Weiyu Xu

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States

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Publications (53)44.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Massive MIMO systems have made significant progress in increasing spectral and energy efficiency over traditional MIMO systems by exploiting large antenna arrays. In this paper we consider the joint maximum likelihood (ML) channel estimation and data detection problem for massive SIMO (single input multiple output) wireless systems. Despite the large number of unknown channel coefficients for massive SIMO systems, we improve an algorithm to achieve the exact ML non-coherent data detection with a low expected complexity. We show that the expected computational complexity of this algorithm is linear in the number of receive antennas and polynomial in channel coherence time. Simulation results show the performance gain of the optimal non-coherent data detection with a low computational complexity.
    11/2014;
  • Weiyu Xu, Er-Wei Bai, Myung Cho
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we consider robust system identification of FIR systems when both sparse outliers and random noises are present. We reduce this problem of system identification to a sparse error correcting problem using a Toeplitz structured real-numbered coding matrix and prove the performance guarantee. Thresholds on the percentage of correctable errors for Toeplitz structured matrices are established. When both outliers and observation noise are present, we have shown that the estimation error goes to asymptotically as long as the probability density function for observation noise is not “vanishing” around origin. No probabilistic assumptions are imposed on the outliers.
    Automatica. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We formulate a nonlinear distributed control law that guides the motion a group of sensors to achieve a configuration that permits them to optimally localize a hazardous source they must keep a prescribed distance from. Earlier work shows that such a configuration involves the sensors being placed in an equispaced manner on a prescribed circle. The nonlinear control law we propose assumes that each sensor resides and moves on the prescribed circle, by accessing only the states of its two immediate clockwise and counterclockwise neighbors. We theoretically prove and verify through simulations, that the law allows the sensors to achieve the desired configuration while avoiding collisions.
    ICACCI, 2014 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, Delhi, India; 09/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We address the problem of super-resolution frequency recovery using prior knowledge of the structure of a spectrally sparse, undersampled signal. In many applications of interest, some structure information about the signal spectrum is often known. The prior information might be simply knowing precisely some signal frequencies or the likelihood of a particular frequency component in the signal. We devise a general semidefinite program to recover these frequencies using theories of positive trigonometric polynomials. Our theoretical analysis shows that, given sufficient prior information, perfect signal reconstruction is possible using signal samples no more than thrice the number of signal frequencies. Numerical experiments demonstrate great performance enhancements using our method. We show that the nominal resolution necessary for the grid-free results can be improved if prior information is suitably employed.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We address the problem of super-resolution line spectrum estimation of an undersampled signal with block prior information. The component frequencies of the signal are assumed to take arbitrary continuous values in known frequency blocks. We formulate a general semidefinite program to recover these continuous-valued frequencies using theories of positive trigonometric polynomials. The proposed semidefinite program achieves super-resolution frequency recovery by taking advantage of known structures of frequency blocks. Numerical experiments show great performance enhancements using our method.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we consider the variable selection problem for a nonlinear non-parametric system. Two approaches are proposed, one top-down approach and one bottom-up approach. The top-down algorithm selects a variable by detecting if the corresponding partial derivative is zero or not at the point of interest. The algorithm is shown to have not only the parameter but also the set convergence. This is critical because the variable selection problem is binary, a variable is either selected or not selected. The bottom-up approach is based on the forward/backward stepwise selection which is designed to work if the data length is limited. Both approaches determine the most important variables locally and allow the unknown non-parametric nonlinear system to have different local dimensions at different points of interest. Further, two potential applications along with numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed algorithms.
