Yoichi Matsubara

National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (167)855.19 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Y chromosomal azoospermia factor (AZF) regions AZFa, AZFb and AZFc represent hotspots for copy number variations (CNVs) in the human genome; yet the number of reports of AZFa-linked duplications remains limited. Nonallelic homologous recombination has been proposed as the underlying mechanism of CNVs in AZF regions. In this study, we identified a hitherto unreported microduplication in the AZFa region in a Japanese male individual. The 629,812-bp duplication contained 22 of 46 exons of USP9Y, encoding the putative fine tuner of spermatogenesis, together with all exons of 3 other genes/pseudogenes. The breakpoints of the duplication resided in the DNA/TcMar-Tigger repeat and nonrepeat sequences, respectively, and were associated with a 2-bp microhomology, but not with short nucleotide stretches. The breakpoint-flanking regions were not enriched with GC content, palindromes, or noncanonical DNA structures. Semen analysis of the individual revealed a normal sperm concentration and mildly reduced sperm motility. The paternal DNA sample of the individual was not available for genetic analysis. The results indicate that CNVs in AZF regions can be generated by microhomology-mediated break-induced replication in the absence of known rearrangement-inducing DNA features. AZFa-linked microduplications likely permit production of a normal amount of sperm, although the precise clinical consequences of these CNVs await further investigation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cytogenetic and Genome Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1159/000377649 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mabry syndrome, hyperphosphatasia mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS), is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by increased serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), severe developmental delay, intellectual disability, and seizures. Recent studies have revealed mutations in PIGV, PIGW, PIGO, PGAP2, and PGAP3 (genes that encode molecules of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis pathway) in patients with HPMRS. We performed whole-exome sequencing of a patient with severe intellectual disability, distinctive facial appearance, fragile nails, and persistent increased serum levels of ALP. The result revealed a compound heterozygote with a 13-bp deletion in exon 1 (c.36_48del) and a two-base deletion in exon 2 (c.254_255del) in phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor, class L (PIGL) that caused frameshifts resulting in premature terminations. The 13-bp deletion was inherited from the father, and the two-base deletion was inherited from the mother. Expressing c.36_48del or c.254_255del cDNA with an HA-tag at the C- or N-terminus in PIGL-deficient CHO cells only partially restored the surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Nonsynonymous changes or frameshift mutations in PIGL have been identified in patients with CHIME syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by colobomas, congenital heart defects, early onset migratory ichthyosiform dermatosis, intellectual disability, and ear abnormalities. Our patient did not have colobomas, congenital heart defects, or early onset migratory ichthyosiform dermatosis and hence was diagnosed with HPMRS, and not CHIME syndrome. These results suggest that frameshift mutations that result in premature termination in PIGL cause a phenotype that is consistent with HPMRS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 02/2015; 167(4). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36987 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: What percentage of cases with non-syndromic hypospadias can be ascribed to mutations in known causative/candidate/susceptibility genes or submicroscopic copy-number variations (CNVs) in the genome? Monogenic and digenic mutations in known causative genes and cryptic CNVs account for >10% of cases with non-syndromic hypospadias. While known susceptibility polymorphisms appear to play a minor role in the development of this condition, further studies are required to validate this observation. Fifteen causative, three candidate, and 14 susceptible genes, and a few submicroscopic CNVs have been implicated in non-syndromic hypospadias. Systematic mutation screening and genome-wide copy-number analysis of 62 patients. The study group consisted of 57 Japanese and five Vietnamese patients with non-syndromic hypospadias. Systematic mutation screening was performed for 25 known causative/candidate/susceptibility genes using a next-generation sequencer. Functional consequences of nucleotide alterations were assessed by in silico assays. The frequencies of polymorphisms in the patient group were compared with those in the male general population. CNVs were analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Seven of 62 patients with anterior or posterior hypospadias carried putative pathogenic mutations, such as hemizygous mutations in AR, a heterozygous mutation in BNC2, and homozygous mutations in SRD5A2 and HSD3B2. Two of the seven patients had mutations in multiple genes. We did not find any rare polymorphisms that were abundant specifically in the patient group. One patient carried mosaic dicentric Y chromosome. The patient group consisted