[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported a highly sensitive method for serum human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) are good markers for HCC. In this study, we verified the significance of hTERTmRNA in a large scale multi-centered trial, collating quantified values with clinical course.
In 638 subjects including 303 patients with HCC, 89 with chronic hepatitis (CH), 45 with liver cirrhosis (LC) and 201 healthy individuals, we quantified serum hTERTmRNA using the real-time RT-PCR. We examined its sensitivity and specificity in HCC diagnosis, clinical significance, ROC curve analysis in comparison with other tumor markers, and its correlations with the clinical parameters using Pearson relative test and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, we performed a prospective and comparative study to observe the change of biomarkers, including hTERTmRNA in HCC patients receiving anti-cancer therapies.
hTERTmRNA was demonstrated to be independently correlated with clinical parameters; tumor size and tumor differentiation (P < 0.001, each). The sensitivity/specificity of hTERTmRNA in HCC diagnosis showed 90.2%/85.4% for hTERT. hTERTmRNA proved to be superior to AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP in the diagnosis and underwent an indisputable change in response to therapy. The detection rate of small HCC by hTERTmRNA was superior to the other markers.
hTERTmRNA is superior to conventional tumor markers in the diagnosis and recurrence of HCC at an early stage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the susceptibility to chemotherapy of unresectable/advanced pancreatic cancer is very poor, the usefulness of new anticancer drugs, such as S-1, has been reported in recent years. We clinically investigated whether or not S-1 would prolong survival in this study.
17 unresectable pancreatic cancer patients who came for consultation between November 2001 and August 2008 (ten men, seven women). The average age was 72.5 years and performance statuses before medical treatment were 0-2.
A group of 8 patients did not use S-1 (non-S-1 group) and a group of a patients (S-1 group)did. The average survival period, one-year survival rate, and hospitalization rate were examined.
The average survival period of the non-S-1 group was 173.1 days, and its one-year survival rate was 12.5%, compared to 435.1 days and 55.6% in the S-1 group. The hospitalization rate was 25.6% in the S-1 group, against 53.1% in the non-S-1 group.
S-1 treatment for unresectable/advanced pancreatic cancer served to prolong the survival period, suggesting it enabled extension of the recuperation-at-home period.
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 09/2009; 36(9):1475-80.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the outcomes of antiviral therapy with nucleotide analogs for hepatitis B virus infection-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
Thirty patients orally received nucleotide analogs and, as a matched control group, 20 patients who were not treated with nucleotide analogs were selected. We compared changes in liver function, HCC recurrence and survival rate between both groups.
In the nucleotide analog group, serum albumin, AST and ALT were significantly improved compared with baseline values. The Child-Pugh score was significantly decreased in the nucleotide analog group. Furthermore, of the 36 patients curatively treated with the initial treatment, more patients in the nucleotide analog group improved or maintained their Child-Pugh score at the time of recurrent HCC than in the control group (p=0.023). The cumulative recurrent-free survival rate of HCC did not significantly differ between the two groups; however, the cumulative survival rates of not only curative-treated patients but also all patients in the nucleotide analog group were significantly higher than those of patients in the control group (p=0.047 and p=0.02, respectively).
The results suggest that nucleotide analog treatment increases the survival rate in patients with HCC by contributing to the improvement of remnant liver function.
Internal Medicine 02/2009; 48(1):11-7. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.48.1534 · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently available tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP (AFP-L3), and Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP). However, their positive rate can not surpass abdominal ultrasonography (US) as modalities to detect small HCC at early stage, resulting in a possible delay of its diagnosis. There is a need to develop an additional sensitive marker to improve the early detection of HCC. We here introduced a newly developed quantitative detection method for serum hTERT mRNA, which has a clinical significance in HCC diagnosis. Briefly, we examined its sensitivity and specificity in HCC diagnosis, clinical significance in comparison with other tumor markers, and its correlations with the clinical parameters. Serum hTERT mRNA showed higher values in patients with HCC than those with chronic liver diseases. hTERT mRNA expression independently correlated with clinical parameters such as differentiation degree (p < 0.001). The sensitivity/specificity of hTERT mRNA in HCC diagnosis showed 88.2/70.0%. hTERT mRNA proved to be expectedly superior to AFP mRNA , AFP and DCP in HCC diagnosis. Importantly, hTERT mRNA in serum correlated with that in HCC tissue. Thus, we report that serum hTERT mRNA is a novel and available marker for HCC diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of various diseases is stressed, clinical significance of the markers reflecting DNA oxidation such as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) remains to be clarified.
