Wen Xie

Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

Are you Wen Xie?

Claim your profile

Publications (113)733.95 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The estrogen sulfotransferase (EST/SULT1E1) is known to catalyze the sulfoconjugation and deactivation of estrogens. The goal of this study is to determine whether and how EST plays a role in human adipogenesis. By using human primary adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) and whole fat tissues from the abdominal subcutaneous fat of obese and non-obese subjects, we showed that the expression of EST was low in pre-adipocytes but increased upon differentiation. Overexpression and knockdown of EST in ASCs promoted and inhibited differentiation, respectively. The pro-adipogenic activity of EST in humans was opposite to the anti-adipogenic effect of the same enzyme in rodents. Mechanistically, EST promoted adipogenesis by deactivating estrogens. The pro-adipogenic effect of EST can be recapitulated by using an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist or ERα knockdown. In contrast, activation of ER in ASCs inhibited adipogenesis by decreasing the recruitment of the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) onto its target gene promoters, whereas ER antagonism increased the recruitment of PPARγ to its target gene promoters. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between the expression of EST and body mass index (BMI), as well as a negative correlation between the ERα expression and BMI. We conclude that EST is a pro-adipogenic factor, which may serve as a druggable target to inhibit the turnover and accumulation of adipocytes in obese patients.
    Molecular and cellular biology 02/2014; · 6.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The steroid sulfatase (STS)-mediated de-sulfation is a critical metabolic mechanism that regulates the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. In this report, we first showed that the liver expression of Sts was induced in both the high-fat diet (HFD) and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes and during the fed to fasting transition. In defining the functional relevance of STS induction in metabolic disease, we showed that over-expression of STS in the liver of transgenic mice alleviated HFD and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes, including reduced body weight, improved insulin sensitivity, and decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Interestingly, STS exerted its metabolic benefit through sex-specific mechanisms. In female mice, STS may have increased hepatic estrogen activity by converting biologically inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens and consequently improved the metabolic functions; whereas ovariectomy abolished this protective effect. In contrast, the metabolic benefit of STS in males may have been accounted for by the male-specific decrease of inflammation in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, as well as a pattern of skeletal muscle gene expression that favors energy expenditure. The metabolic benefit in male STS transgenic mice was retained after castration. Treatment with the STS substrate estrone sulfate also improved metabolic functions in both the HFD and ob/ob models. Our results have uncovered a novel function of STS in energy metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Liver-specific STS induction or estrogen/estrogen sulfate delivery may represent a novel approach to manage metabolic syndrome.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Altered expression of miR-29b is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of liver fibrosis. We and others previously demonstrated that miR-29b down-regulates the expression of several extracellular-matrix (ECM) genes including Col 1A1, Col 3A1 and Elastin via directly targeting their 3’-UTRs. However, whether or not miR-29b plays a role in the post-translational regulation of ECM biosynthesis has not been reported. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) are known to be essential for ECM maturation. In this study we have demonstrated that expression of HSP47 and LOX was significantly up-regulated in culture-activated primary rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), TGF-β stimulated LX-2 cells and liver tissue of CCl4-treated mice, which was accompanied by a decrease of miR-29b level. In addition, over-expression of miR-29b in LX-2 cells resulted in significant inhibition on HSP47 and LOX expression. Mechanistically, miR-29b inhibited the expression of a reporter gene that contains the respective full-length 3’-UTR from HSP47 and LOX gene, and this inhibitory effect was abolished by the deletion of a putative miR-29b targeting sequence from the 3’-UTRs. Transfection of LX-2 cells with miR-29b led to abnormal collagen structure as shown by electron-microscopy, presumably through down-regulation of the expression of molecules involved in ECM maturation including HSP47 and LOX. These results demonstrated that miR-29b is involved in regulating the post-translational processing of ECM and fibril formation.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated sulfation represents a critical mechanism in regulating the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. The cholesterol sulfotransferase SULT2B1b catalyzes the sulfoconjugation of cholesterol to synthesize cholesterol sulfate (CS). In this study, we showed that the expression of Sult2B1b in the liver was induced in obese mice and during the transition from the fasted to the fed state, suggesting that the regulation of SULT2B1b is physiologically relevant. CS and SULT2B1b inhibited gluconeogenesis by targeting the gluconeogenic hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) in both cell cultures and transgenic mice. Treatment of mice with CS or transgenic overexpression of the CS-generating SULT2B1b in the liver inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis and alleviated metabolic abnormalities in both the diet-induced obesity (DIO) and ob/ob mice. Mechanistically, CS and SULT2B1b inhibited gluconeogenesis by suppressing the expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acss), leading to decreased acetylation and nuclear exclusion of HNF4α. Our results also suggested leptin as a potential effector of SULT2B1b in improving metabolic functions. We conclude that SULT2B1b and its enzymatic byproduct CS are important metabolic regulators that control glucose metabolism, suggesting CS as a potential therapeutic agent and SULT2B1b as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders.