solely of Japanese and Vietnamese individuals and clinical and hormonal information of the patients remained rather fragmentary. In addition, mutation analysis focused on protein-altering substitutions. Our data provide evidence that pathogenic mutations can underlie both mild and severe hypospadias and that HSD3B2 mutations cause non-syndromic hypospadias as a sole clinical manifestation. Most importantly, this is the first report documenting possible oligogenicity of non-syndromic hypospadias. This study was funded by the Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; by the Grant-in-Aid from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science; by the Grants from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, from the National Center for Child Health and Development and from the Takeda Foundation. The authors have no competing interests to disclose. Not applicable. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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    ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, responsible for the development of cystic fibrosis, is known as a pancreatitis susceptibility gene. Direct DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified CFTR gene segments is a first-line method to detect unknown mutations, but it is a tedious and labor-intensive endeavor given the large size of the gene (27 exons, 1,480 amino acids). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming standardized, reducing the cost of DNA sequencing, and enabling the generation of millions of reads per run. We here report a comprehensive analysis of CFTR variants in Japanese patients with chronic pancreatitis using NGS coupling with target capture. Exon sequences of the CFTR gene from 193 patients with chronic pancreatitis (121 idiopathic, 46 alcoholic, 17 hereditary, and nine familial) were captured by HaloPlex target enrichment technology, followed by NGS. The sequencing data covered 91.6 % of the coding regions of the CFTR gene by ≥20 reads with a mean read depth of 449. We could identify 12 non-synonymous variants including three novel ones [c.A1231G (p.K411E), c.1753G>T (p.E585X) and c.2869delC (p.L957fs)] and seven synonymous variants including three novel ones in the exonic regions. The frequencies of the c.4056G>C (p.Q1352H) and the c.3468G>T (p.L1156F) variants were higher in patients with chronic pancreatitis than those in controls. Target sequence capture combined with NGS is an effective method for the analysis of pancreatitis susceptibility genes.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10620-014-3476-9 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML), formerly referred to as LEOPARD syndrome, is a rare autosomal-dominant condition, characterized by multiple lentigines, electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormal genitalia, growth retardation, and sensorineural deafness. To date, PTPN11, RAF1, and BRAF have been reported to be causal for NSML. We report on a 13-year-old Japanese boy, who was diagnosed with NSML. He was found to have a novel heterozygous missense variant (c.305A > G; p.E102G) in MAP2K1, a gene mostly causal for cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS). He manifested fetal macrosomia, and showed hypotonia and poor sucking in the neonatal period. He had mild developmental delay, and multiple lentigines appearing at approximately age 3 years, as well as flexion deformity of knees bilaterally, subtle facial characteristics including ocular hypertelorism, sensorineural hearing loss, and precocious puberty. He lacked congenital heart defects or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, frequently observed in patients with NSML, mostly caused by PTPN11 mutations. He also lacked congenital heart defects, characteristic facial features, or intellectual disability, frequently observed in those with CFCS caused by MAP2K1 or MAP2K2 mutations. This may be the first patient clinically diagnosed with NSML, caused by a mutation in MAP2K1. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2014; 167(2). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36842 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GNE myopathy is an autosomal recessive muscular disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the key enzyme in sialic acid biosynthesis, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE/MNK). Here, we report two siblings with myopathy with rimmed vacuoles and congenital thrombocytopenia who harbored two compound heterozygous GNE mutations, p.V603L and p.G739S. Thrombocytopenia, which is characterized by shortened platelet lifetime rather than ineffective thrombopoiesis, has been observed since infancy. We performed exome sequencing and array CGH to identify the underlying genetic etiology of thrombocytopenia. No pathogenic variants were detected among the known causative genes of recessively inherited thrombocytopenia; yet, candidate variants in two genes that followed an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, including previously identified GNE mutations, were detected. Alternatively, it is possible that the decreased activity of GNE/MNK itself, which would lead to decreased sialic content in platelets, is associated with thrombocytopenia in these patients. Further investigations are required to clarify the association between GNE myopathy and the pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia.