To examine clinical usefulness of 8-OHdG in healthy individuals in comparison with liver disease patients, urinary excretion of 8-OHdG was measured in 336 healthy individuals and 110 patients with liver disease.
In healthy persons, the 8-OHdG excretion was increased in an age-dependent manner. It was positively correlated with cigarettes smoked a day and negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05, each). Age, smoking and BMI were independent predictors of urinary 8-OHdG excretion (P < 0.01, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). In liver disease, the excretion of 8-OHdG was not changed, as compared with healthy individuals. However, the liver disease patients under the age of 40 had higher values of 8-OHdG than healthy persons. In addition, the urinary excretion of 8-OHdG was higher in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection than those with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
The results of the present study suggest that measurement of urinary 8-OHdG excretion is useful in assessing DNA oxidation caused by aging, smoking, body composition and liver disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of the stage of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C is essential for making a prognosis and deciding on antiviral therapy. In the present study a simple model consisting of routine laboratory tests was constructed and then validated in cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. Consecutive treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C who had undergone liver biopsy were divided into 2 cohorts: an estimation set (n = 240) and a validation set (n = 120). A longitudinal set consisted of 30 patients who had undergone a liver biopsy twice, before and after IFN treatment. The FibroIndex was derived from the platelet count, AST, and gamma globulin measurements in the estimation set. The areas under the ROC curves of the FibroIndex for predicting significant fibrosis were 0.83 and 0.82 for the validation set, better than those of the Forns index and the aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI). Using the best cutoff values, whether significant fibrosis was present was diagnosed with high positive predictive values, and 35% of patients could avoid liver biopsy. In the longitudinal set, there was a significant decrease in the FibroIndex of 14 patients whose fibrosis stage improved, and a significant increase in that of 5 patients whose fibrosis stage deteriorated. Change in the FibroIndex correlated significantly with variation in fibrosis stage. There was no such correlation with the Forns index or the APRI. Conclusion: The FibroIndex is a simple and reliable index for predicting significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C and could also be used as a surrogate marker during antifibrotic treatment for chronic hepatitis C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SRalpha promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2006; 345(4):1517-25. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.05.084 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a role in pathogenesis of chronic viral hepatitis. Expression of oxidative stress-related molecules remains to be clarified.
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), glutathione peroxidase-1, thioredoxin (TRX) in leukocytes and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were examined in 164 persons, including 130 chronic viral hepatitis patients and 34 normal individuals, by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Hepatic expression of these proteins was immunohistochemically examined in 12 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, compared with three persons without liver damage.
The 4-HNE/beta-actin ratios in chronic viral hepatitis were significantly higher than those in normal individuals (P<0.01), and were significantly correlated with asparate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P<0.01, each). The catalase/beta-actin and SOD-1/beta-actin ratios in chronic viral hepatitis were higher than those in normal individuals, and were significantly correlated with 4-HNE/beta-actin ratios (P<0.01, each). Hepatic expression of 4-HNE, 4-HHE, catalase, SOD-1 and TRX in chronic viral hepatitis was higher than that without liver damage. Urinary excretion of 8-OHdG was not changed in chronic viral hepatitis.
The results of the present study suggest that expression of oxidative stress-related molecules in leukocytes is upregulated in relation to serum aminotransferase levels.
Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 03/2006; 26(2):157-65. DOI:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2005.01213.x · 4.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene, encompassing the FRA3B fragile site at chromosome 3p14.2, is a candidate tumour suppressor gene involved in a variety of tumours, including gastric carcinomas. Recently, it has been reported that the FHIT gene may be a target of damage in some of mismatch-deficient tumours. To clarify further the role of the Fhit protein in gastric carcinogenesis, we investigated whether Fhit expression in early gastric neoplasia is associated with mismatch repair protein expression and cellular phenotype. Fhit, Mlh1 and phenotypic expression were evaluated immunohistochemically in 87 early gastric neoplasias, comprising 32 adenomas and 55 intramucosal carcinomas, resected by endoscopic mucosal resection therapy. Significant loss or reduction of Fhit expression was noted in four (12.5%) of the 32 adenomas and 21 (38.2%) of the 55 intramucosal carcinomas. The rate of abnormal Fhit expression was significantly higher in intramucosal carcinomas than in adenomas (P=0.021). Moreover, reduced Fhit expression was found to be significantly associated with loss of Mlh1 expression in early gastric neoplasia (P=0.0011). Furthermore, we also detected a significant association between reduced Fhit expression and gastric phenotype (P=0.0018). These results suggested that reduced Fhit expression occurs in the early stage of gastric carcinogenesis and could be correlated with a lack of Mlh1 expression and gastric phenotype.
British Journal of Cancer 03/2004; 90(3):672-7. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6601601 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telomerase reverse transcriptase protein (hTERT) mRNA has been reported to be detectable by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the serum of patients with breast cancer. We measured serum hTERT mRNA in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and examined its clinical usefulness.
We performed RT-PCR to detect the expression of hTERT mRNA in 78 patients with HCC, 10 with liver cirrhosis (LC), 12 with chronic hepatitis (CH), and 34 healthy individuals without any liver diseases and cancers, and statistically analyzed the association with clinical parameters which include age, sex, etiology, Child classification, underlying liver disease, biochemical data, alpha-fetoprotein (alpha-AFP) number and size of tumor, and histological differentiation of HCC regarding HCC patients.
70 of 78 (89.7%) patients with HCC, 7 of 10 (70.0%) with LC, and 5 of 12 (41.7%) with CH were positive for hTERT expression, whereas all healthy individuals were negative for it. A multivariate analysis showed that positivity of hTERT mRNA was independently associated with AFP, tumor size, and differentiation degree.
These results suggest that this assay is sensitive enough to detect hTERT mRNA in serum, and that it would be applicable for early detection and diagnosis of HCC or other cancers by a quantitative method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including sulindac, have been shown to exhibit anti-colon cancer activity; however, the detailed mechanisms concerning continuous long-term administration are still unclear. Therefore, we examined the anti-colon carcinogenesis effects of sulindac after prolonged administration.
Administration of AOM, a colon-specific carcinogen, induced colonic preneoplastic lesions, which can progress to carcinomas about 40-50 weeks after AOM administration. We studied the effects of sulindac on the incidence of preneoplastic lesions, proliferative activity of colonic cells (AgNORs), tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene expression, and apoptosis using AOM-treated rat colon mucosa at 4 weeks and 40 weeks (early and late stage of colon carcinogenesis, respectively).
Sulindac suppressed the development of preneoplastic lesions induced by AOM at 4 weeks and 40 weeks by about 50% ( P<0.01); the proliferative activity of colonic cells increased by AOM was suppressed almost completely. Furthermore, APC expression was significantly increased by sulindac at both the early and late stages ( P<0.01). However, apoptosis was clearly increased at the early stage ( P<0.01), but not at the late stage.
APC overexpression induced by sulindac can suppress colon carcinogenesis at both the early and late stages, but apoptosis might work as one of anti-cancer mechanisms at the early stage of colon carcinogenesis.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 12/2002; 128(11):589-95. DOI:10.1007/s00432-002-0384-8 · 3.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether oral administration of Tegaful-Uracil (UFT(R)), a biochemical modulator of 5-fluorouracil that contains tegafur and uracil, can induce hepatic fibrosis, serum 7S domain of type IV collagen and N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen levels were measured in 63 UFT(R)-treated, 38 tegafur-treated and 40 untreated patients. Serum transaminase and bilirubin levels were normal in almost all patients. Serum levels of 7S collagen and type III propeptide increased in 25 and 17% of the UFT(R)-treated patients, respectively, although a majority of tegafur-treated and untreated patients showed no increase in these markers. The patients with the elevated levels demonstrated mild or moderate hepatic fibrosis without necroinflammation in the liver. Both serum levels decreased markedly after the discontinuation of UFT(R). These findings suggest that long-term oral administration of UFT(R) can induce hepatic fibrosis without the elevation of serum transaminase levels and necroinflammation in the liver, and serum 7S collagen and type III procollagen are of diagnostic value for UFT(R)-induced hepatotoxicity.
