition, the fast measurement could provide a more reliable TDDB lifetime projection due to the minimization of the charge trapping and de-trapping effects during the TDDB stress.
    2014 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major purposes of evaluating discrete device reliability is to provide aging predictions of a circuit. Since ring oscillator (RO) is a key substitute for fast switching circuits due to its simplicity and coverage. It is, therefore, necessary and fundamental to have an accurate frequency shift simulation of RO from a discrete device based model. (An accurate frequency shift simulation of RO based on a discrete device reliability model can't be stressed enough.) In this study, correlation between single device degradation and frequency shift of high-k/metal-gate (HK/MG) RO is discussed. Commonly used Idsat or Vt failure criteria at device level are found inappropriate to predict aging effects on RO. Thus, a simple and accurate methodology is proposed to bridge this gap. Due to the complexity and diversity in real circuits, RO itself is worthy of being an indispensable test pattern during process development.
    2014 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of self-heating effect (SHE) on device reliability characterization, such as BTI, HCI, and TDDB, is extensively examined in this work. Self-heating effect and its impact on device level reliability mechanisms is carefully studied, and an empirical model for layout dependent SHE is established. Since the recovery effect during NBTI characterization is found sensitive to self-heating, either changing VT shift as index or adopting μs-delay measurement system is proposed to get rid of SHE influence. In common HCI stress condition, the high drain stress bias usually leads to high power or self-heating, which may dramatically under-estimate the lifetime extracted. The stress condition Vg = 0.6~0.8Vd is suggested to meet the reasonable operation power and self-heating induced temperature rising. Similarly, drain-bias dependent TDDB characteristics are also under-estimated due to the existence of SHE and need careful calibration to project the lifetime at common usage bias.
    2014 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS); 06/2014
  • Y H Lee, G G Song
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to explore whether cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) polymorphisms are associated with cervical cancer. A meta-analysis was conducted on the associations between the CTLA-4 +49 A/G, -318 C/T, IL-1B -511 C/T, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) polymorphisms and cervical cancer.We included 15 studies on cervical cancer. The meta-analysis showed a significant association between cervical cancer and the CTLA-4 +49 G allele when all studies were considered (OR = 0.822, 95% CI 0.731-0.924, p = 0.001). Stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the CTLA-4 +49 GG+GA genotype and cervical cancer in East Asians (OR = 0.708, 95% CI 0.532-0.943, p = 0.018). However, no association was found between cervical cancer and the CTLA-4 -318 C/T polymorphism. Meta-analysis showed an association between cervical cancer and the IL-1B -511 T allele (OR = 1.380, 95% CI 1.048-1.816, p = 0.022), and stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the IL-1B -511 CC+CT genotype in East Asians (OR = 1.622, 95% CI 1.227-2.43, p = 0.001). An association was found between the IL-1RN*2 allele and cervical cancer in Indians, but not in Europeans (OR = 2.154, 95% CI 1.547-2.948, p = 1.6 × 10-7; OR = 1.269, 95% CI 0.969-1.661, p = 0.083). The meta-analysis suggests that the CTLA-4 +49 A/G and IL-1B -511 C/T polymorphisms are associated with cervical cancer in East Asians, and that the IL-1RN VNTR polymorphism is associated with cervical cancer in Indians. Keywords: cervical cancer, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, interleukin-l, polymorphism, meta-analysis.
    Neoplasma 04/2014; · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • Y H Lee, J-H Kim, G G Song
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether the functional chemokine receptor 5 delta32 (CCR5-Δ32) polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), vasculitis, and primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). A total of 12 studies were analyzed, including 5 on SLE, 5 on vasculitis, and 2 on pSS, encompassing 1881 patients and 2391 controls. Meta-analysis indicated no association between SLE and the CCR5-Δ32 allele (OR 0.842, 95 % CI 0.793-1.804, p = 0.657), and no association between the CCR5-Δ32 allele and SLE in Europeans (OR 0.647, 95 % CI 0.306-1.368, p = 0.255). Meta-analysis of the CCR5-Δ32 allele and the Δ32Δ32 + Δ32 W genotype showed no association with lupus nephritis (LN; OR 1.771, 95 % CI 0.475-6.595, p = 0.395; OR 2.192, 95 % CI 0.182-26.42, p = 0.537, respectively). In addition, meta-analysis revealed no association between the CCR5-Δ32 allele and vasculitis in all study subjects and in Europeans (OR 1.241, 95 % CI 0.951-1.620, p = 0.111; OR 1.359, 95 % CI 0.803-2.303, p = 0.254, respectively). However, the overall OR for the CCR5-Δ32 allele was significantly higher in Kawasaki disease (KD; OR 1.746, 95 % CI 1.003-2.955, p = 0.038) and the meta-analysis of the Δ32Δ32 + Δ32 W genotype showed a trend indicating an association with KD (OR 1.683, 95 % CI 0.921-3.077, p = 0.091). No association was found between the CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism and pSS. This meta-analysis demonstrates that the CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism is associated with KD, but does not facilitate susceptibility to SLE, LN, or pSS.
    Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 03/2014; · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dual dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) techniques employed in single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) converters are used to improve the efficiency of the system-on-a-chip (SoC). One DVS technique for digital circuits is controlled by the SoC processor. This paper presents the analog DVS (ADVS) technique for analog circuits to scale voltage across the power MOSFET of the switchable digital–analog (D/A) low-dropout (LDO) regulator which is the post-regulator cascaded in series with the SIDO converter. The ADVS determines the tradeoff between voltage suppression and efficiency. Furthermore, because of the digital operation of the D/A LDO regulator, the quiescent current is further reduced at light loads while the load current requirement is minimized. In addition, the limitation of the capacitor-free LDO is significantly reduced by a few microamperes. The test chip was fabricated using a 40-nm CMOS process. Experimental results demonstrated switchable D/A LDO regulator operation with peak efficiency at 96.7% in analog operation and a 5-mV output voltage ripple at 120-mA load resulting from the advantage of ripple suppression. The power efficiency could be sustained at a value over 92.57% even when the load current decreased to 1 $mu$A.
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 03/2014; 49(3):740-750. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A high efficiency 3.3 V-to-1 V switched-capacitor (SC) step-down DC-DC converter with load-dependent frequency control (LFC) and deep-green mode (DGM) operation is proposed for system-on-a-chip (SoC) application. According to output loading current, the LFC technique can immediately and dynamically adjust the switching frequency through the use of pseudo-clock generator (PCG) and lead-lag detector (LLD) circuit to obtain high power conversion efficiency and small output voltage ripple over a wide loading current range. Therefore, adequate loading current supplying function and output voltage regulation can be guaranteed. Moreover, the DGM operation, similar to pulse skipping mode, can mask the switching clock to reduce power loss at ultra-light loads for further improving power efficiency. The test chip fabricated in 55 nm CMOS process demonstrates that the proposed fast transient converter can deliver wide load range from 10 mA to 250 mA with two small flying capacitors ($C_{F1}, C_{F2} =0.1 mu$ F) and one output capacitor ($C_{rm OUT} =1 mu$F). The peak conversion efficiency is 89% compared to the ideal value of 91% $(3* V_{rm OUT}/V_{rm IN})$. In other words, the peak normalized efficiency is equal to 98%. The overall normalized efficiency is always kept higher than 90% while the output voltage ripple is guaranteed smaller than 30 mV.
    Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on 03/2014; 61(3):911-921. · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • G G Song, Y H Lee
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the insertion (I) or deletion (D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) is associated with susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc). A meta-analysis examining the associations between the ACE I/D polymorphism and SSc was conducted in overall and European populations using 1) allelic contrast (D vs I); 2) recessive (DD vs ID + II); 3) dominant (DD + ID vs II); and 4) additive (DD vs ID vs II) models. A total of 7 studies consisting of 837 cases and 754 controls were available for meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed no association between the D allele and SSc in any study subjects [odds ratio (OR) = 0.956, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.733-1.246, P = 0.737]. Stratification by ethnicity indicated no association between the D allele of the ACE I/D polymorphism and SSc in Europeans (OR = 1.117, 95%CI = 0.776-1.607, P = 0.551). Meta-analysis using all other genetic models showed the same D allele pattern in the overall and European groups. This meta-analysis showed that the ACE I/D polymorphism was not associated with susceptibility to SSc in the study subjects and in Europeans.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2014; 13(4):8174-8183. · 0.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,053.77 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2013
    • National Chiao Tung University
      • Institute of Electrical Control Engineering
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2011–2013
    • Chungnam National University
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • Seoul Women's University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2007–2013
    • Nanyang Technological University
      • School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Urology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korean Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2001–2013
    • Korea Maritime University
      • Graduate School
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Inha University Hospital
      Sinhyeon, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • University of Strathclyde
      • Institute of Photonics
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Nippon Telegraph and Telephone
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Sciences
      Chinju, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2000–2013
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering (AMSE)
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Fraunhofer Research Institution for Organics, Materials and Electronic Devices COMEDD
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
    • Andong National University
      • Department of Physics
      Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Dong-A University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Chonnam National University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • Kyungpook National University
      • College of Natural Sciences
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 1997–2013
    • Korea University
      • • Division of Rheumatology
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Jeju National University
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea
    • Animal Plant And Fisheries Quarantine And Inspection Agency
      Anyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2006–2012
    • Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
      • • Advanced Photonics Research Institute
      • • School of Environmental Science and Engineering
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 1995–2012
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1992–2012
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Dongguk University
      • Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2011
    • Hanyang University Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Chonnam National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2009
    • Cheil General Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Kwandong University
      Gangneung, Gangwon, South Korea
    • National Institute of Biological Resources
      Bucheon, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 1993–2007
    • Hanyang University
      • • Department of Molecular and Life Science
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering
      • • Department of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005
    • Ajou University
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1996–2005
    • Seoul National University
      • • Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering
      • • Department of Agricultural Biotechnology
      • • College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1994–2004
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Physics
      • • School of Environmental Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Life Sciences
      Geijitsu, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1995–2003
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Electronic Materials Research Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1992–2002
    • Taichung Veterans General Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 1999–2001
    • Yeungnam University
      • College of Medicine
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
      Usan-ri, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 1993–1997
    • Jeonju National University of Education
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 1993–1996
    • Soon Chun Hyang University Hospital
      • Department of Gastroenterology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1991
    • Sandia National Laboratories
      • Semiconductor Material and Device Sciences Department
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
  • 1989–1991
    • AT&T Labs
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 1985–1987
    • The University of Arizona
      • College of Optical Sciences
      Tucson, Arizona, United States