[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that cognitive deficits and white matter (WM) dysconnectivity can independently be associated with clinical manifestations in schizophrenia. It is important to explore this triadic relationship in order to investigate whether the triplet could serve as potential extended endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Method Diffusion tensor images and clinical performances were evaluated in 122 individuals with first-episode schizophrenia and 122 age- and gender-matched controls. In addition, 65 of 122 of the patient group and 40 of 122 controls were measured using intelligence quotient (IQ) testing. RESULTS: The schizophrenia group showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values than controls in the right cerebral frontal lobar sub-gyral (RFSG) WM. The schizophrenia group also showed a significant positive correlation between FA in the RFSG and performance IQ (PIQ); in turn, their PIQ score showed a significant negative correlation with negative syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these findings support the hypothesis that WM deficits may be a core deficit that contributes to cognitive deficits as well as to negative symptoms.
Psychological Medicine 12/2012; · 5.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large body of evidence indicates that violent offenders have executive functioning deficits. However, previous studies have not considered childhood trauma, which is likely to influence the executive functioning of violent offenders. The aim of the present study was to compare the difference of executive functioning among juvenile violent offenders, with non-violent offenders and normal controls, and then to analyse whether executive functioning was affected independently of childhood trauma. In addition to using a battery of tests assessing executive functioning including the Intra/Extradimensional Shift test (IED), the Stockings of Cambridge test (SOC) and Spatial Working Memory (SWM) from the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Testing Battery (CANTAB), the short form of the Chinese Revision of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-28 item Short Form (CTQ) were also used among 107 violent offenders, 107 non-violent offenders and 107 normal controls. Our results showed that both offender groups obtained significantly lower estimated Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores and experienced more childhood trauma than did normal controls. Violent offenders showed impaired executive functioning on tasks of attention set-shifting, working memory and planning. Finally, spatial working memory (SWM) deficits, particularly SWM strategy scores, may be associated with childhood trauma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Given the important role of the default mode network (DMN) in cognitive function and the well-known neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia, it is intriguing to examine systematically the relationship between neurocognitive dysfunction and aberrant intrinsic activities, and also functional connectivity, of the DMN in patients with schizophrenia. Method First-episode, treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia (FES) (n=115) and healthy controls (n=113) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans and neurocognitive tests. Intrinsic neural activities evaluated by using the fragment amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and the resting-state functional connectivity assessed by seed-based correlational analysis were compared between patients and controls. Aberrant intrinsic activities and DMN connectivity in patients were then correlated to neurocognitive performance and clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients with FES showed decreased fALFF in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and increased fALFF in the bilateral putamen. Increased functional connectivity with the DMN was observed in the left insula and bilateral dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) in patients with FES. In patients, aberrant fALFF in the bilateral OFC were correlated with cognitive processing speed; fALFF in the left OFC and right putamen were correlated with the clinical factors excited/activation and disorganization; and increased DMN functional connectivity in the left insula was correlated with the clinical factors positive, excited/activation, disorganization and neurocognitive deficit in the domain of sustained attention. CONCLUSIONS: These associations between neurocognitive dysfunction and aberrant intrinsic activities, and also functional connectivity, of the DMN in patients with schizophrenia may provide important insights into the neural mechanism of the disease.
Psychological Medicine 08/2012; · 5.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that minor physical anomalies (MPAs) may be associated with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether any items of MPAs are more associated with schizophrenia than the others. We aimed to examine which specific MPAs are more associated with schizophrenia than others. A total of 154 patients with schizophrenia and 152 healthy controls were assessed using candidate MPAs items along with items from the Waldrop scale. Significant differences were found between the patients and controls in inner canthal distance, epicanthus, adherent ear lobe, cuspidal ear and length difference from section index to ring finger (2D:4D length difference) as well as gap between the first and the second toes. These six items were selected by the logistic regression model, which correctly classified 89.0% of patients with schizophrenia (sensitivity) and 96.7% of healthy controls (specificity). The overall classification success rate was 92.8%. MPAs are associated with neurodevelopment, especially 2D:4D associated with cerebral lateralisation. Hence, our present findings support that it is necessary to evaluate MPAs beyond the Waldrop scale, as some item, such as 2D:4D length difference may reflect the more detailed aberrant neurodevelopment of schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the association between nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia.
