X F Zhang

Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan

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Publications (12)24.17 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have recently shown that in addition to L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channel (VOC), endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulation opens two types of Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels [designated nonselective cation channel-1 (NSCC-1) and NSCC-2]. However, in this Ca2+ entry, the involvement of store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOCC), which is suggested to exist in chromaffin cells, was unclear. Those NSCCs as well as SOCC can be pharmacologically discriminated using Ca2+ channel blockers such as SK&F 96365 and LOE 908. To clarify whether SOCC should actually exist and play a role in Ca2+ entry in chromaffin cells stimulated with ET-1, we examined the effects of removal of extracellular Ca2+, thapsigargin (TG, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase), LOE 908 and SK&F 96365 on cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. After the cells were exposed to Ca2+-free medium followed by exposure to TG to deplete Ca2+ from the intracellular Ca2+ store, restoration of extracellular Ca2+ caused a gradual increase in [Ca2+]i (to about 200% of control). The increase was unaffected by LOE 908, but completely abolished by SK&F 96365. In the Ca2+-free medium, no increase in [Ca2+]i by ET-1 was observed, but the subsequent restoration of extracellular Ca2+ induced a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i (to the same level of [Ca2+]i as that evoked by ET-1 in the normal medium (1.0 mM Ca2+)). Since SK&F 96365 is also a blocker of SOCC, these results indicate that in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, Ca2+ entry through SOCC (Ca2+ influx through the capacitative Ca2+ entry system) occurs but is comparably weak, and that it virtually does not work on the stimulation of ET-1.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 08/2001; 364(1):42-6. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1) activates two types of Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels (designated NSCC-1 and NSCC-2) and store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOCC). These channels can be pharmacologically discriminated using 1-[beta-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1-H-imidazoe l hydrochloride (SK&F 96365) (a blocker of NSCC-2 and SOCC) and (RS)-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline-1-gamma l)-2-phenyl-N,N-di-[2-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]acetamide (LOE 908) (a blocker of NSCC-1 and NSCC-2). For our study we characterized Ca2+ channels involved in ET-1-induced contractions and increases in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) using these blockers. Our results show that the response to lower concentrations of ET-1 involves only one Ca2+ channel which is sensitive to SK&F 96365 and LOE 908 (NSCC-2). In contrast, the response to higher concentrations of ET-1 involves two types of Ca2+ channel in addition to NSCC-2: one is sensitive to SK&F 96365 but resistant to LOE 908 (SOCC), and the other is resistant to SK&F 96365 but sensitive to LOE 908 (NSCC-1). Furthermore, the percentage contribution of Ca2+ entry through NSCC-1, NSCC-2 and SOCC is calculated to be 10%, 50-60% and 30-40%, respectively.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 11/2000; 36(5 Suppl 1):S105-6. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using whole-cell recordings of patch-clamp and monitoring of the intracellular free calcium (Ca2+) concentration ([Ca2+]i), we characterized Ca2+ entry channels in A7r5 cells activated by endothelin-1 (ET-1). ET-1 activates three types of voltage-independent Ca2+ entry channels: two types of Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels (designated NSCC-1 and NSCC-2) and store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOCC). Furthermore, it was found that these channels can be discriminated pharmacologically using Ca2+ channel blockers such as 1-[beta-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl)-1-H-imidazoe l hydrochloride (SK&F 96365) and (RS)-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline-1-gamma l)-2-phenyl-N,N-di-[2-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)ethoxyl]acetamide (LOE 908). NSCC-1 is resistant to SK&F 96365 but sensitive to LOE 908, whereas NSCC-2 is sensitive to both drugs: SOCC is sensitive to SK&F 96365 but resistant to LOE 908. Using these channel blockers, we analyzed the Ca2+ entry channels involved in the ET-1-induced increase in [Ca2+]i of the cells. The increase induced by lower concentrations of ET-1 (< or = 0.1 nM) was unaffected by SK&F 96365 but it was abolished by LOE 908. In contrast, the increase caused by higher concentrations of ET-1 (> or = 1 nM) was suppressed by SK&F 96365 or LOE 908 to about 35% of controls, and abolished by combined treatment with SK&F 96365 and LOE 908. These results show that the increase in [Ca2+]i resulting from lower concentrations of ET-1 (< or = 0.1 nM) involves Ca2+ entry through only NSCC-1, whereas that resulting from higher concentrations of ET-1 involves Ca2+ entry through NSCC-1, NSCC-2 and SOCC, contributing 35%, 30% and 30%, respectively, to total Ca2+ entry.