[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RAS GTPases mediate a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recent studies have revealed that germline mutations and mosaicism for classical RAS mutations, including those in HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS, cause a wide spectrum of genetic disorders. These include Noonan syndrome and related disorders (RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase [RAS/MAPK] pathway syndromes, or RASopathies), nevus sebaceous, and Schimmelpenning syndrome. In the present study, we identified a total of nine missense, nonsynonymous mutations in RIT1, encoding a member of the RAS subfamily, in 17 of 180 individuals (9%) with Noonan syndrome or a related condition but with no detectable mutations in known Noonan-related genes. Clinical manifestations in the RIT1-mutation-positive individuals are consistent with those of Noonan syndrome, which is characterized by distinctive facial features, short stature, and congenital heart defects. Seventy percent of mutation-positive individuals presented with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; this frequency is high relative to the overall 20% incidence in individuals with Noonan syndrome. Luciferase assays in NIH 3T3 cells showed that five RIT1 alterations identified in children with Noonan syndrome enhanced ELK1 transactivation. The introduction of mRNAs of mutant RIT1 into 1-cell-stage zebrafish embryos was found to result in a significant increase of embryos with craniofacial abnormalities, incomplete looping, a hypoplastic chamber in the heart, and an elongated yolk sac. These results demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome and show a similar biological effect to mutations in other RASopathy-related genes.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 06/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taking nucleos(t)ide analogues is a major antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B infection. The problem with this treatment is the selection for drug-resistant mutants. Currently, identification of genotypic drug-resistance is conducted by molecular cloning sequenced by the Sanger method. However, this methodology is complicated and time-consuming. These limitations can be overcome by deep sequencing technology. Therefore, we performed sequential analysis of the frequency of drug-resistance in one individual, who was treated with lamivudine on-and-off therapy for two years, by deep sequencing. The lamivudine resistance mutations at rtL180M and rtM204V and the entecavir resistance mutation at rtT184L were detected in the first subject. The lamivudine and entecavir resistant strain was still detected in the last subject. However, in the deep sequencing analysis, rt180 of the first subject showed a mixture in 76.9% of the methionine and in 23.1% of the leucine and rt204 also showed a mixture in 69.0% of the valine and 29.8% of the isoleucine. During the treatment, the ratio of resistant mutations increased. At rt184, the resistant variants were detectable in 58.7% of the sequence, with the replacement of leucine by the wild type threonine in the first subject. Gradually, entecavir resistant variants increased in 82.3% of the leucine in the last subject. In conclusion, we demonstrated the amino acid substitutions of the serial nucleos(t)ide analogues resistants. We revealed that drug-resistant mutants appear unchanged at first glance actually there are low-abundant mutations that might develop drug resistance against nucleos(t)ide analogues through the selection of dominant mutations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) is a group of chronic muscular disorders that show the focal dissolution of myofibrils and accumulation of degradation products. The major genetic basis of MFMs is unknown. In 1993, our group reported a Japanese family with dominantly inherited cytoplasmic body myopathy, which is now included in MFM, characterized by late-onset chronic progressive distal muscle weakness and early respiratory failure. In this study, we performed linkage analysis and exome sequencing on these patients and identified a novel c.90263G>T mutation in the TTN gene (NM_001256850). During the course of our study, another groups reported three mutations in TTN in patients with hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF, MIM #603689), which is characterized by overlapping pathologic findings with MFMs. Our patients were clinically compatible with HMERF. The mutation identified in this study and the three mutations in patients with HMERF were located on the A-band domain of titin, suggesting a strong relationship between mutations in the A-band domain of titin and HMERF. Mutation screening of TTN has been rarely carried out because of its huge size, consisting of 363 exons. It is possible that focused analysis of TTN may detect more mutations in patients with MFMs, especially in those with early respiratory failure.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 28 February 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.9.
Journal of Human Genetics 02/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by distinctive facial features, webbed neck, cardiac anomalies, short stature and cryptorchidism. NS exhibits phenotypic overlap with Costello syndrome and cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome. Germline mutations of genes encoding proteins in the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway cause NS and related disorders. Germline mutations in PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, RAF1, and NRAS have been identified in 60-80 % of NS patients. Germline mutations in HRAS have been identified in patients with Costello syndrome and mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and MAP2K1/2 (MEK1/2) have been identified in patients with CFC syndrome. Recently, mutations in SHOC2 and CBL have been identified in patients with Noonan-like syndrome. It has been suggested that these syndromes be comprehensively termed RAS/MAPK syndromes, or RASopathies. Molecular analysis is beneficial for the confirmation of clinical diagnoses and follow-up with patients using a tumor-screening protocol, as patients with NS and related disorders have an increased risk of developing tumors. In this review, we summarize the genetic mutations, clinical manifestations, associations with malignant tumors, and possible therapeutic approaches for these disorders.
