[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spirostanol saponins are a class of steroidal saponins with many pharmacological activities. The structural complexity of the spirostanol saponins presents a daunting challenge in separating their 25 R/S diastereomers. Using two CHIRALPAK IC columns coupled in series, six 25 R/S-spirostanol saponin diastereomers from the Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seed were successfully separated using supercritical fluid chromatography for the first time. In addition, three 25 R/S-spirostanol saponin diastereomers were isolated into their respective individual isomers. The structures of the isolated isomers were unambiguously confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The supercritical fluid chromatography method development strategy and its associated underlying principles presented in this paper are generally applicable. Supercritical fluid chromatography is a viable addition to the natural product research toolbox, especially for stereo-selective analysis and purification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Separation Science 07/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes have potential as promising membranes for water purification and desalination due to the exceptionally high water permeability and selectivity of aquaporins. However, the design and preparation of such membranes for practical applications are very challenging as the relevant fundamental research is rather limited to provide guidance. Here we investigated the basic characteristics and fusion behaviour of proteoliposomes incorporated with aquaporin Z (AqpZ) on to solid surfaces. This study is expected to offer a better understanding of the properties of proteoliposomes and the potential of the vesicle fusion technique. Our results show that after incorporation of AqpZ, the size and surface charge density of the proteoliposomes change significantly compared with those of liposomes. Although the liposome could easily form a supported lipid bilayer on silica via vesicle rupture, it is much more difficult for proteoliposomes to fuse completely into a bilayer on the same substrate. In addition, the fusion of proteoliposomes is further hindered as the density of incorporated AqpZ is increased, suggesting that proteoliposome with more proteins become more robust. However, both the liposome and proteoliposome have difficulty forming supported lipid bilayers on the surface of a polyelectrolyte layer even though it carries an opposite charge, indicating that the polymer may play an important role in stabilising vesicles. It was also observed that a high concentration of AqpZ could be incorporated into the 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) liposome even though its permeability decreased. These findings may provide some useful guidance for preparing such biomimetic membranes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Concentrations of ambient air pollution and pollutants in China have changed considerably during the last decade. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of current ambient air pollution on the health of kindergarten children.Methods: We studied 6730 Chinese children (age, 3-7 years) from 50 kindergartens in 7 cities of Northeast China in 2009. Parents or guardians completed questionnaires that asked about the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and risk factors. Three-year concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxides (NO2) were calculated at monitoring stations in 25 study districts. A 2-stage regression approach was used in data analyses.Results: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher among children living near a busy road, those living near chimneys or a factory, those having a coal-burning device, those living with smokers, and those living in a home that had been recently renovated. Among girls, PM10 was associated with persistent cough (odds ratio [OR]PM10 = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18-1.77), persistent phlegm (ORPM10 = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81), and wheezing (ORPM10 = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65). NO2 concentration was associated with increased prevalence of allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.27-3.02) among girls. In contrast, associations of respiratory symptoms with concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 were not statistically significant among boys.Conclusions: Air pollution is particularly important in the development of respiratory morbidity among children. Girls may be more susceptible than boys to air pollution.
Journal of Epidemiology 06/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the interaction effects of breastfeeding and passive smoking on asthma and asthma related symptoms among children.
Using a cluster random sampling method, 2 elementary schools and 1 kindergarten were randomly selected from 7 cities of Liaoning province. The resulting 25 elementary schools and 50 kindergartens were included, and 31 049 children from the selected schools living up to 2 years were recruited in this survey. The information about the children's type of feeding up, living environment, passive smoking exposure, respiratory diseases and symtoms were collected. The interaction effects of breastfeeding and passive smoking on asthma and asthma related symptoms (persistent cough,persistent phlegm, current wheeze and allergic rhinitis) were evaluated with Glimmix procedure.
