W. Lu

Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (325)593.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: For many plasma physics problems, three-dimensional and kinetic effects are very important. However, such simulations are very computationally intensive. Fortunately, there is a class of problems for which there is nearly azimuthal symmetry and the dominant three-dimensional physics is captured by the inclusion of only a few azimuthal harmonics. Recently, it was proposed [A. Lifschitz et al., J. Comp. Phys. 228 (5) (2009) 1803-1814] to model one such problem, laser wakefield acceleration, by expanding the fields and currents in azimuthal harmonics and truncating the expansion after only the first harmonic. The complex amplitudes of the fundamental and first harmonic for the fields were solved on an r-z grid and a procedure for calculating the complex current amplitudes for each particle based on its motion in Cartesian geometry was presented using a Marder's correction to maintain the validity of Gauss's law. In this paper, we describe an implementation of this algorithm into OSIRIS using a rigorous charge conserving current deposition method to maintain the validity of Gauss's law. We show that this algorithm is a hybrid method which uses a particles-in-cell description in r-z and a gridless description in $\phi$. We include the ability to keep an arbitrary number of harmonics and higher order particle shapes. Examples, for laser wakefield acceleration, plasma wakefield acceleration, and beam loading are also presented and directions for future work are discussed.
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    ABSTRACT: A unique facility for laser plasma physics and advanced accelerator research has been built recently at Tsinghua Universtiy. This system is based on Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source (TTX), which combining an ultrafast TW laser with a synchronized 45MeV high brightness linac. In our recent laser wakefield acceleration experiments, we have obtained 10~40MeV high quality monoenergetic electron beams by running the laser at 5TW peak power. Under certain conditions, very low relative energy spread of a few percent can be achieved. Absolute charge calibration for three different scintillating screens has also been performed using the linac system.
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    ABSTRACT: Ionization injection triggered by short wavelength laser pulses inside a nonlinear wakefield driven by a longer wavelength laser is examined via multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We find that very bright electron beams can be generated through this two-color scheme in either collinear propagating or transverse colliding geometry. For a fixed laser intensity $I$, lasers with longer/shorter wavelength $\lambda$ have larger/smaller ponderomotive potential ($\propto I \lambda^2$). The two color scheme utilizes this property to separate the injection process from the wakefield excitation process. Very strong wakes can be generated at relatively low laser intensities by using a longer wavelength laser driver (e.g. a $10 \micro\meter$ CO$_2$ laser) due to its very large ponderomotive potential. On the other hand, short wavelength laser can produce electrons with very small residual momenta ($p_\perp\sim a_0\sim \sqrt{I}\lambda$) inside the wake, leading to electron beams with very small normalized emittances (tens of $\nano\meter$). Using particle-in-cell simulations we show that a $\sim10 \femto\second$ electron beam with $\sim4 \pico\coulomb$ of charge and a normalized emittance of $\sim 50 \nano\meter$ can be generated by combining a 10 $\micro\meter $ driving laser with a 400 $\nano\meter$ injection laser, which is an improvement of more than one order of magnitude compared to the typical results obtained when a single wavelength laser used for both the wake formation and ionization injection.
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    ABSTRACT: Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an advanced fully superconducting ECR ion source at IMP designed to be operational at the microwave frequency of 18-24 GHz. The existing SECRAL beam transmission line is composed of a solenoid lens and a 110° analyzing magnet. Simulations of particle tracking with 3D space charge effect and realistic 3D magnetic fields through the line were performed using particle-in-cell code. The results of the beam dynamics show that such a low energy beam is very sensitive to the space charge effect and significantly suffers from the second-order aberration of the analyzing magnet resulting in large emittance. However, the second-order aberration could be reduced by adding compensating sextupole components in the beam line. On this basis, a new 110° analyzing magnet with relatively larger acceptance and smaller aberration is designed and will be used in the design of low energy beam transport line for a new superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL-II. The features of the analyzer and the corresponding beam trajectory calculation will be detailed and discussed in this paper.