    Neuromuscular Disorders 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2014.07.008 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome is one of the 'RASopathies', a group of phenotypically overlapping syndromes caused by germline mutations that encode components of the RAS-MAPK pathway. Germline mutations in BRAF cause CFC syndrome, which is characterized by heart defects, distinctive facial features and ectodermal abnormalities. To define the pathogenesis and to develop a potential therapeutic approach in CFC syndrome, we here generated new knock-in mice (here Braf(Q241R/+)) expressing the BrafQ241R mutation, which corresponds to the most frequent mutation in CFC syndrome, Q257R. Braf(Q241R/+) mice manifested embryonic/neonatal lethality, showing liver necrosis, edema and craniofacial abnormalities. Histological analysis revealed multiple heart defects, including cardiomegaly, enlarged cardiac valves, ventricular noncompaction and ventricular septal defects. Braf(Q241R/+) embryos also showed massively distended jugular lymphatic sacs and subcutaneous lymphatic vessels, demonstrating lymphatic defects in RASopathy knock-in mice for the first time. Prenatal treatment with a MEK inhibitor, PD0325901, rescued the embryonic lethality with amelioration of craniofacial abnormalities and edema in Braf(Q241R/+) embryos. Unexpectedly, one surviving pup was obtained after treatment with a histone 3 demethylase inhibitor, GSK-J4, or NCDM-32b. Combination treatment with PD0325901 and GSK-J4 further increased the rescue from embryonic lethality, ameliorating enlarged cardiac valves. These results suggest that our new BRAF knock-in mice recapitulate major features of RASopathies and that epigenetic modulation as well as the inhibition of the ERK pathway will be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CFC syndrome.
    Human Molecular Genetics 07/2014; DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu376 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), variegate porphyria (VP), and hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) are caused by mutations in the hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX), and coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX) genes, respectively. This study aimed to identify mutations in seven Bulgarian families with AIP, six with VP, and one with HCP. A total of 33 subjects, both symptomatic (n = 21) and asymptomatic (n = 12), were included in this study. The identification of mutations was performed by direct sequencing of all the coding exons of the corresponding enzymes in the probands. The available relatives were screened for the possible mutations. A total of six different mutations in HMBS were detected in all seven families with AIP, three of which were previously described: c.76C>T [p.R26C] in exon 3, c.287C>T [p.S96F] in exon 7, and c.445C>T [p.R149X] in exon 9. The following three novel HMBS mutations were found: c.345-2A>C in intron 7-8, c.279-280insAT in exon 7, and c.887delC in exon 15. A total of three different novel mutations were identified in the PPOX gene in the VP families: c.441-442delCA in exon 5, c.917T>C [p.L306P] in exon 9, and c.1252T>C [p.C418R] in exon 12. A novel nonsense mutation, c.364G>T [p.E122X], in exon 1 of the CPOX gene was identified in the HCP family. This study, which identified mutations in Bulgarian families with AHP for the first time, established seven novel mutation sites. Seven latent carriers were also diagnosed and, therefore, were able to receive crucial counseling to prevent attacks.