    Automatica 01/2014; 50(1):100–113. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research in off-the-grid compressed sensing (CS) has demonstrated that, under certain conditions, one can successfully recover a spectrally sparse signal from a few time-domain samples even though the dictionary is continuous. In particular, atomic norm minimization was proposed in \cite{tang2012csotg} to recover $1$-dimensional spectrally sparse signal. However, in spite of existing research efforts \cite{chi2013compressive}, it was still an open problem how to formulate an equivalent positive semidefinite program for atomic norm minimization in recovering signals with $d$-dimensional ($d\geq 2$) off-the-grid frequencies. In this paper, we settle this problem by proposing equivalent semidefinite programming formulations of atomic norm minimization to recover signals with $d$-dimensional ($d\geq 2$) off-the-grid frequencies.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research in off-the-grid compressed sensing (CS) has demonstrated that, under certain conditions, one can successfully recover a spectrally sparse signal from a few time-domain samples even though the dictionary is continuous. In this paper, we extend off-the-grid CS to applications where some prior information about spectrally sparse signal is known. We specifically consider cases where a few contributing frequencies or poles, but not their amplitudes or phases, are known a priori. Our results show that equipping off-the-grid CS with the known-poles algorithm can increase the probability of recovering all the frequency components.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we introduce an optimized Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique for solving the integer least-squares (ILS) problems, which include Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. Two factors contribute to the speed of finding the optimal solution by the MCMC detector: the probability of the optimal solution in the stationary distribution, and the mixing time of the MCMC detector. Firstly, we compute the optimal value of the "temperature" parameter, in the sense that the temperature has the desirable property that once the Markov chain has mixed to its stationary distribution, there is polynomially small probability ($1/\mbox{poly}(N)$, instead of exponentially small) of encountering the optimal solution. This temperature is shown to be at most $O(\sqrt{SNR}/\ln(N))$, where $SNR$ is the signal-to-noise ratio, and $N$ is the problem dimension. Secondly, we study the mixing time of the underlying Markov chain of the proposed MCMC detector. We find that, the mixing time of MCMC is closely related to whether there is a local minimum in the lattice structures of ILS problems. For some lattices without local minima, the mixing time of the Markov chain is independent of $SNR$, and grows polynomially in the problem dimension; for lattices with local minima, the mixing time grows unboundedly as $SNR$ grows, when the temperature is set, as in conventional wisdom, to be the standard deviation of noises. Our results suggest that, to ensure fast mixing for a fixed dimension $N$, the temperature for MCMC should instead be set as $\Omega(\sqrt{SNR})$ in general. Simulation results show that the optimized MCMC detector efficiently achieves approximately ML detection in MIMO systems having a huge number of transmit and receive dimensions.
    IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 10/2013; 62(17). · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    Weiyu Xu, Myung Cho
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    ABSTRACT: In compressed sensing problems, $\ell_1$ minimization or Basis Pursuit was known to have the best provable phase transition performance of recoverable sparsity among polynomial-time algorithms. It is of great theoretical and practical interest to find alternative polynomial-time algorithms which perform better than $\ell_1$ minimization. \cite{Icassp reweighted l_1}, \cite{Isit reweighted l_1}, \cite{XuScaingLaw} and \cite{iterativereweightedjournal} have shown that a two-stage re-weighted $\ell_1$ minimization algorithm can boost the phase transition performance for signals whose nonzero elements follow an amplitude probability density function (pdf) $f(\cdot)$ whose $t$-th derivative $f^{t}(0) \neq 0$ for some integer $t \geq 0$. However, for signals whose nonzero elements are strictly suspended from zero in distribution (for example, constant-modulus, only taking values `$+d$' or `$-d$' for some nonzero real number $d$), no polynomial-time signal recovery algorithms were known to provide better phase transition performance than plain $\ell_1$ minimization, especially for dense sensing matrices. In this paper, we show that a polynomial-time algorithm can universally elevate the phase-transition performance of compressed sensing, compared with $\ell_1$ minimization, even for signals with constant-modulus nonzero elements. Contrary to conventional wisdoms that compressed sensing matrices are desired to be isometric, we show that non-isometric matrices are not necessarily bad sensing matrices. In this paper, we also provide a framework for recovering sparse signals when sensing matrices are not isometric.
    07/2013;
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    Myung Cho, Weiyu Xu
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose new efficient algorithms to verify the null space condition in compressed sensing (CS). Given an $(n-m) \times n$ ($m>0$) CS matrix $A$ and a positive $k$, we are interested in computing $\displaystyle \alpha_k = \max_{\{z: Az=0,z\neq 0\}}\max_{\{K: |K|\leq k\}}$ ${\|z_K \|_{1}}{\|z\|_{1}}$, where $K$ represents subsets of $\{1,2,...,n\}$, and $|K|$ is the cardinality of $K$. In particular, we are interested in finding the maximum $k$ such that $\alpha_k < {1}{2}$. However, computing $\alpha_k$ is known to be extremely challenging. In this paper, we first propose a series of new polynomial-time algorithms to compute upper bounds on $\alpha_k$. Based on these new polynomial-time algorithms, we further design a new sandwiching algorithm, to compute the \emph{exact} $\alpha_k$ with greatly reduced complexity. When needed, this new sandwiching algorithm also achieves a smooth tradeoff between computational complexity and result accuracy. Empirical results show the performance improvements of our algorithm over existing known methods; and our algorithm outputs precise values of $\alpha_k$, with much lower complexity than exhaustive search.