    Molecular and cellular biology 11/2013; · 6.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Dataset: cd36
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of three natural product compounds, carapin, santonin and isokobusone, on the activity of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and inhibition of inflammation. The monkey kidney-derived fibroblast (CV-1) cells and human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells were used for transient transfection and luciferase reporter gene assays. Human primary hepatocytes and primary hepatocytes from wild type, PXR-/-, and hPXR transgenic mice were used to study the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and the implication of these compounds in inflammation. Carapin, santonin and isokobusone activated both PXR and CAR in transient transfection and luciferase reporter gene assays. Mutagenesis studies showed that two amino acid residues, Phe305 of the rodent PXR and Leu308 of the human PXR, are critical for the recognition of these compounds by PXR. Importantly, the activation of PXR and CAR by these compounds induced the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in primary human and mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, activation of PXR by these compounds inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effects of these natural compounds on drug metabolism and inflammation were abolished in PXR-/- hepatocytes. Our results show that carapin, santonin and isokobusone activate PXR and CAR and induce drug-metabolizing enzymes. In addition, these compounds inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators in response to LPS through the activation of PXR.
    Pharmaceutical Research 07/2013; · 4.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has important roles in maintaining bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Here we report that the antiparasitic drug ivermectin is a ligand for nuclear FXR. We identify ivermectin using a high-throughput compound library screening and show that it induces the transcriptional activity of the FXR with distinctive properties in modulating coregulator recruitment. The crystal structure of ivermectin complexed with the ligand-binding domain of FXR reveals a unique binding mode of ivermectin in the FXR ligand-binding pocket, including the highly dynamic AF-2 helix and an expanded ligand-binding pocket. Treatment of wild-type mice, but not of FXR-null mice, with ivermectin decreases serum glucose and cholesterol levels, suggesting that ivermectin regulates metabolism through FXR. Our results establish FXR as the first mammalian protein targeted by ivermectin with high selectivity. Considering that ivermectin is a widely used clinical drug, our findings reveal a safe template for the design of novel FXR ligands.
    Nature Communications 06/2013; 4:1937. · 10.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim:Cyclosporine requires close therapeutic drug monitoring because of its narrow therapeutic index and marked inter-individual pharmacokinetic variation. In this study, we investigated the associations of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ABCB1, NFKB1, and NR1I2 polymorphisms with cyclosporine concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients in the early period after renal transplantation.Methods:A total of 101 renal transplant recipients receiving cyclosporine were genotyped for CYP3A4(*)1G, CYP3A5(*)3, ABCB1 C1236T, G2677T/A, C3435T, NFKB1 -94 ins/del ATTG, and NR1I2 polymorphisms. Cyclosporine whole blood levels were measured by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Trough concentrations of cyclosporine were determined for days 7-18 following transplantation.Results:The dose-adjusted trough concentration (C0) of cyclosporine in ABCB1 2677 TT carriers was significantly higher than that in GG carriers together with GT carriers [90.4±24.5 vs 67.8±26.8 (ng/mL)/(mg/kg), P=0.001]. ABCB1 3435 TT carriers had a significantly higher dose-adjusted C0 of cyclosporine than CC carriers together with CT carriers [92.0±24.0 vs 68.4±26.5 (ng/mL)/(mg/kg), P=0.002]. Carriers of the ABCB1 1236TT-2677TT-3435TT haplotype had a considerably higher CsA C0/D than carriers of other genotypes [97.2±21.8 vs 68.7±26.9 (ng/mL)/(mg/kg), P=0.001]. Among non-carriers of the ABCB1 2677 TT and 3435 TT genotypes, patients with the NFKB1 -94 ATTG ins/ins genotype had a significantly higher dose-adjusted C0 than those with the -94 ATTG del/del genotype [75.9±32.9 vs 55.1±15.1 (ng/mL)/(mg/kg), P=0.026].Conclusion:These results illustrate that the ABCB1 and NFKB1 genotypes are closely correlated with cyclosporine trough concentrations, suggesting that these SNPs are useful for determining the appropriate dose of cyclosporine.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 03/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disorder that still demands improved treatment. Understanding the pathogenesis of NASH will help to develop novel approaches to prevent or treat this disease. In this study, we revealed a novel function of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in NASH. Transgenic or pharmacological activation of AhR heightened animal sensitivity to NASH induced by the methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet, which was reasoned to be due to increased hepatic steatosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation. Mechanistically, the increased ROS production in AhR-activated mouse liver was likely a result of a lower superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) activity and compromised clearance of ROS. Activation of AhR induced TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (TiPARP) gene expression, depleted NAD+, deactivated the mitochondrial sirtuin deacetylase 3 (Sirt3), increased SOD2 acetylation, and thereby decreased SOD2 activity. We also showed that Sirt3 ablation sensitized mice to NASH, whereas adenoviral overexpression of Sirt3 alleviated the NASH phenotype in AhR transgenic mice. We conclude that activation of AhR sensitizes mice to NASH by facilitating both the "first hit" of steatosis and the "second hit" of oxidative stress. Our results suggest that the use of AhR antagonists might be a viable approach to prevent and treat NASH. Manipulation of the expression or activity of Sirt3 may also represent a novel approach to manage NASH.