Twenty eight tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NOS1 in 382 schizophrenic patients and 448 healthy individuals sampled from Chinese Han population were analyzed by a Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping Assay.
One SNP (rs1520811) was found to be associated with schizophrenia, which however becomes negative after Bonferroni correction (P>0.05). Further analysis has failed to identify any association between particular haplotypes and the disease.
Our results did not support a significant association between NOS1 gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia.
Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 08/2012; 29(4):459-63.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the high prevalence of depression and its considerable impact on the population, knowledge about the pathogenesis of the illness and the antidepressant treatment response is still unknown.
A total of 397 patients with major depression disorder (MDD) and 473 normal controls were employed in the present research. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and receptor accessory protein (REEP5) genes were selected for genotyping using the GoldenGate genotyping assay. A total of 165 MDD patients completed a 6-week antidepressant treatment. Responders were defined as patients with at least a 50% reduction in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total scores posttreatment.
Two SNPs (rs2464805 and rs563556) within the APC gene exhibited a statistically significant association with MDD when analyzed by genotype and allele frequencies. Three SNPs (rs495794, rs153549 and rs153560) in the REEP5 gene showed significant statistical differences between the responders and nonresponders.
The APC gene may be one of the susceptibility genes for MDD as well as a genetic link between psychiatric disease and cancer. REEP5 gene polymorphisms may influence antidepressant treatment response in MDD.
General hospital psychiatry 07/2012; 34(5):571-7. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the association between gene polymorphisms and memory function through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia and control group. Memory cognition was used as a quantitative trait (QT).
Ninty-eight subjects with chronic schizophrenia and 60 matched controls were genotyped with HumanHap660 Bead Array. The results were correlated with quantitative traits including memory and memory delay.
Five candidate genes, including RASGRF2 (rs401758, P = 8.03×10(-5)), PLCG2 (rs7185362, P= 4.54×10(-5)), LMO1 (rs484161, P=9.80×10(-7), CSMD1 (rs2469383, P= 2.77×10(-6)) and PRKG1 (rs7898516, P=6.94×10(-5)) were associated with memory cognition deficits.
Using memory cognition as a quantitative trait, this Genome- wide association study has identified 5 susceptibility loci. With their association with nervous system development, neuronal growth, axon guidance and plasticity, brain development, above loci may play a role in the development of memory dysfunction in schizophrenia.
Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 06/2012; 29(3):255-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks effected by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25-29years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in paternal age range of 30-34 and ≥35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30-34 and ≥35. For offspring with paternal age of <25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas, an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30-34 and ≥35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, in female were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30-34 and ≥35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify susceptibility loci for schizophrenia, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population (GWAS: 746 individuals with schizophrenia and 1,599 healthy controls; validation: 4,027 individuals with schizophrenia and 5,603 healthy controls). We identified two susceptibility loci for schizophrenia at 6p21-p22.1 (rs1233710 in an intron of ZKSCAN4, P(combined) = 4.76 × 10(-11), odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; rs1635 in an exon of NKAPL, P(combined) = 6.91 × 10(-12), OR = 0.78; rs2142731 in an intron of PGBD1, P(combined) = 5.14 × 10(-10), OR = 0.79) and 11p11.2 (rs11038167 near the 5' UTR of TSPAN18, P(combined) = 1.09 × 10(-11), OR = 1.29; rs11038172, P(combined) = 7.21 × 10(-10), OR = 1.25; rs835784, P(combined) = 2.73 × 10(-11), OR = 1.27). These results add to previous evidence of susceptibility loci for schizophrenia at 6p21-p22.1 in the Han Chinese population. We found that NKAPL and ZKSCAN4 were expressed in postnatal day 0 (P0) mouse brain. These findings may lead to new insights into the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural abnormality of both gray and white matter has been detected in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). But results were greatly inconsistent across studies which were most likely attributed to heterogeneous populations as well as processing techniques. The present study aimed to investigate brain structural and microstructural alterations in a relative homogenous sample of bipolar mania.