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    ABSTRACT: Although TBX1 mutations have been identified in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS)-like phenotypes including characteristic craniofacial features, cardiovascular anomalies, hypoparathyroidism, and thymic hypoplasia, the frequency of TBX1 mutations remains rare in deletion-negative patients. Thus, it would be reasonable to perform a comprehensive genetic analysis in deletion-negative patients with 22q11.2DS-like phenotypes. We studied three subjects with craniofacial features and hypocalcemia (group 1), two subjects with craniofacial features alone (group 2), and three subjects with normal phenotype within a single Japanese family. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis excluded chromosome 22q11.2 deletion, and genomewide array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed no copy number change specific to group 1 or groups 1+2. However, exome sequencing identified a heterozygous TBX1 frameshift mutation (c.1253delA, p.Y418fsX459) specific to groups 1+2, as well as six missense variants and two in-frame microdeletions specific to groups 1+2 and two missense variants specific to group 1. The TBX1 mutation resided at exon 9C and was predicted to produce a non-functional truncated protein missing the nuclear localization signal and most of the transactivation domain. Clinical features in groups 1+2 are well explained by the TBX1 mutation, while the clinical effects of the remaining variants are largely unknown. Thus, the results exemplify the usefulness of exome sequencing in the identification of disease-causing mutations in familial disorders. Furthermore, the results, in conjunction with the previous data, imply that TBX1 isoform C is the biologically essential variant and that TBX1 mutations are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum, including most of 22q11.2DS phenotypes.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e91598. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0091598 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kabuki syndrome is a congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, specific facial features including long palpebral fissures and ectropion of the lateral third of the lower eyelids, prominent digit pads, and skeletal and visceral abnormalities. Mutations in MLL2 and KDM6A cause Kabuki syndrome. We screened 81 individuals with Kabuki syndrome for mutations in these genes by conventional methods (n = 58) and/or targeted resequencing (n = 45) or whole exome sequencing (n = 5). We identified a mutation in MLL2 or KDM6A in 50 (61.7%) and 5 (6.2%) cases, respectively. Thirty-five MLL2 mutations and two KDM6A mutations were novel. Non-protein truncating-type MLL2 mutations were mainly located around functional domains, while truncating-type mutations were scattered through the entire coding region. The facial features of patients in the MLL2 truncating-type mutation group were typical based on those of the 10 originally reported patients with Kabuki syndrome; those of the other groups were less typical. High arched eyebrows, short fifth finger, and hypotonia in infancy were more frequent in the MLL2 mutation group than in the KDM6A mutation group. Short stature and postnatal growth retardation were observed in all individuals with KDM6A mutations, but in only half of the group with MLL2 mutations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2013; DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36072 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A male infant, born at 32 weeks gestation by cesarean because of hydrops fetalis, presented with multiple anomalies, such as sparse and curly scalp hair, absent eyebrows, frontal bossing, an atrial septal defect, pulmonary artery stenosis, and whole myocardial thickening. He was clinically diagnosed with cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome, and was confirmed to have a germline V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homologue B1 (BRAF) c.721 A>C mutation. At 1 month of age, he presented with a transient myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN), which improved within a month without the administration of antineoplastic agents. This is the first report of CFC syndrome with MDS/MPN. The coexistence of MDS/MPN may be related to this BRAF c.721 A>C mutation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2013; 161(10). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36107 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RAS GTPases mediate a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recent studies have revealed that germline mutations and mosaicism for classical RAS mutations, including those in HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS, cause a wide spectrum of genetic disorders. These include Noonan syndrome and related disorders (RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase [RAS/MAPK] pathway syndromes, or RASopathies), nevus sebaceous, and Schimmelpenning syndrome. In the present study, we identified a total of nine missense, nonsynonymous mutations in RIT1, encoding a member of the RAS subfamily, in 17 of 180 individuals (9%) with Noonan syndrome or a related condition but with no detectable mutations in known Noonan-related genes. Clinical manifestations in the RIT1-mutation-positive individuals are consistent with those of Noonan syndrome, which is characterized by distinctive facial features, short stature, and congenital heart defects. Seventy percent of mutation-positive individuals presented with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; this frequency is high relative to the overall 20% incidence in individuals with Noonan syndrome. Luciferase assays in NIH 3T3 cells showed that five RIT1 alterations identified in children with Noonan syndrome enhanced ELK1 transactivation. The introduction of mRNAs of mutant RIT1 into 1-cell-stage zebrafish embryos was found to result in a significant increase of embryos with craniofacial abnormalities, incomplete looping, a hypoplastic chamber in the heart, and an elongated yolk sac. These results demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome and show a similar biological effect to mutations in other RASopathy-related genes.