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 11/2000; 36(5 Suppl 1):S107-9. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the mechanism for the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced release of catecholamines from the adrenal gland, we examined the effects of removal of extracellular Ca2+, blockers of L-, N-, P- and Q-types of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (VOCC) such as nifedipine (L-type), omega-conotoxin GVIA (N-type), omega-agatoxin IVA (P-type) and omega-conotoxin MVIIC (Q-type) and blockers of voltage-independent Ca2+ entry channel such as SK&F 96365 and LOE 908 on release of catecholamines, the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), and 45Ca2+ uptake in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. ET-1 but not ET-3 induced increases in release of catecholamines, [Ca2+]i, and 45Ca2+ uptake. The responses to ET-1 were abolished by the antagonist for ET(A) receptors, BQ-123, but not by the antagonist for ET(B) receptors, BQ-788, and they were abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. The increases were only partially inhibited (to about 65% of control) by nifedipine but unaffected by any of the omega-toxins. The nifedipine-resistant increase was inhibited by SK&F 96365 (to about 40%) and abolished by LOE 908 alone. These results indicate that ET-1 augments the release of catecholamines from adrenal chromaffin cells through ET(A) receptors, by activating two types of Ca2+ entry channels in addition to L-type VOCC: one (nonselective cation channel-1; NSCC-1) is sensitive to LOE 908 but resistant to SK&F 96365, whereas the other (NSCC-2) is sensitive to both LOE 908 and SK&F 96365.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 12/1999; 360(6):616-22. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1) We have recently shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1) activates two types of Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channels (designated NSCC-1 and NSCC-2) and store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOCC). These channels can be pharmacologically discriminated using Ca2+ channel blockers such as SK&F 96365 and LOE 908. Here we characterized Ca2+ entry channels involved in ET-1-induced contractions of rat thoracic aortic rings and increases in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of single smooth muscle cells using these blockers. 2) LOE 908 or a blocker of voltage-operated Ca2+ channel nifedipine had no effect on the contractions and increases in [Ca2+]i induced by thapsigargin, whereas SK&F 96365 abolished them. 3) The contractions and increases in [Ca2+]i induced by ET-1 depended on extracellular Ca2+ but were resistant to nifedipine. The responses to lower concentrations (< or = 0.1 nM) of ET-1 were abolished by either SK&F 96365 or LOE 908. The responses to higher concentrations (> or = 1 nM) were abolished by SK&F 96365, but were partially resistant to LOE 908. 4) These results show that the contractions and increases in [Ca2+]i of rat aortic smooth muscles at lower concentrations of ET-1 involve only one Ca2+ entry channel which is sensitive to SK&F 96365 and LOE 908 (NSCC-2), whereas those at higher concentrations of ET-1 involve another Ca2+ entry channel which is sensitive to SK&F 96365 but resistant to LOE 908 (SOCC) in addition to the former channel.
    Folia Pharmacologica Japonica 11/1999; 114 Suppl 1:103P-109P.
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify Ca2+ entry channels involved in the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced increase in the intracellular concentration ([Ca2+]i), we performed whole-cell recordings of patch-clamp techniques and monitoring of [Ca2+]i with Ca2+ indicators fura-2 and fluo-3 in A7r5 cells (a cell line derived from rat thoracic aortic smooth muscle cells). With whole-cell recordings, lower concentrations (< or = 1 nM) of ET-1 activated a Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel (designated NSCC-1). In contrast, higher concentrations (> or = 1 nM) of ET-1 activated two types of Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel (designated NSCC-1 and NSCC-2) and store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOCC). Importantly, we found that these Ca2+ channels can be pharmacologically discriminated using blockers of the so-called receptor operated Ca2+ influx such as SK&F 96365 and LOE 908. That is, NSCC-1 is resistant to SK&F 96365 but sensitive to LOE 908; NSCC-2 is sensitive to both SK&F 96365 and LOE 908; SOCC is sensitive to SK&F 96365 but resistant to LOE 908. Using these blockers, we analyzed the ET-1-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. The increase in [Ca2+]i induced by lower concentrations of ET-1 was resistant to SK&F 96365 but sensitive to LOE 908. In contrast, the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by higher concentrations of ET-1 was partially suppressed to approximately 30% of controls by either SK&F 96365 or LOE 908 alone, and it was abolished by their combination. These results show that the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by lower concentrations (< or = 1 nM) of ET-1 results from Ca2+ influx through NSCC-1, whereas the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by higher concentrations (> or = 10 nM) of ET-1 results from Ca2+ influx through NSCC-1, NSCC-2 and SOCC.
    Folia Pharmacologica Japonica 11/1999; 114 Suppl 1:96P-102P.