3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were conducted in 18 patients with BD and 27 healthy volunteers. Gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) differences were evaluated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps derived from DTI, respectively.
Patients with BD had a larger volume of GM in the left thalamus and bilateral basal ganglia, including the bilateral putamen and extending to the left claustrum, as well as reduced FA values in the left posterior corona radiata.
By combined analysis, alterations in subcortical GM areas and part of the corresponding association fiber area were detected. Compared with observations in homogeneous samples, our findings indicate that disruption of the limbic network may be intrinsic to BD.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 11/2011; 36(2):231-8. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: White matter abnormalities have been repeatedly reported in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, but the empirical evidence about the diagnostic specificity of white matter abnormalities in these disorders is still limited. This study sought to investigate the alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter throughout the entire brain of patients from Chengdu, China with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania. For this purpose, DTI was used to assess white matter integrity in patients with paranoid schizophrenia (n=25) and psychotic bipolar mania (n=18) who had been treated with standard pharmacotherapy for fewer than 5 days at the time of study, as well as in normal controls (n=30). The differences in FA were measured by use of voxel-based analysis. The results show that reduced FA was found in the left posterior corona radiata (PCR) in patients with psychotic bipolar mania and paranoid schizophrenia compared to the controls. Patients with psychotic bipolar mania also showed a significant reduction in FA in right posterior corona radiata and in right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR). A direct comparison between the two patient groups found no significant differences in any regions, and none of the findings were associated with illness duration. Correlation analysis indicated that FA values showed a significant negative correlation with positive symptom scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the left frontal-parietal lobe in the paranoid schizophrenia. It was concluded that common abnormalities in the left PCR might imply an overlap in white matter pathology in the two disorders and might be related to shared risk factors for the two disorders.
Psychiatry Research 11/2011; 194(3):347-53. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain structure appears to alter after antipsychotic administration, but it is unknown whether these alterations are associated with improvement of psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. In this study, the authors explore this relationship.
Altogether, 66 first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and 23 well-matched healthy controls underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline. All 23 healthy controls and 42 of the patients were rescanned after 6 weeks follow-up. The patients received regular antipsychotic treatment during the 6-week period and their psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and 6 weeks. The difference in PANSS scores between baseline and 6 weeks was expressed as a ratio of the scores at baseline - 'PANSS reduction ratio'. A modified tensor-based morphometry procedure was applied to analyse longitudinal images. Correlations between regional volume changes, PANSS reduction ratio and antipsychotic drug dosages were explored.
Compared with healthy controls, there was a significant increase in grey-matter volume of the right putamen in patients after 6 weeks treatment. This volume change was positively correlated with a positive PANSS reduction score but not related to drug dosages.
Putaminal volume increased after 6 weeks antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia. The increased volume was closely correlated with improved psychopathology, suggesting the putamen might be a biomarker to predict the treatment response in schizophrenia.
Psychological Medicine 10/2011; 42(7):1475-83. · 5.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the changes of the metabolites in the white matter of frontal lobes and hippocampus in schizophrenia by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS).
Sixty-three first-episode treatment-naïve schizophrenia (FES) patients and 63 age-, gender- and education level-matched healthy controls were recruited. The relative levels of metabolites including N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds (Cho), (Cr) and myo-inositol (MI) were detected with (1) H-MRS, and the laterality index (Li) was calculated. The severity of symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.
Compared with controls, FES patients did not show significant differences in all metabolites. The severity of positive symptoms was negatively correlated with the NAA/Cho in the white matter of the left frontal lobe and positively correlated with the Cho/Cr in the right white matter of frontal lobes. A negative correlation was observed between the severity of negative symptoms and the NAA/Cr in the white matter of bilateral frontal lobes. No difference was shown in the Li of metabolites between FES patients and controls.
The metabolites such as NAA, Cho and MI in white matter of frontal lobes and hippocampus were not significantly altered in FES patients. The lower axonal integrity/number (NAA concentration) may be associated with more severe negative symptoms, and dysmetabolism in process of myelination in the white matter of frontal lobes associated with more severe positive symptoms.