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 06/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.05.021 · 10.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Taking nucleos(t)ide analogues is a major antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B infection. The problem with this treatment is the selection for drug-resistant mutants. Currently, identification of genotypic drug-resistance is conducted by molecular cloning sequenced by the Sanger method. However, this methodology is complicated and time-consuming. These limitations can be overcome by deep sequencing technology. Therefore, we performed sequential analysis of the frequency of drug-resistance in one individual, who was treated with lamivudine on-and-off therapy for two years, by deep sequencing. The lamivudine resistance mutations at rtL180M and rtM204V and the entecavir resistance mutation at rtT184L were detected in the first subject. The lamivudine and entecavir resistant strain was still detected in the last subject. However, in the deep sequencing analysis, rt180 of the first subject showed a mixture in 76.9% of the methionine and in 23.1% of the leucine and rt204 also showed a mixture in 69.0% of the valine and 29.8% of the isoleucine. During the treatment, the ratio of resistant mutations increased. At rt184, the resistant variants were detectable in 58.7% of the sequence, with the replacement of leucine by the wild type threonine in the first subject. Gradually, entecavir resistant variants increased in 82.3% of the leucine in the last subject. In conclusion, we demonstrated the amino acid substitutions of the serial nucleos(t)ide analogues resistants. We revealed that drug-resistant mutants appear unchanged at first glance actually there are low-abundant mutations that might develop drug resistance against nucleos(t)ide analogues through the selection of dominant mutations.
    Hepatology Research 05/2013; 44(6). DOI:10.1111/hepr.12168 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) is a group of chronic muscular disorders that show the focal dissolution of myofibrils and accumulation of degradation products. The major genetic basis of MFMs is unknown. In 1993, our group reported a Japanese family with dominantly inherited cytoplasmic body myopathy, which is now included in MFM, characterized by late-onset chronic progressive distal muscle weakness and early respiratory failure. In this study, we performed linkage analysis and exome sequencing on these patients and identified a novel c.90263G>T mutation in the TTN gene (NM_001256850). During the course of our study, another groups reported three mutations in TTN in patients with hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF, MIM #603689), which is characterized by overlapping pathologic findings with MFMs. Our patients were clinically compatible with HMERF. The mutation identified in this study and the three mutations in patients with HMERF were located on the A-band domain of titin, suggesting a strong relationship between mutations in the A-band domain of titin and HMERF. Mutation screening of TTN has been rarely carried out because of its huge size, consisting of 363 exons. It is possible that focused analysis of TTN may detect more mutations in patients with MFMs, especially in those with early respiratory failure.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 28 February 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.9.
    Journal of Human Genetics 02/2013; DOI:10.1038/jhg.2013.9 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    Yoko Aoki, Yoichi Matsubara
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    ABSTRACT: Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by distinctive facial features, webbed neck, cardiac anomalies, short stature and cryptorchidism. NS exhibits phenotypic overlap with Costello syndrome and cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome. Germline mutations of genes encoding proteins in the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway cause NS and related disorders. Germline mutations in PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, RAF1, and NRAS have been identified in 60-80 % of NS patients. Germline mutations in HRAS have been identified in patients with Costello syndrome and mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and MAP2K1/2 (MEK1/2) have been identified in patients with CFC syndrome. Recently, mutations in SHOC2 and CBL have been identified in patients with Noonan-like syndrome. It has been suggested that these syndromes be comprehensively termed RAS/MAPK syndromes, or RASopathies. Molecular analysis is beneficial for the confirmation of clinical diagnoses and follow-up with patients using a tumor-screening protocol, as patients with NS and related disorders have an increased risk of developing tumors. In this review, we summarize the genetic mutations, clinical manifestations, associations with malignant tumors, and possible therapeutic approaches for these disorders.
    International journal of hematology 12/2012; 97(1). DOI:10.1007/s12185-012-1239-y · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • Neurology 08/2012; 79(7):e63-8. DOI:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182648bb6 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract is missing (Letter).