    The Review of scientific instruments 02/2014; 85(2):02A719. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Superconducting ECR ion sources can produce intense highly charged ion beams for the application in heavy ion accelerators. Superconducting Electron Resonance ion source with Advanced Design (SECRAL) is one of the few fully superconducting ECR ion sources that has been successfully built and put into routine operation for years. With enormous efforts and R&D work, promising results have been achieved with the ion source. Heated by the microwave power from a 7 kW/24 GHz gyrotron microwave generator, very intense highly charged gaseous ion beams have been produced, such as 455 eμA Xe(27+), 236 eμA Xe(30+), and 64 eμA Xe(35+). Since heavy metallic ion beams are being more and more attractive and important for many accelerator projects globally, intensive studies have been made to produce highly charged heavy metal ion beams, such as those from bismuth and uranium. Recently, 420 eμA Bi(30+) and 202 eμA U(33+) have been produced with SECRAL source. This paper will present the latest results with SECRAL, and the operation status will be discussed as well. An introduction of recently started SECRAL II project will also be given in the presentation.
    The Review of scientific instruments 02/2014; 85(2):02A942. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new room temperature ECR ion source, Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No. 4 (LECR4, previously named DRAGON), is under intense construction at Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 is designed to operate with 18 GHz microwave frequency. The maximum axial magnetic fields are 2.3 T at injection and 1.3 T at extraction, and the radial field at the plasma chamber wall of 76 mm inner diameter is 1.0-1.2 T. One of the unique features for LECR4 is that its axial solenoids are winded with solid square copper wires which are immersed in a kind of special evaporative cooling medium for cooling purpose. Till now, a prototype of the cooling system has been successfully constructed and tested, which has demonstrated that the cooling efficiency of the designed system could meet the requirements of LECR4 under the routine operation conditions. All the main components of the ion source have been completed. Assembly and commissioning is ongoing. The latest developments and test results will be presented in this paper.
    The Review of scientific instruments 02/2014; 85(2):02A926. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36 000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H(+), (40)Ar(8+), (129)Xe(30+), (209)Bi(33+), etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.
    The Review of scientific instruments 02/2014; 85(2):02A947. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evaporative cooling technology utilizes phase-change heat transfer mode to achieve the cooling for heating equipment. The heat transfer capacity of evaporative cooling technology is far more than air or water cooling technology. The Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source magnet is a typical super-high power density magnet, and the evaporative cooling technology is an ideal cooling method for the coils of magnet. In this paper we show the structure and process of coils and the special design of flow channels of coolant for an experiment magnet model. Additionally, the heat transfer circulation is presented and analyzed. By the finite element method, the flow channels are optimized to rationally allocate coolant and to reduce the temperature of coils. For the experiment model, the current density of copper wire of coils is 19 A/mm(2), and the coil-windows current density is larger than 12 A/mm(2). The max temperature of coils is below 80 °C, and the total heat is about 200 kW.
    The Review of scientific instruments 02/2014; 85(2):02A913. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of beam phase space in ionization injection into plasma wakefields is studied using theory and particle-in-cell simulations. The injection process involves both longitudinal and transverse phase mixing, leading initially to a rapid emittance growth followed by oscillation, decay, and a slow growth to saturation. An analytic theory for this evolution is presented and verified through particle-in-cell simulations. This theory includes the effects of injection distance (time), acceleration distance, wakefield structure, and nonlinear space charge forces, and it also shows how ultralow emittance beams can be produced using ionization injection methods.
    Physical Review Letters 01/2014; 112(3):035003. · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We show through experiments and supporting simulations that propagation of a highly relativistic and dense electron bunch through a plasma can lead to distributed injection of electrons, which depletes the accelerating field, i.e., beam loads the wake. The source of the injected electrons is ionization of the second electron of rubidium (Rb II) within the wake. This injection of excess charge is large enough to severely beam load the wake, and thereby reduce the transformer ratio T. The reduction of the average T with increasing beam loading is quantified for the first time by measuring the ratio of peak energy gain and loss of electrons while changing the beam emittance. Simulations show that beam loading by Rb II electrons contributes to the reduction of the peak accelerating field from its weakly loaded value of 43 GV/m to a strongly loaded value of 26 GV/m.
    Physical Review Letters 01/2014; 112(2):025001. · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The temperature- and bias-dependent photocurrent spectra of very long wavelength GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) are studied using spectroscopic measurements and corresponding theoretical calculations. It is found that the peak response wavelength will shift as the bias and temperature change. Aided by band structure calculations, we propose a model of the double excited states and explain the experimental observations very well. In addition, the working mechanisms of the quasi-bound state confined in the quantum well, including the processes of tunneling and thermionic emission, are also investigated in detail. We confirm that the first excited state, which belongs to the quasi-bound state, can be converted into a quasi-continuum state induced by bias and temperature. These obtained results provide a full understanding of the bound-to-quasi-bound state and the bound-to-quasi-continuum state transition, and thus allow for a better optimization of QWIPs performance.