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    ABSTRACT: The contraction of the rat aorta induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1) requires entry of extracellular Ca2+, but involvement of voltage-operated Ca2+ channel is minor. Using whole-cell recordings of patch-clamp and monitoring of the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), we characterized Ca2+ entry channels in A7r5 cells activated by ET-1. ET-1 activates three types of voltage-independent Ca2+ entry channels: two types of Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels (designated NSCC-1 and NSCC-2) and a store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOCC). Furthermore, it was found that these channels can be pharmacologically discriminated using Ca2+ channel blockers such as SK&F 96365 and LOE 908. NSCC-1 is resistant to SK&F 96365, but sensitive to LOE 908, whereas NSCC-2 is sensitive to both SK&F 96365 and LOE 908. SOCC is sensitive to SK&F 96365, but resistant to LOE 908. Using these channel blockers, we analyzed Ca2+ entry channels involved in the ET-1-induced contractions of rat thoracic aorta and increases in [Ca2+]i of single smooth muscle cells. The responses to lower concentrations of ET-1 (< or = 0.1 nM) were abolished by either SK&F 96365 or LOE 908 alone. In contrast, the responses to higher concentrations of ET-1 (> or = 1 nM) were suppressed by SK&F 96365 or LOE 908 to about 10% and 35% of controls, respectively, and abolished by combined treatment with SK&F 96365 and LOE 908. These results show that the responses of rat aorta to lower concentrations of ET-1 involve only one Ca2+ channel that is sensitive to SK&F 96365 and LOE 908 (NSCC-2), whereas those to higher concentrations of ET-1 involve NSCC-1, NSCC-2 and SOCC, contributing 10%, 55% and 35%, respectively, to total Ca2+ entry.
    The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 09/1999; 80(4):281-8.
  • Naunyn-schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology - NAUNYN-SCHMIED ARCH PHARMACOL. 01/1999; 360(6):616-622.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to clarify the role of nonselective cation channels as a Ca2+ entry pathway in the contraction and the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by endothelin- in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings, and their suppression by nitric oxide (NO). In Ca2+-free medium, the endothelin-1-induced contraction was suppressed to about 20% of control values, although the increase in [Ca2+]i became negligible. The contraction and the increase in [Ca2+]i monitored by fura 2 fluorescence were unaffected by a blocker of L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channels nifedipine. A blocker of nonselective cation channels 1-[beta-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxyl]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imida zole . HCl(SK&F 96365) suppressed the endothelin-1-induced contraction and increase in [Ca2+]i to the level similar to that after removal of extracellular Ca2+. SK&F 96365 had no further effect on the endothelin-1-induced contraction in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. The endothelin-1-induced contraction and increase in [Ca2+]i were abolished by a donor of NO sodium nitroprusside. The effects of another NO donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) were also tested and yielded essentially similar results to those for sodium nitroprusside on the endothelin-1-induced contraction. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of sodium nitroprusside could be blocked with a guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) at 30 microM. These findings suggest that Ca2+ entry through nonselective cation channels but not voltage-operated Ca2+ channels plays a critical role in the endothelin-1-induced increase in [Ca2+]i and the resulting contraction and that inhibition by NO of the endothelin-1-induced contraction is mainly the result of blockade of Ca2+ entry through these channels.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 07/1998; 352(2-3):237-45. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed a role for a nonselective cation channel (NSCC) in the ETA-dependent action of endothelin-1 in mouse fibroblast and rabbit aortic smooth-muscle cell. To clarify the physiological significance of NSCCs in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced vasocontraction, we examined the effects of NSCC blockers such as mefenamic acid and SK&F 96365 on the contractions of deendothelialized rabbit aortic rings induced by a low (10[-10] M) or high (10[-8] M) concentration of ET-1. Mefenamic acid (< or =10[-3] M) had little effect on the contraction induced by 45 x 10(-3) M K+ or 1 x 10(-6) M Bay K-8644 in combination with 15 x 10(-3) M K+, indicating that it does not affect voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCs) and contractile mechanisms. The contraction by a low concentration of ET-1 was abolished after removal of extracellular Ca2+, but it was reduced only to 50% by a maximally effective concentration (10[-5] M) of nifedipine, an inhibitor of L-type VOCs (L-VOC). Mefenamic acid and SK&F 96365 inhibited the ET-1-induced contraction with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 10(-4) M and 2 x 10(-5) M, respectively, and abolished it at 10(-3) M and 10(-4) M. By contrast, nifedipine, mefenamic acid, or SK&F 96365 had little effect on the contraction by a high concentration of ET-1. The contraction induced by a low or high concentration of ET-1 was abolished by an ETA antagonist, BQ-123, but not by an ETB antagonist, BQ-788. These results demonstrate that the contraction induced by ET-1 is totally mediated exclusively by ETA, but that Ca2+ entry through NSCCs in addition to L-VOCs plays an important role in contractions induced by low concentrations of ET-1, whereas it plays only a minor role in contractions induced by high concentrations of ET-1.