    Acta Dermato-Venereologica 06/2012; 93(1). DOI:10.2340/00015555-1399 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Somatic CBL mutations have been reported in a variety of myeloid neoplasms but are rare in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We analyzed 77 samples from hematologic malignancies, identifying a somatic mutation in CBL (p.C381R) in one patient with T-ALL that was associated with a uniparental disomy at the CBL locus and a germline heterozygous mutation in one patient with JMML. Two NOTCH1 mutations and homozygous deletions in LEF1 and CDKN2A were identified in T-ALL cells. The activation of the RAS pathway was enhanced, and activation of the NOTCH1 pathway was inhibited in NIH 3T3 cells that expressed p.C381R. This study appears to be the first to identify a CBL mutation in T-ALL.
    Leukemia research 05/2012; 36(8):1009-15. DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2012.04.018 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Costello syndrome and cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome are congenital anomaly syndromes characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects, and intellectual disability. Germline mutations in HRAS cause Costello syndrome, and mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and MAP2K1/2 (MEK1/2) cause CFC syndrome. Since the discovery of the causative genes, approximately 150 new patients with each syndrome have been reported. However, the clinico-epidemiological features of these disorders remain to be identified. In order to assess the prevalence, natural history, prognosis, and tumor incidence associated with these diseases, we conducted a nationwide prevalence study of patients with Costello and CFC syndromes in Japan. Based on the result of our survey, we estimated a total number of patients with either Costello syndrome or CFC syndrome in Japan of 99 (95% confidence interval, 77-120) and 157 (95% confidence interval, 86-229), respectively. The prevalences of Costello and CFC syndromes are estimated to be 1 in 1,290,000 and 1 in 810,000 individuals, respectively. An evaluation of 15 adult patients 18-32 years of age revealed that 12 had moderate to severe intellectual disability and most live at home without constant medical care. These results suggested that the number of adult patients is likely underestimated and our results represent a minimum prevalence. This is the first epidemiological study of Costello syndrome and CFC syndrome. Identifying patients older than 32 years of age and following up on the patients reported here is important to estimate the precise prevalence and the natural history of these disorders.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2012; 158A(5):1083-94. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.35292 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNF213 was recently reported as a susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease (MMD). Our aim was to clarify the correlation between the RNF213 genotype and MMD phenotype. The entire coding region of the RNF213 gene was sequenced in 204 patients with MMD, and corresponding variants were checked in 62 pairs of parents, 13 mothers and 4 fathers of the patients, and 283 normal controls. Clinical information was collected. Genotype-phenotype correlations were statistically analyzed. The c.14576G>A variant was identified in 95.1% of patients with familial MMD, 79.2% of patients with sporadic MMD, and 1.8% of controls, thus confirming its association with MMD, with an odds ratio of 259 and p < 0.001 for either heterozygotes or homozygotes. Homozygous c.14576G>A was observed in 15 patients but not in the controls and unaffected parents. The incidence rate for homozygotes was calculated to be >78%. Homozygotes had a significantly earlier age at onset compared with heterozygotes or wild types (median age at onset 3, 7, and 8 years, respectively). Of homozygotes, 60% were diagnosed with MMD before age 4, and all had infarctions as the first symptom. Infarctions at initial presentation and involvement of posterior cerebral arteries, both known as poor prognostic factors for MMD, were of significantly higher frequency in homozygotes than in heterozygotes and wild types. Variants other than c.14576G>A were not associated with clinical phenotypes. The homozygous c.14576G>A variant in RNF213 could be a good DNA biomarker for predicting the severe type of MMD, for which early medical/surgical intervention is recommended, and may provide a better monitoring and prevention strategy.
    Neurology 02/2012; 78(11):803-10. DOI:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318249f71f · 8.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
855.19 Total Impact Points


  • 2014–2015
    • National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • National Institute of Public Co-operation and Child Development
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 1995–2015
    • Tohoku University
      • • Department of Medical Genetics
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Miyagi, Japan
  • 2006
    • University of the Ryukyus
      Okinawa, Okinawa, Japan
  • 2005
    • Hokkaido University
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2001
    • Mahidol University
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 1987–1989
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States