Early Intervention in Psychiatry 09/2011; 6(2):166-75. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA mismatch repair, known as a fundamentally biological pathway, plays key roles in maintaining genomic stability, eliminating mismatch bases and preventing both mutagenesis in the short term and cancerogenesis in the long term. Polymorphisms of MLH1 in individuals may have an effect on the DNA repair capacity and therefore on cancer risk. Recently, emerging studies have been done to evaluate the association between MLH1 -93 G/A polymorphism and cancer risk in diverse populations. However, the results remain conflicting rather than conclusive. In this meta-analysis, we assessed reported studies of association between the MLH1 -93 G/A polymorphism and cancer risk including 13 691 cancer cases and 14 068 controls from 17 published studies. A borderline significant association between the MLH1 -93 G/A polymorphism and cancer risk was observed in overall analysis [heterozygote: odds ratio (OR) = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.26; homozygote: OR = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40; dominant model: OR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.01-1.26; recessive model: OR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.07-1.35, respectively]. In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were found in Asian population and mixed population but not in Caucasian population. After stratified analysis according to the quality of literature, increased cancer risks were observed in the studies of lower quality but not in the studies of higher quality. Similarly, elevated cancer risks were observed in hospital-based studies but not in population-based studies. These findings showed no persuasive evidence that MLH1 -93 G/A polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of cancer. On the conservative standpoint, well-designed population-based studies with larger sample size in different ethnic groups should be performed to further confirm these results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have included Chinese populations, and verification of positive genetic findings from other ethnic groups is rare in Chinese groups. We used fluid intelligence as the quantitative trait reflecting schizophrenia dysfunction in Chinese populations, and determined the impact of genetic variation on fluid intelligence phenotypic patterns to identify genetic influences in schizophrenia. The study sample comprised 98 patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy controls. The general fluid intelligence of participants was assessed with Cattell's Culture-Free Intelligence Test (CCFIT). Subjects were genotyped using the Illumina HumanHap 660 beadchip. We identified the methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) gene on chromosome 8 as having an association with fluid intelligence. However, only CCFIT subtest 1 (series score) demonstrated a significant result for the interaction term using the criteria of the quantitative trait (QT) analysis of 10(-5) for at least three SNPs. There were 15 haplotype blocks of MSRA gene SNPs identified using Haploview 4.2 with solid spine D' > 0.80. The strongest QT interaction was noted in Block 3, with the most common haplotypes being AAACAGCAG and CGCAGAAGA. In conclusion, we report data from a GWAS with quantitative traits design from Chinese first-episode schizophrenia patients and matched controls. Although the gene identified requires confirmation in an independent sample, the MSRA gene located on chromosome 8 was found to be associated with the phenotype of schizophrenia.
Genes Brain and Behavior 06/2011; 10(7):734-9. · 3.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three coding region cDNAs of duplicated PISTILLATA-like (PI-like) MADS-box genes, BnPI-1, BnPI-2 and BnPI-3, were isolated from B. napus by RT-PCR. The sequence analysis showed that the three PI cDNAs possessed 627, 627 and 625 nucleotides, respectively, and their nucleotide sequences had 96.49-98.72% similarity. Due to a deletion of two nucleotides, the protein sequence in the downstream of the frameshift site was altered in BnPI-3. Therefore, there were only 171 amino acids coded by BnPI-3, while there were 208 ones coded by BnPI-1 or BnPI-2. The deduced amino acid identity between BnPI-1 and BnPI-2 was 97.6% and the amino acid sequence of BnPI-1 and BnPI-2 shared 72.6% identity with BnPI-3. The deduced amino acid sequences of the coded proteins indicated high homology with the members of the PI family of MADS-box proteins. RT-PCR analysis showed that BnPI transcription was only detectable in petals and stamens. The yeast two-hybrid assays results showed that the three BnPI proteins exhibited different dimerization affinities with three BnAP3. BnPI-1 and BnPI-2 could form strong heterodimers with BnAP3. The dimerization affinity of BnPI-1 with BnAP3-4 is the strongest in all the combinations, while the affinity of BnPI-3 with BnAP3-4 is the weakest. The dimerization affinity to BnAP3-4 of BnPI-1 is 3.5 times of that of BnPI-3. The distinguished weak interaction to AP3 of BnPI-3 is probably due to the loss of the PI motif. The divergences of sequence and affinity of protein interaction might reflect some functional divergence of the three PI genes in B. napus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Association between