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 10/1997; 30(4):504-9. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. In single vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from the aortae of male Wistar rats, we examined the effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP), and 8-bromo-guanosine-3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-bromo-cyclic GMP) on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-activated Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel by use of whole-cell recordings of patch-clamp technique and monitoring of intracellular free Ca(2+)-concentration ([Ca2+]i) with fura-2 real-time digital microfluorometry. 2. ET-1 evoked an initial transient peak and a subsequent sustained elevation in [Ca2+]i. After removal of extracellular Ca2+. ET-1 evoked only an initial transient peak without a sustained phase. Nifedipine (1 microM), a specific blocker of the L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channel (VOC), reduced the sustained phase to about 40% of the control level. The remaining part of the sustained phase was abolished by 30 microM SK&F 96365, a blocker of nonselective cation channels. 3. The nifedipine-resistant sustained elevation in [Ca2+]i was abolished by 100 microM SNP, 10 microM SNAP and 300 microM 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. Neither SNP, SNAP nor 8-bromo-cyclic GMP significantly affected the basal level of [Ca2+]i. 4. In a VSMC clamped at a holding potential of -60 mV with K+ in the pipette solution replaced by Cs+, application of 10(-8) M ET-1 induced an inward current with an increase in baseline fluctuation. With fluctuation analysis, unit conductance of the ET-1-induced current was calculated to be about 21 pS. The ET-1-induced current was linearly related to the membrane potentials with its reversal potential of -5.5 mV. 5. The ET-1-induced current was reversibly and completely inhibited by 30 microM SK&F 96365 or 500 microM Cd2+. The current inhibited by SK&F 96365 or Cd2+ was linearly related to membrane potential with a reversal potential of about -5 mV. 6. The ET-1-induced current was reversibly and completely inhibited by 100 microM SNP, 10 microM SNAP and 300 microM 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. The current inhibited by SNP, SNAP or 8-bromo-cyclic GMP showed linear voltage-dependence and reversed at about -5 mV. 7. In a bath solution in which all cations were replaced by 30 mM Ca2+ and 100 mM nonpermeant cation N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG), ET-1 evoked a current with a reversal potential of -11 mV, from which PCa2+/Pcs1 was calculated to be 2.1. This Ca2+ current was also abolished by 100 microM SNP, 10 microM SNAP and 300 microM 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. The current inhibited by SNP, SNAP or 8-bromo-cyclic GMP showed linear voltage-dependence and reversed at about -11 mV. 8. These results taken together indicate that NO through a cyclic GMP signalling pathway inhibits ET-1-activated Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channels, thereby suppressing the sustained increase in [Ca2+]i. Thus, the present study indicates that this Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel is an important target for nitrovasodilators.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 04/1997; 120(8):1536-44. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The vasocontracting effect of a serine protease trypsin and its mechanisms were investigated by monitoring the isometric tension in endothelium-denuded rings of rabbit thoracic aortae and its effects on intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in dispersed rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells with a Ca2+ indicator fura-2. The actions of trypsin were compared with those of thrombin. 2. Both thrombin and trypsin reversibly contracted aortic rings without endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner. The vasocontraction induced by trypsin was well correlated with the protease activity of trypsin actually added to the tissue baths containing the aortic rings and was completely blocked by soybean trypsin inhibitor and phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF), a serine protease inhibitor. 3. The trypsin-induced contractions of the aortic rings were not the result of irreversible damage to vascular smooth muscle cells, since the contractile responses induced by noradrenaline or 30 mM KCl were unaffected by pretreatment with trypsin. 4. The contractions induced by either thrombin or trypsin were reduced to about 30% of control responses after removal of extracellular Ca2+, indicating that most of the contraction is dependent on extracellular Ca2+. By contrast, the contractions induced by either of the proteases were reduced by an antagonist of L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, nifedipine, to about 70% of control responses, indicating that both nifedipine-sensitive and -resistant Ca2+ channels are involved in these contractions. 5. In the aortic rings precontracted by a maximally effective concentration of thrombin, the second application of thrombin virtually failed to induce contractions but trypsin could still induce contractions amounting to 10% of control values by it's protease activity. 6. After the first application of a maximal concentration of thrombin, the second application of thrombin could not induce an increase in [Ca2+]i, but an application of trypsin could still induce an increase in [Ca2+]i in dispersed rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells. 7. These data suggest that in addition to activation of a thrombin receptor, trypsin can contract rabbit aortae by a proteinase-activated receptor 2 or a novel mechanism.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 04/1997; 120(5):851-6. · 5.07 Impact Factor