International journal of hematology 12/2012; · 1.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatic CBL mutations have been reported in a variety of myeloid neoplasms but are rare in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We analyzed 77 samples from hematologic malignancies, identifying a somatic mutation in CBL (p.C381R) in one patient with T-ALL that was associated with a uniparental disomy at the CBL locus and a germline heterozygous mutation in one patient with JMML. Two NOTCH1 mutations and homozygous deletions in LEF1 and CDKN2A were identified in T-ALL cells. The activation of the RAS pathway was enhanced, and activation of the NOTCH1 pathway was inhibited in NIH 3T3 cells that expressed p.C381R. This study appears to be the first to identify a CBL mutation in T-ALL.
Leukemia research 05/2012; 36(8):1009-15. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Costello syndrome and cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome are congenital anomaly syndromes characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects, and intellectual disability. Germline mutations in HRAS cause Costello syndrome, and mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and MAP2K1/2 (MEK1/2) cause CFC syndrome. Since the discovery of the causative genes, approximately 150 new patients with each syndrome have been reported. However, the clinico-epidemiological features of these disorders remain to be identified. In order to assess the prevalence, natural history, prognosis, and tumor incidence associated with these diseases, we conducted a nationwide prevalence study of patients with Costello and CFC syndromes in Japan. Based on the result of our survey, we estimated a total number of patients with either Costello syndrome or CFC syndrome in Japan of 99 (95% confidence interval, 77-120) and 157 (95% confidence interval, 86-229), respectively. The prevalences of Costello and CFC syndromes are estimated to be 1 in 1,290,000 and 1 in 810,000 individuals, respectively. An evaluation of 15 adult patients 18-32 years of age revealed that 12 had moderate to severe intellectual disability and most live at home without constant medical care. These results suggested that the number of adult patients is likely underestimated and our results represent a minimum prevalence. This is the first epidemiological study of Costello syndrome and CFC syndrome. Identifying patients older than 32 years of age and following up on the patients reported here is important to estimate the precise prevalence and the natural history of these disorders.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 04/2012; 158A(5):1083-94. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RNF213 was recently reported as a susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease (MMD). Our aim was to clarify the correlation between the RNF213 genotype and MMD phenotype.
The entire coding region of the RNF213 gene was sequenced in 204 patients with MMD, and corresponding variants were checked in 62 pairs of parents, 13 mothers and 4 fathers of the patients, and 283 normal controls. Clinical information was collected. Genotype-phenotype correlations were statistically analyzed.
The c.14576G>A variant was identified in 95.1% of patients with familial MMD, 79.2% of patients with sporadic MMD, and 1.8% of controls, thus confirming its association with MMD, with an odds ratio of 259 and p < 0.001 for either heterozygotes or homozygotes. Homozygous c.14576G>A was observed in 15 patients but not in the controls and unaffected parents. The incidence rate for homozygotes was calculated to be >78%. Homozygotes had a significantly earlier age at onset compared with heterozygotes or wild types (median age at onset 3, 7, and 8 years, respectively). Of homozygotes, 60% were diagnosed with MMD before age 4, and all had infarctions as the first symptom. Infarctions at initial presentation and involvement of posterior cerebral arteries, both known as poor prognostic factors for MMD, were of significantly higher frequency in homozygotes than in heterozygotes and wild types. Variants other than c.14576G>A were not associated with clinical phenotypes.
