ABSTRACT: TS-1 is a novel oral 5-fluorouracil containing tegaful (prodrug of 5-FU) and two biochemical modulators. These modulators feature effect-enhancing and adverse reaction-reducing activity. We investigated the histological response and toxicities of combination chemotherapy with TS- 1 and low-dose cisplatin and evaluated its usefulness as preoperative chemotherapy Forty-four newly diagnosed patients with stage Il-IV oral squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled in this study from February 2002 to April 2004. Patients were administered TS-1 80 mg/m2/day (days 1-14) and cisplatin 5 mg/m2/day (days 1-5 and 8-12) followed by radical surgery within 2 weeks. The histopathological effect of chemotherapy, which was a surrogate endpoint of this trial, was evaluated with surgical or biopsy specimens. The rate of histological antitumor effect was as follows: complete response (CR) 36.4%, partial response (PR) 25.0%, minor response (MR) 18.1% and no change (NC) 20.5%. The rate of histological response (CR + PR) was 61.4%. The CR rate of effective cases was 59.3%. The main toxicities occurred in bone marrow and the digestive tract. The incidence of severe toxicity such as grade 3 or 4 was 4.5% in anemia, 9% in leukocytopenia, 11.4% in neutropenia, 4.5% in thrombocytopenia and 2.3% in anorexia, diarrhea and urticaria. Most patients showed no toxicity or mild toxicities. TS- 1 with low-dose cisplatin has highly effective antitumor activity and mild toxicities. In particular, the CR rate was very high. It is suggested that this regimen is suitable for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We expect that this chemotherapy will contribute to avoidance of surgery for small tumors (stages I and II) and will enable function-preserving surgery for advanced tumors.
International journal of clinical pharmacology research 02/2005; 25(3):115-22.