    Journal of Applied Physics 01/2014; 115(12):124503-124503-7. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a solid-state-sensor-based miniaturized microwave radar technique, which allows a rapid microwave phase detection for continuous wave operation using a lock-in amplifier rather than using expensive and complicated instruments such as vector network analyzers. To demonstrate the capability of this sensor-based imaging technique, the miniaturized system has been used to detect embedded targets in sand by measuring the reflection for broadband microwaves. Using the reconstruction algorithm, the imaging of the embedded target with a diameter less than 5 cm buried in the sands with a depth of 5 cm or greater is clearly detected. Therefore, the sensor-based approach emerges as an innovative and cost-effective way for ground penetrating detection.
    The Review of scientific instruments 12/2013; 84(12):124702. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A multiple mask technique, integrating patterned silicon dioxide (SiO2) film over patterned thick photoresist (PR) film, has been investigated as a method to perform mesa etching for device delineation and electrical isolation of mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) third-generation infrared focal-plane arrays. The multiple mask technique was achieved by standard thick PR photolithography, SiO2 film deposition to cover the thick PR patterned film, and etching the SiO2 film at the bottom region after another photolithography process. The dynamic resistance in the zero-bias and low-reverse-bias regions of HgCdTe photodiode arrays isolated by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching with the multiple mask of patterned SiO2 and patterned thick PR film underneath was improved one- to twofold compared with a simple mask of patterned SiO2. It is suggested that the multiple mask technique is capable of maintaining high etching selectivity while reducing the side-wall processing-induced damage of ICP-etched HgCdTe trenches. The results show that the multiple mask technique is readily available and shows great promise for etching HgCdTe mesa arrays.
    Journal of Electronic Materials 11/2013; 42(11). · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three designs of micro-optic structures have been analyzed by two-dimensional simulation. Compared with traditional spherical microlenses, the micro-optic structures have the same ability to collect radiation and do not have the disadvantages of traditional microlenses. In our analysis the micro-optic structures are simple grooved notches above the space between two adjacent mesas. We also investigate the characteristics of InSb focal-plane arrays with both spherical microlenses and micro-optic structures under oblique incident radiation. Empirical formulas were derived to describe the response and crosstalk as a function of incident radiation angle. Our results show that the micro-optic structures can be effectively used in radiation collection for InSb infrared focal-plane arrays.
    Journal of Electronic Materials 11/2013; 42(11). · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Strategies for mitigating ionization-induced beam head erosion in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) are explored when the plasma and the wake are both formed by the transverse electric field of the beam itself. Beam head erosion can occur in a preformed plasma because of a lack of focusing force from the wake at the rising edge (head) of the beam due to the finite inertia of the electrons. When the plasma is produced by field ionization from the space charge field of the beam, the head erosion is significantly exacerbated due to the gradual recession (in the beam frame) of the 100% ionization contour. Beam particles in front of the ionization front cannot be focused (guided) causing them to expand as in vacuum. When they expand, the location of the ionization front recedes such that even more beam particles are completely unguided. Eventually this process terminates the wake formation prematurely, i.e., well before the beam is depleted of its energy. Ionization-induced head erosion can be mitigated by controlling the beam parameters (emittance, charge, and energy) and/or the plasma conditions. In this paper we explore how the latter can be optimized so as to extend the beam propagation distance and thereby increase the energy gain. In particular we show that, by using a combination of the alkali atoms of the lowest practical ionization potential (Cs) for plasma formation and a precursor laser pulse to generate a narrow plasma filament in front of the beam, the head erosion rate can be dramatically reduced. Simulation results show that in the upcoming “two-bunch PWFA experiments” on the FACET facility at SLAC national accelerator laboratory the energy gain of the trailing beam can be up to 10 times larger for the given parameters when employing these techniques. Comparison of the effect of beam head erosion in preformed and ionization produced plasmas is also presented.
    Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams 10/2013; 16(10). · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is the working summary of the Accelerator Science working group of the Computing Frontier of the Snowmass meeting 2013. It summarizes the computing requirements to support accelerator technology in both Energy and Intensity Frontiers.