    Molecular and cellular biology 03/2013; · 6.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Wen Xie, John Y L Chiang
    Drug Metabolism Reviews 02/2013; 45(1):1-2. · 5.54 Impact Factor
  • Mengxi Jiang, Wen Xie
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Initially recognized as a xenobiotic receptor, CAR has been increasingly appreciated for its endobiotic functions in influencing glucose and lipid metabolism, whose dysregulations are implicated in the most prevalent metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Given the metabolic benefits of CAR activation, CAR may represent an attractive therapeutic target to manage obesity and type 2 diabetes. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms of action of CAR in metabolic diseases and to determine the human relevance of the antidiabetic effect of CAR.
    Drug Metabolism Reviews 02/2013; 45(1):156-163. · 5.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pregnane X receptor (PXR), along with its sister receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), was initially characterized as a xenobiotic receptor that regulates drug metabolism. In this study, we have uncovered an unexpected endobiotic role of PXR in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PXR ablation inhibited high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance, which were accounted for by increased oxygen consumption, increased mitochondrial β-oxidation, inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation, and sensitization of insulin signaling. In an independent model, introducing the PXR-/- allele into the ob/ob background also improved body composition and relieved the diabetic phenotype. The ob/ob mice deficient of PXR showed increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure, as well as inhibition of gluconeogenesis and increased rate of glucose disposal during euglycemic clamp. Mechanistically, the metabolic benefits of PXR ablation were associated with the inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and down-regulation of lipin-1, a novel PXR target gene. The metabolic benefit of PXR ablation was opposite to the reported pro-diabetic effect of CAR ablation. Our results may help to establish PXR as a novel therapeutic target, and PXR antagonists may be used for the prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes 01/2013; · 7.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: 'Orphan' nuclear receptors belong to the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of transcriptional factors. Binding of ligands to these receptors results in the recruitment of the co-activators, thereby regulating the expression of cognate target genes. Areas covered: This review discusses the transcriptional regulation of P450 genes by two major xenobiotic nuclear receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Additional PXR and CAR target genes include those encoded for UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases, sulfotransferases and drug transporters. The authors discuss the involvement of PXR and CAR in endobiotic metabolism. They also review the polymorphisms of PXR and CAR. Expert opinion: PXR and CAR are both xenobiotic and endobiotic receptors. A remarkably diverse set of chemicals can activate PXR and CAR. There is significant cross-talk among xenobiotic receptors. Future studies are needed to focus on the polymorphisms of the nuclear receptors and the complex regulatory networks among nuclear receptors. Considerations should be given while designing PXR- or CAR-targeting pharmaceutics to avoid adverse drug effects. In the meantime, due to the diverse functions of PXR and CAR, agonists or antagonists for these receptors may have therapeutic potentials in managing certain diseases and enhancing therapeutic indexes.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism &amp Toxicology 01/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The regulation of lipid metabolism is central to energy homeostasis in higher multicellular organisms. Lipid homeostasis depends on factors that are able to transduce metabolic parameters into regulatory events representing the fundamental components of the general control system. Nuclear receptors form a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors implicated in various physiological functions including energy metabolism. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), initially identified as a xenobiotic-sensing receptor, may also have roles in lipid homeostasis. The nuclear receptors liver X receptors (LXRs, NR1H2/3) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs, NR1C) have been known for their roles in lipid metabolism. LXR is a sterol sensor that promotes lipogenesis, whereas PPARα controls a variety of genes in several pathways of lipid metabolism. This chapter focuses primarily on the role of CAR in lipid metabolism directly or through its cross talk with LXRs and PPARα.