There were 31 049 children involved in this investigation. The age was (8.32 ± 2.75) years old. There were 23 987 (77.26%) children with breastfeeding and 11 820 (38.07%) children with passive smoking. The prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis were 6.22%(1491/23 987), 4.67%(1120/23 987) in children with breastfeeding, and were 7.70%(544/7062), 5.48%(387/7062) in children without breastfeeding,compared to the children without breastfeeding, the children with breastfeeding had lower risk of asthma(OR = 0.79, 95%CI:0.72-0.88) and allergic rhinitis(OR = 0.85, 95%CI:0.75-0.95); The prevalence of current wheeze was 7.89%(929/11 770) in children with father smoking, and was 5.37%(1036/19 279) in children without father smoking, compared to the children without father smoking, the children with father smoking increased the risk of current wheeze(OR = 1.51, 95%CI:1.38-1.65). The prevalence of persistent cough was 18.96%(51/269) in children with mother smoking, and was 9.51%(2926/30 780) in children without mother smoking,compared to the children without mother smoking, the children with mother smoking increased the risk of persistent cough(OR = 2.23, 95%CI:1.64-3.03). The prevalence of persistent phlegm was 5.69%(871/5316) in children with anyone smoking, and was 3.50%(550/15 733) in children without anyone smoking, compared to the children without anyone smoking, the children with anyone smoking increased the risk of persistent phlegm(OR = 1.67, 95%CI:1.49-1.86).Glimmix procedure analysis showed there was a significant interaction effects between breastfeeding and passive smoking. The estimated OR for father smoking among breastfeeding children were consistently lower than those among non-breastfeeding children for asthma. The estimated OR for mother smoking among breastfeeding children were consistently lower than those among non-breastfeeding children for allergic rhinitis. The estimated OR for anyone smoking among breastfeeding children were consistently lower than those among non-breastfeeding children for asthma and allergic rhinitis(all P values < 0.05).
Breastfeeding decreases the detrimental effects of passive smoking on asthma and asthma related symptoms in children.
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 06/2013; 47(6):523-528.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new furostanol saponins (1 and 2), along with one known saponin (3), were obtained from the rhizomes of Aspidistra typica Baill. Their structures were elucidated as (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-furost-5-ene-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (1, typaspidoside A), (25S)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-furost-5-ene-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (2, 25S-typaspidoside A), and timosaponin H1 (3), based on the integrative spectroscopic analysis of 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, ESI-MS data and chemical evidence. The investigation on the chemical components of this plant is reported for the first time.
Journal of Asian natural products research 05/2013; 15(5):525-31. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytochemical investigation of the fresh tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus led to the isolation of two new furostanol saponins (1 and 2) together with two known steroidal saponins (3 and 4). Comprehensive spectroscopic analysis allowed the chemical structures of two new compounds to be elucidated as (25R)-26-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-5-ene-furost-1β,3β,22α,26-tetraol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (1, ophiopogonin P) and (25R)-26-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-5-ene-furost-1β,3β,22α,26-tetraol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (2, ophiopogonin Q). Furostanol saponins with the disaccharide chain linked at C-26 hydroxy group of the aglycone have been rarely reported from natural sources.
Journal of Asian natural products research 04/2013; · 0.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the expressions of miR-101, protein kinase C-α (PKC-α), and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) in gastric cancer (GC) tissue and their correlations.
RT-qPCR was used to examine miR-101 expression and Western blotting employed to detect PKC-α and COX-2 expressions in 57 cases of gastric cancer tissues and paired normal gastric mucosal tissues.
The gastric cancer tissues showed a significantly lower miR-101 expression (Z=6.102, P<0.05) but significantly higher expressions of COX-2 (Z=14.436, P<0.05) and PKC-α (Z=6.955, P<0.05) than the normal gastric tissues. The expression of COX-2 protein was significantly correlated with the degree of differentiation, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (P<0.05); PKC-α protein expression was associated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (P<0.05). PKC-α expression was positively correlated (r=0.531, P<0.05) and miR-101 expression negatively correlated (r=-0.627, P<0.05) with COX-2 expression in gastric cancer tissues. CONCLUTIONS: miR-101, PKC-α and COX-2 all play a role in the tumorigenesis and progression of gastric cancer. miR-101 and PKC-α might be new potential therapeutic targets for inhibiting COX-2 in gastric cancer.
Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University 04/2013; 33(4):559-62.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Qtof MS(E)) was used to rapidly separate and identify steroidal saponins from the crude extract of the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG). By using the UHPLC/Qtof MS(E) data acquisition strategy, both intact precursor and fragment ion information were obtained from a single injection. Fragmentation rules for five major groups of saponins from TFG are summarized, and possible fragmentation pathways are proposed. Accurate mass measurements of molecular ions and fragment ions as well as retention times permitted the identification or tentative identification of a total of ninety-five saponins based on comparison with reference standards. This included twenty-two pairs of isomers. Thirty of these saponins were identified for the first time.
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 02/2013; 74:257-67. · 2.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past few decades, secondhand smoke exposure among children become more serious and with China's implementation of the national policy of family planning and the family structure change, domestic pet has gradually become popular. This survey aimed to investigate the interactive effects of pet ownership and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on children's respiratory diseases and symptoms.
Using a cluster random sampling method, 5 elementary schools and 10 kindergartens were randomly selected from each district of Shenyang, and all children from the selected schools were recruited in this survey. The information about the children's respiratory diseases, conditions of pets ownership and ETS exposure were collected by an international standard questionnaire from American Thoracic Society.
A total of 9679 questionnaires were distributed to all the students enrolled in the selected schools, and 8798 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 90.9%. Finally, 8733 questionnaires were used for further analysis. The results showed that the number of the patients and the prevalence of persistent cough, persistent phlegm, doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, wheeze, and allergic rhinitis in children were 835 (9.57%), 366 (4.42%), 559 (6.40%), 215 (2.46%), 229 (2.62%), 397 (4.55%), respectively. After controlling for the effects of age, gender and other confounding factors, the results from the multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that either pet ownership or the ETS exposure significantly increased the risk of prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms in children. Compared with control group children, only the prenatal exposure to passive smoking or domestic pets made the risk of children with allergic rhinitis increased respectively 34% (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 0.99 - 1.80) and 106% (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.28 - 3.31), while the exposure of these two factors made the risk of children with allergic rhinitis increased 376% (OR = 4.76, 95%CI = 2.65 - 8.85), compared with the separate effect, the range of increase was 2.5 times.There was a significant interaction between pet ownership and ETS exposure on persistent cough, persistent phlegm, and allergic rhinitis in children, whereas, the combined effects of these two factors on doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, and wheeze was approximately as expected on the basis of their independent effects on an additive scale.
This study provides evidence that pet ownership and ETS exposure increases the risk of respiratory diseases and symptoms in children, and there was a significant interaction effects between these two factors on some respiratory diseases and symptoms.
Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics 02/2013; 51(2):96-100.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aquaporins are a large family of water transport proteins in cell membranes. Their high water permeability and solute rejection make them potential building blocks for high-performance biomimetic membranes for desalination. In the current study, proteoliposomes were prepared using AquaporinZ from Escherichia coli cells, and their separation properties were characterized by stopped-flow measurements. The current study systematically investigated the effect of proteoliposome composition (lipid type, protein-to-lipid ratio (PLR), and the addition of cholesterol) on water permeability and NaCl retention. Among the various lipids investigated, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)-based proteoliposomes were found to have excellent osmotic water permeability and NaCl reflection coefficient values. Increasing the PLR of DOPC proteoliposomes up to 1:200 increased their osmotic water permeability. However, further increase in the PLR reduced the osmotic water permeability probably due to the occurrence of defects in the proteoliposomes, whereas the addition of cholesterol improved their osmotic water permeation likely due to defects sealing. The current study also investigated the effect of major dissolved ions in seawater (e.g., Mg(2+) and SO(4)(2-)) on the stability of proteoliposomes, and design criteria for aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes are proposed in the context of desalination.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The pericarp of Citrus reticulata possesses medical functions of regulating Qi and expelling phlegm, and has been clinically used for the treatment of lung related diseases in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Our previous research revealed that Citrus reticulata exhibited inhibitory effects on pulmonary fibrosis; however, its active principles are still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the inhibitory effects on pulmonary fibrosis of alkaline extract from ethanol extract of Citrus reticulata and clarify its possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Citrus alkaline extract (CAE) was prepared from ethanol extract of Citrus reticulata and MRC-5 cells were used for the evaluation of inhibitory activity in vitro. CAE was further orally administrated to bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis rats. The rat body weight, hydroxyproline levels in serum and lung, pathological changes of lung, as well as mRNA and protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in rat lung tissues were analyzed. RESULTS: CAE dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of MRC-5 cells, and the LDH assay clearly revealed that the inhibitory activity of CAE was not due to its cytotoxicity. CAE treatment significantly increased rat weight gain, ameliorated alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis degree, and lowered hydroxyproline contents in both serum and lung tissues. RT-PCR and Western blot revealed that mRNA and protein expressions of MMP-9 were significantly elevated, while mRNA and protein levels of TIMP-1 and TNF-α were markedly decreased in lung tissues of CAE treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: The results collectively demonstrated that CAE possessed an inhibitory activity on the proliferation of MRC-5 and a preventive effect on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The preliminary mechanisms of the effects may be through upregulation of MMP-9 expression and inhibition of the expressions of TNF-α and TIMP-1.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 01/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There have been few published studies on spirometric reference values for healthy children in China. We hypothesize that there would have been changes in lung function that would not have been precisely predicted by the existing spirometric reference equations. The objective of the study was to develop more accurate predictive equations for spirometric reference values for children aged 9 to 15 years in Northeast China. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Spirometric measurements were obtained from 3,922 children, including 1,974 boys and 1,948 girls, who were randomly selected from five cities of Liaoning province, Northeast China, using the ATS (American Thoracic Society) and ERS (European Respiratory Society) standards. The data was then randomly split into a training subset containing 2078 cases and a validation subset containing 1844 cases. Predictive equations used multiple linear regression techniques with three predictor variables: height, age and weight. Model goodness of fit was examined using the coefficient of determination or the R(2) and adjusted R(2). The predicted values were compared with those obtained from the existing spirometric reference equations. The results showed the prediction equations using linear regression analysis performed well for most spirometric parameters. Paired t-tests were used to compare the predicted values obtained from the developed and existing spirometric reference equations based on the validation subset. The t-test for males was not statistically significant (p>0.01). The predictive accuracy of the developed equations was higher than the existing equations and the predictive ability of the model was also validated. CONCLUSIONSIGNIFICANCE: We developed prediction equations using linear regression analysis of spirometric parameters for children aged 9-15 years in Northeast China. These equations represent the first attempt at predicting lung function for Chinese children following the ATS/ERS Task Force 2005 guidelines on spirometry standardization.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63875. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new steroidal saponin-β-glucosidase from Aspergillus flavus that specifically hydrolyzed the terminal β-d-glucosyl group at the C-3 position of zingiberen newsaponin, deltonin and trillin from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright (DZW) was purified, and characterized. The optimal temperature and pH for the new steroidal saponin-β-glucosidase was 50 °C and pH 5.0. The steroidal saponin-β-glucosidase was stable at 30–60 °C, and retained more than 80% activity. Further, the purified protein was analyzed by ESI-Q-TOF proteomic analyzer. The results indicated that this enzyme is a β-glucosidase of the type glycosidase hydrolase 3 (GH3). Using a combination of the steroidal saponin-β-glucosidase and steroidal saponin-α-1,2-rhamnosidase from Curvularia lunata obtained previously in our lab, the saponins zingieren newsaponin and deltonin could be converted to diosgenin. The pathways of converting zingiberen newsaponin and deltonin into diosgenin by the two key enzymes were elucidated in this study.