Hepatology Research 11/2002; 24(2):184. DOI:10.1016/S1386-6346(02)00026-8 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate early molecular events related to colon carcinogenesis, we examined alterations in the expression of colon cancer-related genes such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, APC and c-Myc, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the background colon mucosa, and K-ras mutation at aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colons of azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats 4 weeks after the first exposure to AOM. About 40 ACF/colon were induced in the colons of rats treated with AOM (Group 1); however, rats not treated with AOM (Group 2) showed no ACF formation in the colon. The level of AgNORs in the colonic mucosa was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P<0.01). The colonic mucosa in Group 1 looked macroscopically and histologically normal, but the proliferative activity of the mucosa of rats treated with AOM was clearly elevated. COX-2 mRNA expression was not detected in normal colonic mucosa in Group 2, but 3 out of 10 rats in Group 1 showed COX-2 mRNA expression in their colons by reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There was a tendency toward an increased expression level of COX-2 in the AOM-treated group. The level of APC mRNA expression in Group 1 was significantly lower than that in Group 2 (P<0.01). Moreover, the level of c-Myc mRNA expression in Group 1 was significantly higher than that in Group 2 (P<0.01). An average of 0.034+/-0.006% apoptosis in colonic mucosa was detected in Group 1; the incidence of apoptosis in Group 2 was 0.021+/-0.005%. The difference between Groups 1 and 2 was significant (P<0.01). These results indicate that apoptosis was possibly induced to eliminate cells damaged by AOM administration. Six out of 22 (27%) ACF with 4 or more crypts showed K-ras mutations at codon 12; all mutations were G to A transitions (GGT to GAT). ACF with 1-3 crypts showed no mutations in the K-ras gene. In conclusion, AOM caused an increase in COX-2 and c-Myc mRNA expression, a decrease in APC mRNA expression, induction of apoptosis in normal-appearing colonic mucosa, and a K-ras mutation in ACF with 4 or more crypts. These findings may help to identify key targets in the early steps of colon carcinogenesis, against which drugs that would be broadly effective for chemoprevention of colon cancer could be developed.
Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research: CR 06/2002; 21(2):203-11. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatic cells express genes that suppress telomerase activity and these genes may be inactivated in tumour cells. We postulated that cancer cells acquire immortality by activation of telomerase by the loss of such a gene. We have reported recently that a telomerase repressor gene may be located on 10p15.1 by deletion mapping using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT), radiated microcell fusion (RMF), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and STS analysis. To independently confirm this result, we correlated expression of RNA component of telomerase (hTR) as a marker of telomerase expression by in situ hybridization with allelic loss in pulmonary carcinoid tumours. Unlike most malignant tumours, pulmonary carcinoids (which are low-grade malignant tumours) are heterogeneous for telomerase expression. Loss of 5 closely spaced polymorphic markers on 10p15.1, especially D10S1728, were highly correlated with hTR expression. In an additional experiment, 10p15.1 showed higher and more significant correlation than any region of 3p where it has been predicted as another chromosomal location of telomerase repressor with allelic loss of the region. Our findings strongly suggest that 10p15.1 harbours a gene involved in repression of telomerase RNA component in human somatic cells and each putative repressor (on 3p and 10p) may act independently.
British Journal of Cancer 12/2001; 85(10):1510-4. DOI:10.1054/bjoc.2001.2121 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about differences in the disposition kinetics and pharmacological effects on gastrin levels between lansoprazole and rabeprazole given in a repeated dosing scheme with respect to the polymorphic CYP2C19.
To provide preliminary information that should be considered when prescribing proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the treatment of acid-related diseases with reference to the CYP2C/9 genotypic status.
Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy volunteers were divided into the following three groups (n = 5 each) on the basis of genotyping for CYP2C19: homozygous (hmEMs) and heterozygous extensive metabolizers (htEMs), and poor metabolizers (PMs). All received once-daily 30-mg doses of lansoprazole or 10-mg doses of rabeprazole during an 8-day course in a crossover manner.
The relative values for the area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) of lansoprazole and rabeprazole in the hmEMs, htEMs, and PMs after the final doses were 1:1.7:3.9 and 1:1.7:3.8, respectively. The relative AUCs of gastrin in the hmEMs, htEMs, and PMs were 1.6:2.6:3.1 for lansoprazole and 1.6:2.6:2.9 for rabeprazole, respectively.
The disposition kinetic behavior of the two PPIs is co-segregated with CYP2C19. The magnitude of CYP2C19-dependent drug availability in the systemic circulation and resulting gastrin response appears to be fairly similar between the two drugs within the same CYP2C19 genotypic groups after a multiple-dosing regimen.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2001; 57(6-7):485-92. DOI:10.1007/s002280100342 · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abdominal neuroblastoma in adults is a rare neoplasm and only 30 patients have been described in Japan since 1985. The patient was a 43-year-old woman with jaundice. The tumor originated from retroperitoneum. The enlarged gall bladder and dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts were noted by ultrasonography and computed tomography. We report the first adult-type neuroblastoma with obstructive jaundice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether interferon alpha (IFNalpha) therapy can inhibit intrahepatic recurrence after the curative treatment of small HCC with underlying chronic hepatitis C. Forty patients were enrolled in this study. They had solitary, small HCC</=3 cm in diameter, underlying chronic hepatitis C, and were </=70 years old. Of the patients, 18 were treated with IFNalpha for 6 months after the treatment of HCC, and 22 patients who did not receive IFNalpha therapy were used as controls. Six (33%) patients in the IFN group showed sustained response. The incidence of local recurrence was not different in the IFN and non-IFN groups (6 vs. 9%). The cumulative incidences of distant recurrence in the non-IFN and IFN groups were 9 and 6% at 1 year, 27 and 11% at 2 years, 63 and 18% at 3 years, 76 and 28% at 4 years, and 82 and 28% at 5 years; they were significantly different (P<0.01). Six (27%) patients in the non-IFN group died from the progression of HCC, but all IFN-treated patients were alive (P<0.05). The pilot study demonstrates that IFNalpha therapy after the curative treatment of small HCC can inhibit intrahepatic recurrence in the remnant liver and improve the prognosis of hepatitis C virus-related HCC.
Hepatology Research 07/2001; 20(3):301-311. DOI:10.1016/S1386-6346(00)00148-0 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information about M6P/IGF2R and p53 genes in hepatocarcinogenesis is limited and controversial. We tested the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of M6P/IGF2R and p53 genes in cirrhotic and neoplastic foci in surgically resected livers of 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The DNAs extracted from microdissected specimens were used for polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based assay. LOH of the M6P/IGF2R gene in the primary HCCs was detected in 10 of 22 informative cases (45%). In five of these 10 cases (50%), LOH was detected in cirrhotic lesions adjacent to the HCCs. The allelic loss patterns of M6P/IGF2R in liver cirrhosis (LC) were identical to those in the corresponding HCC, suggesting that HCC could develop from one of the cells in which M6P/IGF2R had been lost. Furthermore, LOH of the p53 gene in HCC was detected in 10 (43%) of 23 informative cases, and p53 loss in cirrhotic foci adjacent to HCC was shown in one of the 10 cases (10%). The pattern of allelic loss of the p53 gene in the cirrhotic foci was identical with that in the corresponding tumor. The LOH of the M6P/IGF2R and p53 genes occurred independently in HCCs. LOH of the M6P/IGF2R locus was a relatively frequent and possibly early event in hepatocarcinogenesis, and LOH of the M6P/IGF2R gene and LOH of the p53 gene occurred independently.
Hepatology Research 06/2001; 20(1):68-83. DOI:10.1016/S1386-6346(00)00130-3 · 2.74 Impact Factor