The homozygous c.14576G>A variant in RNF213 could be a good DNA biomarker for predicting the severe type of MMD, for which early medical/surgical intervention is recommended, and may provide a better monitoring and prevention strategy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citrin deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the SLC25A13 gene and has two disease outcomes: adult-onset type II citrullinemia and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency. The clinical appearance of these diseases is variable, ranging from almost no symptoms to coma, brain edema, and severe liver failure. Genetic testing for SLC25A13 mutations is essential for the diagnosis of citrin deficiency because chemical diagnoses are prohibitively difficult. Eleven SLC25A13 mutations account for 95% of the mutant alleles in Japanese patients with citrin deficiency. Therefore, a simple test for these mutations is desirable. We established a 1-hour, closed-tube assay for the 11 SLC25A13 mutations using real-time PCR. Each mutation site was amplified by PCR followed by a melting-curve analysis with adjacent hybridization probes (HybProbe, Roche). The 11 prevalent mutations were detected in seven PCR reactions. Six reactions were used to detect a single mutation each, and one reaction was used to detect five mutations that are clustered in a 21-bp region in exon 17. To test the reliability, we used this method to genotype blind DNA samples from 50 patients with citrin deficiency. Our results were in complete agreement those obtained using previously established methods. Furthermore, the mutations could be detected without difficulty using dried blood samples collected on filter paper. Therefore, this assay could be used for newborn screening and for facilitating the genetic diagnosis of citrin deficiency, especially in East Asian populations.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 01/2012; 105(4):553-8. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are common birth defects of the central nervous system. The complex multigenic causation of human NTDs, together with the large number of possible candidate genes, has hampered efforts to delineate their molecular basis. Function of folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) has been implicated as a key determinant of susceptibility to NTDs. The glycine cleavage system (GCS) is a multi-enzyme component of mitochondrial folate metabolism, and GCS-encoding genes therefore represent candidates for involvement in NTDs. To investigate this possibility, we sequenced the coding regions of the GCS genes: AMT, GCSH and GLDC in NTD patients and controls. Two unique non-synonymous changes were identified in the AMT gene that were absent from controls. We also identified a splice acceptor site mutation and five different non-synonymous variants in GLDC, which were found to significantly impair enzymatic activity and represent putative causative mutations. In order to functionally test the requirement for GCS activity in neural tube closure, we generated mice that lack GCS activity, through mutation of AMT. Homozygous Amt(-/-) mice developed NTDs at high frequency. Although these NTDs were not preventable by supplemental folic acid, there was a partial rescue by methionine. Overall, our findings suggest that loss-of-function mutations in GCS genes predispose to NTDs in mice and humans. These data highlight the importance of adequate function of mitochondrial folate metabolism in neural tube closure.
Human Molecular Genetics 12/2011; 21(7):1496-503. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, ectodermal abnormalities, and heart defects. Clinically, it overlaps with both Noonan syndrome and Costello syndrome. Mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and MAP2K1/2 (MEK1/2) have been identified in patients with CFC syndrome. BRAF mutations are involved in more than 80% of CFC syndrome patients, and we have reported earlier that 2 CFC patients with BRAF mutations developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here we report a boy with CFC syndrome who developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma. At 2 months of age, he developed pneumonia with pleurisy and was diagnosed as having non-Hodgkin lymphoma (precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma) by cytopathologic examination of the pleural fluid. He was suspected of having Noonan syndrome because of his facial appearance, webbed neck, and cubitus valgus. Precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma was treated by the TCCSG NHL 94-04 protocol. At 9 years of age, he was clinically reevaluated and diagnosed as having CFC syndrome because of his distinctive facial appearance, multiple nevi, and moderate mental retardation. Sequencing analysis showed a germline p.A246P (c.736G>C) mutation in BRAF reported earlier in CFC syndrome. Molecular diagnosis and careful observation should be considered in children with CFC syndrome.
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 12/2011; 33(8):e342-6. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LEOPARD syndrome (LS), generally caused by heterozygous mutations in the PTPN11 gene, is a rare autosomal-dominant multiple congenital anomaly condition, characterized by skin, facial, and cardiac abnormalities. Prognosis appears to be related to the type of structural, myocardial, and arrhythmogenic cardiac disease, especially hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We report on a woman with LS and a novel Gln510His mutation in PTPN11, who had progressive HCM with congestive heart failure and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, successfully treated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Comparing our patient to the literature suggests that specific mutations at codon 510 in PTPN11 (Gln510Glu, Gln510His, but not Gln510Pro) might be a predictor of fatal cardiac events in LS. Molecular risk stratification and careful evaluations for an indication of ICD implantation are likely to be beneficial in managing patients with LS and HCM.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 09/2011; 155A(10):2529-33. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report two individual cases of cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome with severe neurological impairment consisting of infantile spasms with hypsarrhythmia and refractory epilepsy with multifocal epileptic paroxysms such as modified hypsarrhythmia. Both cases shared diffuse brain atrophy and severely delayed myelination on neuroimaging. Genetic analysis revealed individual heterozygous mutations in the KRAS (phenotype of CFC/Noonan syndrome) and BRAF genes (phenotype of CFC syndrome). Neurological impairment in cases with mutations in the RAS/MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) signal pathway may be more severe, and could be linked to some forms of refractory epilepsy, especially epileptic encephalopathy that includes infantile spasms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Costello syndrome (CS) is a congenital disease that is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, failure to thrive, mental retardation and cardiomyopathy. In 2005, we discovered that heterozygous germline mutations in HRAS caused CS. Several studies have shown that CS-associated HRAS mutations are clustered in codons 12 and 13, and mutations in other codons have also been identified. However, a comprehensive comparison of the substitutions identified in patients with CS has not been conducted. In the current study, we identified four mutations (p.G12S, p.G12A, p.G12C and p.G12D) in 21 patients and analyzed the associated clinical manifestations of CS in these individuals. To examine functional differences among the identified mutations, we characterized a total of nine HRAS mutants, including seven distinct substitutions in codons 12 and 13, p.K117R and p.A146T. The p.A146T mutant demonstrated the weakest Raf-binding activity, and the p.K117R and p.A146T mutants had weaker effects on downstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling than did codon 12 or 13 mutants. We demonstrated that these mutant HRAS proteins induced senescence when overexpressed in human fibroblasts. Oncogene-induced senescence is a cellular reaction that controls cell proliferation in response to oncogenic mutation and it has been considered one of the tumor suppression mechanisms in vivo. Our findings suggest that the HRAS mutations identified in CS are sufficient to cause oncogene-induced senescence and that cellular senescence might therefore contribute to the pathogenesis of CS.