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B Enzymatic 01/2013; 98:1–7. · 2.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Debate ensues regarding the stronger indicator of obesity, body mass index (BMI), or waist circumference (WC), in association with hypertension. Furthermore, little research has been done to compare BMI and WC in their associations with prehypertension. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 33 communities randomly selected from 3 cities in Northeastern China during 2009-2010, using a total of 25,196 adults aged 18-74 years with an overall response rate of 87.4%. Diagnoses of prehypertension and hypertension were based on the criteria set by the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee. Generalized overweight and obesity were defined as BMI 25-29.9 and ≥30kg/m(2), respectively. Abdominal overweight and obesity were defined as WC 94-102 and >102cm in men and WC 80-88 and >88cm in women, respectively. RESULTS Both BMI and WC were positively related to the prevalence rate of elevated blood pressure. Among younger individuals, aged 18-44 years, WC seemed to be associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) than BMI for hypertension (e.g., for men, 17.18 (BMI) vs. 23.28 (WC) for obesity), in contrast, BMI seemed to be associated with a higher OR than WC for prehypertension (e.g., for men, 5.99 (BMI) vs. 1.51 (WC) for obesity). Among older individuals, aged ≥45 years, the adjusted OR for hypertension was modestly higher for WC than for BMI in men. In women, the adjusted OR was modestly higher for BMI than for WC. CONCLUSIONS In this Chinese population, the association of body fat and abdominal fat with hypertension and prehypertension depends on age and sex.
American Journal of Hypertension 01/2013; 26(1):58-67. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the effects of indoor air pollution and individual susceptible factors on prevalence of children's asthma and asthma-related symptoms in Shenyang city.
On April, 2007, 8733 Han children who were under age of 12 and lived for more than 2 years in Shenyang city, were selected from five administrative areas (one primary school and two kindergartens for each area) through cluster random sampling method. Information on children's general condition, asthma and related symptoms (including stridor, stridor symptoms, persistent cough, persistent phlegm), indoor air pollution, and susceptibility history were obtained by a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. The effects of indoor air pollution on asthma and asthma-related symptoms was analyzed through χ(2) test. Logistic regression was used to research the effects of risk factors on the prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms of both susceptible and non-susceptible children.
Among the 8733 subjects, 4420 (50.6%) were boy and 4313 (49.4%) were girl, with the age of (8.08 ± 2.88) years old. The prevalence of asthma, current asthma, cough, persistent phlegm, stridor and stridor symptom were 6.4% (559 cases), 2.5% (215 cases), 9.6% (836 cases), 4.4% (386 cases), 17.5% (1524 cases) and 2.6% (229 cases) respectively. The prevalence of asthma the boys and girls were among 7.1% (313 cases) and 5.7% (246 cases) (χ(2) = 6.916, P < 0.05); and stridor symptom for them were 19.2% (850 cases), 15.6% (674 cases) (χ(2) = 19.678, P < 0.05), respectively. Passive smoking before two years old, house decoration and pet were related to asthma of children, and there was significant difference between the two groups. The prevalence of asthma of exposed children were 7.7% (312 cases), 9.5% (159 cases), 8.0% (270 cases), 9.0% (114 cases), respectively. Compared with the non-exposed children who had asthma, the prevalence of asthma were 5.7% (400 cases), 5.4% (289 cases), 6.0% (445 cases), the value of χ(2) were 33.646, 23.944 and 16.527 respectively (all P values < 0.05). Children who had family history of asthma, family history of allergy and allergy history were also related with asthma, the prevalence of asthma were 17.3% (106 cases), 13.1% (85 cases), 22.0% (147 cases), compared with the non-exposed children who had asthma, the prevalence of asthma were 5.5% (453), 5.9% (474), 5.1% (412), and there was significant difference between the two groups, the value of χ(2) were 130.522, 59.929 and 293.997, respectively (all P values < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that passive smoking (OR = 1.7, 95%CI: 1.2 - 2.4), house decoration (OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1 - 1.9) and pet (OR = 1.6, 95%CI: 1.1 - 2.3) were statistically significant to asthma in non-susceptible children. While passive smoking (OR = 1.3, 95%CI: 1.0 - 1.7) and house decoration (OR = 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1 - 1.7) were increased the risk of asthma.