    06/2013;
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    Jun Geng, Weiyu Xu, Lifeng Lai
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    ABSTRACT: The problem of sequentially finding an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) sequence that is drawn from a probability distribution $F_1$ by searching over multiple sequences, some of which are drawn from $F_1$ and the others of which are drawn from a different distribution $F_0$, is considered. The sensor is allowed to take one observation at a time. It has been shown in a recent work that if each observation comes from one sequence, Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) test is optimal. In this paper, we propose a new approach in which each observation can be a linear combination of samples from multiple sequences. The test has two stages. In the first stage, namely scanning stage, one takes a linear combination of a pair of sequences with the hope of scanning through sequences that are unlikely to be generated from $F_1$ and quickly identifying a pair of sequences such that at least one of them is highly likely to be generated by $F_1$. In the second stage, namely refinement stage, one examines the pair identified from the first stage more closely and picks one sequence to be the final sequence. The problem under this setup belongs to a class of multiple stopping time problems. In particular, it is an ordered two concatenated Markov stopping time problem. We obtain the optimal solution using the tools from the multiple stopping time theory. Numerical simulation results show that this search strategy can significantly reduce the searching time, especially when $F_{1}$ is rare.
    02/2013;
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    Jian-Feng Cai, Weiyu Xu
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we consider using total variation minimization to recover signals whose gradients have a sparse support, from a small number of measurements. We establish the proof for the performance guarantee of total variation (TV) minimization in recovering \emph{one-dimensional} signal with sparse gradient support. This partially answers the open problem of proving the fidelity of total variation minimization in such a setting \cite{TVMulti}. In particular, we have shown that the recoverable gradient sparsity can grow linearly with the signal dimension when TV minimization is used. Recoverable sparsity thresholds of TV minimization are explicitly computed for 1-dimensional signal by using the Grassmann angle framework. We also extend our results to TV minimization for multidimensional signals. Stability of recovering signal itself using 1-D TV minimization has also been established through a property called "almost Euclidean property for 1-dimensional TV norm". We further give a lower bound on the number of random Gaussian measurements for recovering 1-dimensional signal vectors with $N$ elements and $K$-sparse gradients. Interestingly, the number of needed measurements is lower bounded by $\Omega((NK)^{\frac{1}{2}})$, rather than the $O(K\log(N/K))$ bound frequently appearing in recovering $K$-sparse signal vectors.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Compressed sensing (CS) theory promises one can recover real-valued sparse signal from a small number of linear measurements. Motivated by network monitoring with link failures, we for the first time consider the problem of recovering signals that contain both real-valued entries and corruptions, where the real entries represent transmission delays on normal links and the corruptions represent failed links. Unlike conventional CS, here a measurement is real-valued only if it does not include a failed link, and it is corrupted otherwise. We prove that O((d + 1)max(d, k) log n) nonadaptive measurements are enough to recover all n-dimensional signals that contain k nonzero real entries and d corruptions. We provide explicit constructions of measurements and recovery algorithms. We also analyze the performance of signal recovery when the measurements contain errors.
    Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2013 IEEE International Conference on; 01/2013
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    Weiyu Xu, Er-Wei Bai, Myung Cho
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we consider robust system identification under sparse outliers and random noises. In our problem, system parameters are observed through a Toeplitz matrix. All observations are subject to random noises and a few are corrupted with outliers. We reduce this problem of system identification to a sparse error correcting problem using a Toeplitz structured real-numbered coding matrix. We prove the performance guarantee of Toeplitz structured matrix in sparse error correction. Thresholds on the percentage of correctable errors for Toeplitz structured matrices are also established. When both outliers and observation noise are present, we have shown that the estimation error goes to 0 asymptotically as long as the probability density function for observation noise is not "vanishing" around 0.
    Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1988. ICASSP-88., 1988 International Conference on 12/2012; · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    Weiyu Xu, Lifeng Lai
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we study the hypothesis testing problem of, among $n$ random variables, determining $k$ random variables which have different probability distributions from the rest $(n-k)$ random variables. Instead of using separate measurements of each individual random variable, we propose to use mixed measurements which are functions of multiple random variables. It is demonstrated that $O({\displaystyle \frac{k \log(n)}{\min_{P_i, P_j} C(P_i, P_j)}})$ observations are sufficient for correctly identifying the $k$ anomalous random variables with high probability, where $C(P_i, P_j)$ is the Chernoff information between two possible distributions $P_i$ and $P_j$ for the proposed mixed observations. We characterized the Chernoff information respectively under fixed time-invariant mixed observations, random time-varying mixed observations, and deterministic time-varying mixed observations; in our derivations, we introduced the \emph{inner and outer conditional Chernoff information} for time-varying measurements. It is demonstrated that mixed observations can strictly improve the error exponent of hypothesis testing, over separate observations of individual random variables. We also characterized the optimal mixed observations maximizing the error exponent, and derived an explicit construction of the optimal mixed observations for the case of Gaussian random variables. These results imply that mixed observations of random variables can reduce the number of required samples in hypothesis testing applications. Compared with compressed sensing problems, this paper considers random variables which are allowed to dramatically change values in different measurements.
    08/2012;
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    Weiyu Xu, Erwei Bai, Myung Cho
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we consider robust system identification under sparse outliers and random noises. In this problem, system parameters are observed through a Toeplitz matrix. All observations are subject to random noises and a few are corrupted with outliers. We reduce this problem of system identification to a sparse error correcting problem using a Toeplitz structured real-numbered coding matrix. We prove the performance guarantee of Toeplitz structured matrix in sparse error correction. Thresholds on the percentage of correctable errors for Toeplitz structured matrices are established. When both outliers and observation noise are present, we have shown that the estimation error goes to 0 asymptotically as long as the probability density function for observation noise is not "vanishing" around 0. No probabilistic assumptions are imposed on the outliers.
    07/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a low-complexity algorithm for blind equalization of data in OFDM-based wireless systems with general constellations. The proposed algorithm is able to recover data even when the channel changes on a symbol-by-symbol basis, making it suitable for fast fading channels. The proposed algorithm does not require any statistical information of the channel and thus does not suffer from latency normally associated with blind methods. We also demonstrate how to reduce the complexity of the algorithm, which becomes especially low at high SNR. Specifically, we show that in the high SNR regime, the number of operations is of the order O(LN), where L is the cyclic prefix length and N is the total number of subcarriers. Simulation results confirm the favorable performance of our algorithm.
    IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 07/2012; 60(12). · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we study the mixing time of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for integer least-square (LS) optimization problems. It is found that the mixing time of MCMC for integer LS problems depends on the structure of the underlying lattice. More specifically, the mixing time of MCMC is closely related to whether there is a local minimum in the lattice structure. For some lattices, the mixing time of the Markov chain is independent of the signal-to-noise ($SNR$) ratio and grows polynomially in the problem dimension; while for some lattices, the mixing time grows unboundedly as $SNR$ grows. Both theoretical and empirical results suggest that to ensure fast mixing, the temperature for MCMC should often grow positively as the $SNR$ increases. We also derive the probability that there exist local minima in an integer least-square problem, which can be as high as $1/3-\frac{1}{\sqrt{5}}+\frac{2\arctan(\sqrt{5/3})}{\sqrt{5}\pi}$.
    03/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Determining the susceptibility distribution from the magnetic field measured in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner is an ill-posed inverse problem, because of the presence of zeroes in the convolution kernel in the forward problem. An algorithm called morphology enabled dipole inversion (MEDI), which incorporates spatial prior information, has been proposed to generate a quantitative susceptibility map (QSM). The accuracy of QSM can be validated experimentally. However, there is not yet a rigorous mathematical demonstration of accuracy for a general regularized approach or for MEDI specifically. The error in the susceptibility map reconstructed by MEDI is expressed in terms of the acquisition noise and the error in the spatial prior information. A detailed analysis demonstrates that the error in the susceptibility map reconstructed by MEDI is bounded by a linear function of these two error sources. Numerical analysis confirms that the error of the susceptibility map reconstructed by MEDI is on the same order of the noise in the original MRI data, and comprehensive edge detection will lead to reduced model error in MEDI. Additional phantom validation and human brain imaging demonstrated the practicality of the MEDI method.
    IEEE transactions on medical imaging. 03/2012; 31(3):816-24.

Publication Stats

539 Citations
44.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 2010
    • Technical University of Denmark
      • Department of Informatics and Mathematical Modelling
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2008
    • Purdue University
      West Lafayette, Indiana, United States