Journal of Human Genetics 08/2011; 56(10):707-15. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in the metabolism of carcinogens are suggested to modify an individual's susceptibility to lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between lung cancer cases in Japan and variant alleles of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 (CYP2A6*4), CYP2A13 (CYP2A13*1-*10), CYP4B1 (CYP4B1*1-*7), sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1*2), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1 null), and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1 null). We investigated the distribution of these polymorphisms in 192 lung cancer patients and in 203 age- and sex-matched cancer-free controls. The polymorphisms were analyzed using various techniques including allele-specific PCR, hybridization probe assay, multiplex PCR, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), and direct sequencing. We also investigated allele and genotype frequencies and their association with lung cancer risk, demographic factors, and smoking status. The prevalence of the CYP2A6*4/*4 genotype in lung cancer cases was 3.6%, compared with 9.4% in the controls (adjusted OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.15-0.88, P = 0.025). In contrast, there was no association between the known CYP2A13, CYP4B1, SULT1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms and lung cancer. These data indicate that CYP2A6 deletions may be associated with lung cancer in the Japanese population studied.
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 07/2011; 26(5):516-22. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artemether (AM) is one of the most effective antimalarial drugs. The elimination half-life of AM is very short, and it shows large interindividual variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The aim of this study was to identify cytochrome P450 (P450) isozymes responsible for the demethylation of AM and to evaluate functional differences between 26 CYP2B6 allelic variants in vitro. Of 14 recombinant P450s examined in this study, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 were primarily responsible for production of the desmethyl metabolite dihydroartemisinin. The intrinsic clearance (V(max)/K(m)) of CYP2B6 was 6-fold higher than that of CYP3A4. AM demethylation activity was correlated with CYP2B6 protein levels (P = 0.004); however, it was not correlated with CYP3A4 protein levels (P = 0.27) in human liver microsomes. Wild-type CYP2B6.1 and 25 CYP2B6 allelic variants (CYP2B6.2-CYP2B6.21 and CYP2B6.23-CYP2B6.27) were heterologously expressed in COS-7 cells. In vitro analysis revealed no enzymatic activity in 5 variants (CYP2B6.8, CYP2B6.12, CYP2B6.18, CYP2B6.21, and CYP2B6.24), lower activity in 7 variants (CYP2B6.10, CYP2B6.11, CYP2B6.14, CYP2B6.15, CYP2B6.16, CYP2B6.20, and CYP2B6.27), and higher activity in 4 variants (CYP2B6.2, CYP2B6.4, CYP2B6.6, and CYP2B6.19), compared with that of wild-type CYP2B6.1. In kinetic analysis, 3 variants (CYP2B6.2, CYP2B6.4, and CYP2B6.6) exhibited significantly higher V(max), and 3 variants (CYP2B6.14, CYP2B6.20 and CYP2B6.27) exhibited significantly lower V(max) compared with that of CYP2B6.1. This functional analysis of CYP2B6 variants could provide useful information for individualization of antimalarial drug therapy.
Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 07/2011; 39(10):1860-5. · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) is a human CYP enzyme that is selectively expressed in the respiratory tract. It plays an active role in the metabolic activation of a tobacco-specific procarcinogen. In this study, the entire coding sequence and the exon-intron junctions of the CYP2A13 gene obtained from 395 Japanese individuals were screened for genetic polymorphisms. Eight genetic polymorphisms were found, of which seven gave rise to known variant alleles: CYP2A13*2, CYP2A13*3, CYP2A13*4, CYP2A13*6, and CYP2A13*7. We identified a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), 5792T>C, in exon 7 that caused an amino acid substitution (Ile331Thr). One of the 395 individuals included in the study was heterozygous for the variant allele, and therefore, the frequency of the allele in the study population was 0.13%.
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 05/2011; 26(5):544-7. · 2.07 Impact Factor