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    ABSTRACT: A technique for rapidly detecting microwave phase has been developed which uses a spintronic device that can directly rectify microwave fields into a dc voltage signal. Use of a voltage-controlled phase shifter enables the development of a spintronic device that can simultaneously 'read' the magnitude and phase of incident continuous-wave (CW) microwaves when combined with a lock-in amplifier. As an example of many possible practical applications of this device, the resonance phase in a complementary electric inductive-capacitive (CELC) resonator has been characterized using a spintronic sensor based on a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). This sensor device is not limited for use only with spintronic devices such as MTJs, but can also be used with semiconductor devices such as microwave detectors, and hence offers a useful alternative to existing microwave imaging and characterization technologies.
    Applied Physics Letters 09/2013; 104(6). · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The production of ultrabright electron bunches using ionization injection triggered by two transversely colliding laser pulses inside a beam-driven plasma wake is examined via three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The relatively low intensity lasers are polarized along the wake axis and overlap with the wake for a very short time. The result is that the residual momentum of the ionized electrons in the transverse plane of the wake is reduced, and the injection is localized along the propagation axis of the wake. This minimizes both the initial thermal emittance and the emittance growth due to transverse phase mixing. Simulations show that ultrashort (∼8 fs) high-current (0.4 kA) electron bunches with a normalized emittance of 8.5 and 6 nm in the two planes, respectively, and a brightness of 1.7×10^{19} A rad^{-2} m^{-2} can be obtained for realistic parameters.
    Physical Review Letters 07/2013; 111(1):015003. · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of InAsxSb1−x ternary thin films (x = 0-0.4) has been studied in a far-infrared reflection experiment over the range of 50-4000 cm−1 at room temperature. The obtained spectra are fitted using a multi-oscillator model. Two types of lattice vibration modes, InSb-like and InAs-like, plus one plasmon mode have been identified in x > 0 samples. The lattice vibration in these ternary alloy films shows a typical two-mode behavior. Within the studied fraction range, the InSb transverse-optical (TO) phonon frequency decreases with x, while the InAs TO frequency increases. A random-element-isodisplacement model has been employed to describe the phonon frequency changes. The fitted plasmon parameters have been used to extract the carrier concentrations and mobility. The carrier concentration increases monotonously with the increase of As fraction and is attributed to the bandgap narrowing effect. The mobility decreases with x, indicating an increased scattering.
    Journal of Applied Physics 06/2013; 113(21). · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Controlled electron injection into a laser-driven wakefield at a well defined space and time is reported based on particle-in-cell simulations. Key novel ingredients are an underdense plasma target with an up-ramp density profile followed by a plateau and a fairly large laser focus diameter that leads to an essentially one-dimensional (1D) regime of laser wakefield, which is different from the bubble (complete blowout) regime occurring for tightly focused drive beams. The up-ramp profile causes 1D wave breaking to occur sharply at the up-ramp-plateau transition. As a result, it generates an ultrathin (few nanometer, corresponding to attosecond duration), strongly overdense relativistic electron sheet that is injected and accelerated in the wakefield. A peaked electron energy spectrum and high charge (∼nC) distinguish the final sheet.
    Physical Review Letters 03/2013; 110(13):135002. · 7.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

779 Citations
593.95 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2014
    • Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Shandong University
      • Department of Physics
      Jinan, Shandong Sheng, China
    • East China Normal University
      • Department of Electronic Engineering
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 1994–2014
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • Institute of Modern Physics
      • • National Laboratory for Infrared Physics
      • • Institute of Physics
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 1999–2012
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • • Institute of Modern Physics
      • • National Laboratory for Infrared Physics
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2011
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
      • Physics Division
      Livermore, California, United States
    • Tsinghua University
      • Department of Engineering Physics
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Xiangtan University
      Siangtan, Hunan, China
  • 2001–2010
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • Australian National University
      • Department of Electronic Materials Engineering (EME)
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 2009
    • Southern Research Institute
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
    • University of Queensland 
      • Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • Florida State University
      • Applied Superconductivity Center (ASC)
      Tallahassee, FL, United States
  • 2008
    • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
      • School of Biotechnology (BIO)
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2004–2008
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1989–2008
    • Shanghai Institute of Technology
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2005
    • Stanford University
      • Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1997
    • Chalmers University of Technology
      • Department of Applied Physics
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 1994–1995
    • Academia Sinica
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1992
    • Technische Universität Braunschweig
      Brunswyck, Lower Saxony, Germany