    Vitamins & Hormones 01/2013; 91:243-58. · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs) were postulated to have functions in tissue development and circadian rhythm. In this study, we revealed a novel function of RORα (NR1F1) and RORγ (NR1F3) in regulating the human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (SULT2A1), a phase II conjugating enzyme known to sulfonate bile acids, hydroxysteroid dehydroepiandrosterone, and related androgens. A combination of promoter reporter gene assay and EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that both RORα and RORγ transactivated the SULT2A1 gene promoter through their binding to a ROR response element found in the SULT2A1 gene promoter. Interestingly, this ROR response element overlaps with a previously reported constitutive androstane receptor response element on the same promoter. Down-regulation of RORα and/or RORγ by small interfering RNA inhibited the expression of endogenous SULT2A1. In primary human hepatocytes and human livers, we found a positive correlation between the expression of SULT2A1 and RORs, which further supported the regulation of SULT2A1 by RORs. We also found that the expression of RORα and RORγ was impaired in several liver disease conditions, such as steatosis/steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The positive regulation of human SULT2A1 by RORs is opposite to the negative regulation of Sult2a1 by RORs in rodents. In summary, our results established SULT2A1 as a novel ROR target gene. The expression of RORs is a potential predictor for the expression of SULT2A1 as well as disease conditions.
    Molecular Endocrinology 12/2012; · 4.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 12 meeting in San Diego, CA. The presentations discussed the roles of a number of nuclear receptors in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis, the pathophysiology of obesity-related disease states and the promise associated with targeting their activities to treat these diseases. While many of these receptors, in particular constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor and their target enzymes have been thought of as regulators of drug and xenobiotic metabolism, this symposium highlighted the advances made in our understanding of the endogenous functions of these receptors. Similarly, the advances made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying bile acid signaling pathways in the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis illustrates the importance of using complementary approaches to elucidate this fascinating network of pathways. The observations that some receptors, like the farnesoid X receptor can function in a tissue specific manner via well defined mechanisms has important clinical implications particularly in the treatment of liver diseases. Finally, the novel findings that agents that selectively activate estrogen receptor β can effectively inhibit weight gain in a high-fat diet model of obesity identifies a new role for this member of the steroid superfamily. Taken together, this symposium has revealed a number of significant findings that illustrate the promise associated with targeting a number of nuclear receptors for the development of new therapies to treat obesity and other metabolic disorders.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 10/2012; · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Jie Gao, Wen Xie
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are two closely related and liver-enriched nuclear hormone receptors originally defined as xenobiotic receptors. Recently, an increasing body of evidence suggests that PXR and CAR also have endobiotic functions that impact glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. These new findings suggest that PXR and CAR not only regulate the transcription of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, but also orchestrate energy metabolism and immune responses to accommodate stresses caused by xenobiotic exposures. The effectiveness of targeting PXR and CAR in the treatment of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis, have been suggested in animal models. However, translation of these basic research results into clinical applications may require further investigation to determine the human relevance, and to obtain better understanding of the mechanisms through which PXR and CAR affect energy metabolism. Given a wide variety of natural or synthetic compounds that are PXR and CAR modulators, it is hoped that these two 'xenobiotic receptors' can be harnessed for therapeutic potentials in managing metabolic diseases.
    Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 08/2012; 33(10):552-8. · 9.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST), the enzyme responsible for the sulfonation and inactivation of estrogens, plays an important role in estrogen homeostasis. In this study, we showed that induction of hepatic Est is a common feature of type 2 diabetes. Loss of Est in female mice improved metabolic function in ob/ob, dexamethasone-, and high-fat diet-induced mouse models of type 2 diabetes. The metabolic benefit of Est ablation included improved body composition, increased energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. This metabolic benefit appeared to have resulted from decreased estrogen deprivation and increased estrogenic activity in the liver, whereas such benefit was abolished in ovariectomized mice. Interestingly, the effect of Est was sex-specific, as Est ablation in ob/ob males exacerbated the diabetic phenotype, which was accounted for by the decreased islet β-cell mass and failure of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo. The loss of β-cell mass in ob/ob males deficient in Est was associated with increased macrophage infiltration and inflammation in white adipose tissue. Our results revealed an essential role of EST in energy metabolism and the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of EST, at least in females, may represent a novel approach to manage type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes 03/2012; 61(6):1543-51. · 7.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT2B1b) catalyzes oxysterol sulfation. 5-Cholesten-3β-25-diol-3-sulfate (25HC3S), one product of this reaction, decreases intracellular lipids in vitro by suppressing liver X receptor/sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c signaling, with regulatory properties opposite to those of its precursor 25-hydroxycholesterol. Upregulation of SULT2B1b may be an effective strategy to treat hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. The objective of the study was to explore the effect and mechanism of oxysterol sulfation by SULT2B1b on lipid metabolism in vivo. C57BL/6 and LDLR(-/-) mice were fed with high-cholesterol diet or high-fat diet for 10 weeks and infected with adenovirus encoding SULT2B1b. SULT2B1b expressions in different tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Sulfated oxysterols in liver were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Serum and hepatic lipid levels were determined by kit reagents and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Gene expressions were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot. Following infection, SULT2B1b was successfully overexpressed in the liver, aorta, and lung tissues, but not in the heart or kidney. SULT2B1b overexpression, combined with administration of 25-hydroxycholesterol, significantly increased the formation of 25HC3S in liver tissue and significantly decreased serum and hepatic lipid levels, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, and free fatty acids, as compared with controls in both C57BL/6 and LDLR(-/-) mice. Gene expression analysis showed that increases in SULT2B1b expression were accompanied by reduction in key regulators and enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including liver X receptor α, SREBP-1, SREBP-2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, and fatty acid synthase. These findings support the hypothesis that 25HC3S is an important endogenous regulator of lipid biosynthesis.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 01/2012; 61(6):836-45. · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor and a key regulator of liver cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is critical for reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) by transporting high-density lipoprotein (HDL) into liver. FXR induces SR-BI, however, the underlying molecular mechanism of this induction is not known. The current study confirmed induction of SR-BI mRNA by activated FXR in mouse livers, a human hepatoma cell line, and primary human hepatocytes. Genome-wide FXR binding analysis in mouse livers identified 4 putative FXR response elements in the form of inverse repeat separated by one nucleotide (IR1) at the first intron and 1 IR1 at the downstream of the mouse Sr-bi gene. ChIP-qPCR analysis revealed FXR binding to only the intronic IR1s, but not the downstream one. Luciferase assays and site-directed mutagenesis further showed that 3 out of 4 IR1s were able to activate gene transcription. A 16-week high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in mice increased hepatic Sr-bi gene expression in a FXR-dependent manner. In addition, FXR bound to the 3 bona fide IR1s in vivo, which was increased following HFD feeding. Serum total and HDL cholesterol levels were increased in FXR knockout mice fed the HFD, compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, the Sr-bi/SR-BI gene is confirmed as a FXR target gene in both mice and humans, and at least in mice, induction of Sr-bi by FXR is via binding to intronic IR1s. This study suggests that FXR may serve as a promising molecular target for increasing reverse cholesterol transport.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35895. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
733.95 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Lerner Research Institute
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
    • Northeast Ohio Medical University
      Ravenna, Ohio, United States
    • Zhejiang University
      • College of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Hangzhou, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • Mahidol University
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2002–2013
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • Center for Pharmacogenetics
      • • Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • School of Pharmacy
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Section on Molecular and Cell Biology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2010
    • Beijing Normal University
      • College of Life Sciences
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 1999–2009
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology
      College Station, TX, United States
  • 1999–2007
    • Salk Institute
      • Gene Expression Laboratory
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2000–2002
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Maryland, United States