Indoor air pollution is a risk factor of children' s asthma. Family history of asthma and physical susceptible children are high risk to asthma, and susceptible children are easily influenced by other risk factors.
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 01/2013; 47(1):49-54.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the risk of many diseases. However, there has been little literature about the epidemiology of obesity classified by body mass index (BMI) or waist (abdominal obesity) among urban Chinese adults. This study is to fill the gap by assessing the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among urban Chinese adults. METHODS: A representative sample of 25,196 urban adults aged 18 to 74 years in Northeast China was selected and measurements of height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were taken from 2009--2010. Definitions of overweight and obesity by the World Health Organization (WHO) were used. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates of general obesity and overweight classified by BMI were 15.0% (15.7% for men and 14.3% for women, p<0.01) and 19.2% (20.8% for men and 17.7% for women, p<0.01), respectively, and the overall prevalence rate of abdominal obesity was 37.6% (31.1% for men and women 43.9% for women, p<0.01). Multivariable logistic regression showed that the elderly and those who had a history of parental obesity, alcohol drinking, or former cigarette smoking were at high risk of obesity classified by BMI or WC, whereas those with a higher level of education, higher family income, or a healthy and balanced diet were at low risk of obesity. Analysis stratified by gender showed that men with a higher level education level, a white-collar job, a cadre job, or higher family income were the high risk group, and women with a higher level of education or higher family income were the low risk group. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and overweight have become epidemic in urban populations in China; associations of risk factors with obesity differ between men and women.
BMC Public Health 11/2012; 12(1):967. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To search for the microorganisms which have the high selectivity of hydrolyzing glycyrrhizic acid (GL) into 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (GAMG) without glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) byproduct.MethodsGL was biotransformed by Aspergillus sp., the products were separated by chromatography on reverse phase C18 column and semi-preparative HPLC, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of HR-ESI-MS, 1D NMR (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and NOESY) and 2D NMR (1H-1H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) spectral analyses.ResultsAspergillus sp. could partially hydrolyze GL into GAMG (3), along with two minor byproducts, 3-O-β-D-glucurono-pyranosyl-18β-liquiritic acid (1) and 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-24-hydroxy-18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (2).Conclusion
Aspergillus sp. has the high selectivity of hydrolyzing GL into GAMG without GA byproduct and the yield of GAMG is about 60%. The complete assignments of 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR data for compounds 1 and 2 are reported for the first time.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, most research has been focused on the benign molecules in pleural effusions, and diagnosis of malignant ones still remains challenging. In the present study, targeting the small molecules as potential biomarkers to predict the malignancy of the effusions, the metabolic profiles of 81 clinical pleural effusions (41 malignant effusions from lung cancer and 40 benign ones) were investigated through a NMR-based metabonomic approach. In (1)H NMR analysis, a total of ten small molecules in the effusions were simultaneously determined. Significantly higher mean values of valine, lactate, and alanine and markedly lower signal intensities of acetoacetate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, and α- and β-glucose were observed in malignant pleural effusions compared with those in benign ones. DFA modeling of NMR spectra subjected to a validation allowed the malignant effusions to be discriminated from benign ones in both training and validation groups. Currently, the conventional clinical analyses on chemical constituents in effusions could not provide a reliable prediction of malignancy of the effusions; the present results revealed that the small molecules might serve as useful biomarkers for diagnosis of the effusions, and the present NMR-based metabonomic approach provided a valuable potential to rapidly and sensitively predict the malignancy of the pleural effusions.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 09/2012; · 3.66 Impact Factor