genes influencing alcohol metabolism and alcohol use disorders (AUD) has been extensively studied, but the effect of interactions between these genes and AUD have rarely been tested. Our previous case-control study in a Tibetan population noted that the positive association between c2 allele of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) gene and AUD might only exist in males who are homozygotes for 1 alleles of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) genes, but this interaction did not reach statistical significance. Using the same set of data, the present study was aimed at exploring interactions between these genes and quantitative alcohol-related-trait scores (QARTs), and whether these are influenced by gender. The sample included 383 AUD cases with the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) score ≥10 and 350 normal controls with the AUDIT score ≤5. QARTs were measured using three factors from AUDIT. Possible associations of QARTs with interactions among genotypes of ALDH2 1/ 2, ADH1B1/2 and CYP2E1 c1/c2 and sex were analyzed in AUD cases and normal controls separately. The subjects with 2 alleles of ALDH2 or/and ADH1B had significantly lower scores of alcohol intake among controls but had significantly higher scores of alcohol related problems among cases. The score of alcohol intake in male cases who are homozygous for ALDH2 1 and ADH1B 1 and with CYP2E1 c2 allele was significantly higher than that of other cases. These findings suggest that interactions between genes influencing alcohol metabolism are influenced by gender and might affect QARTs differently between the milder-/non-drinkers and AUD cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to develop normative data of a battery of neuropsychological tests in the mainland Chinese population, we examined the performance of 15 neuropsychological tests in 465 healthy subjects (231 males and 234 females) in a population-based cohort study. The years of education were ranged between 1 and 23 years, and ages were ranged between 16 and 75 years old. The 15 neuropsychological tests cover five domains of neurocognitive functions including attention and speed of information processing, memory and learning, verbal function, visual constructive abilities, and executive function. We also assessed the effects of gender, age, educational attainment on the performance of these neuropsychological tests. The results showed that, as expected, educational attainment and age are the two main factors affecting performance in these tests. Educational attainment has the strongest predictive effect on all tests, while the majority of tests selected in this study are also affected by age at examination to varying degrees. The presented normative data will be useful for future studies in related clinical research, and be of value in transcultural neuropsychological studies.
Journal of Neuropsychology 03/2011; 5(Pt 1):126-42. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of previous studies have found that bipolar disorder is associated with abnormalities of brain structure. In this study we used optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to compare gray matter volume between patients with bipolar I disorder and healthy controls. Twenty-four bipolar I patients (15 males and nine females) and 36 healthy controls (21 males and 15 females), who were well matched for age and gender, were scanned using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Gray matter volume was assessed and compared using optimized VBM, and the correlation between duration of illness/number of episodes and regional volumes was analyzed. There was no difference in whole-brain gray matter volume between the two groups. Optimized vVBM showed that subjects with bipolar I disorder had smaller volumes in the left inferior parietal lobule, right superior temporal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and left caudate. Only the volume of the right middle frontal gyrus was correlated with duration of illness and number of episodes in patients. These results suggest widespread gray matter defects in bipolar I disorder, which may play an important role in onset of the illness.
Psychiatry Research 02/2011; 191(2):92-7. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess volumetric abnormalities of gray matter throughout the entire brain in patients with paranoid schizophrenia or with bipolar mania compared with control groups. We obtained weighted 3D T1 magnetic resonance images from 23 patients with paranoid schizophrenia, 24 patients with psychotic bipolar mania, and 36 healthy controls. Gray matter volume differences were assessed using optimized volumetric voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Both paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania group showed reduction of gray matter volume in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) (Brodmann Area, BA 22 areas), and the inferior parietal lobule, and enlargement of putamen, although different sides of the inferior parietal lobule and putamen were affected in the groups. Our findings showed the presence of overlapping clusters of gray matter deficits in paranoid-type schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar mania. The overlap in gray matter pathology between the two disorders may be attributed to risk factors common to both disorders.