[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of peers on three domains of alcohol expectancies through early adolescence were prospectively examined over 2 years. Information on pubertal development, parental drinking, peer characteristics, network structure, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol consumption was assessed in a three-wave longitudinal study of 779 6th graders (~12years of age) randomly selected from northern Taiwan. Complex survey regression analyses, stratified by drinking experience in 6th grade, were performed to identify predictors of two positive (i.e., enhanced social behaviors and relaxation/tension reduction) and one negative alcohol expectancies (i.e., cognitive/behavioral deterioration) in 7th grade. The results showed that the effects of peer influence on adolescents' alcohol expectancies varied by prior drinking experiences and by expectancy domains. For the alcohol naive, recent exposure to peer drinking was significantly associated with positive and negative alcohol expectancies in grade 7, and this association was moderated by advanced pubertal development (ESBlate puberty: ßwt=0.55; ESBearly puberty: ßwt=-0.40; PRTRlate puberty: ßwt=0.01; PRTRearly puberty: ßwt=1.22; CBD late puberty: ßwt=-0.84; CBDearly puberty: ßwt=0.56). For the alcohol experienced, neither peer drinking nor pubertal development showed any significant links with alcohol expectancies. Occupying a bridge position was slightly linked with negative expectancy (ßwt=0.25). Concurrent drinking serves as a strong predictor for the endorsed alcohol expectancy in both groups, particularly for the domain of enhanced social behaviors. If these effects are confirmed, knowledge of the effect of interplay between peer factors and pubertal development on alcohol expectancies in early adolescence can provide effective targets in prevention programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects and mediators of a clinic-based intervention program (CBIP) and a home-based intervention program (HBIP) compared with usual care in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants on developmental and behavioral outcomes at 24 months of age (corrected for prematurity). In this randomized controlled trial, VLBW preterm infants received either CBIP (n=57), HBIP (n=63), or usual care (n=58) from hospitalization to 12 months. At 12 months, infant emotional regulation was assessed using the toy-behind-barrier procedure and dyadic interaction was observed during free play. At 24 months, infant developmental and behavioral outcomes were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development- 3rd edition and the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5, respectively. Compared with infants under usual care, the CBIP-group infants showed higher cognitive composite scores (difference, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.4, 0.8-7.9) and a lower rate of motor delay (odds ratio (OR), 95% CI=0.29, 0.08-0.99); the HBIP-group infants had lower sleep problem scores (difference, 95% CI=-1.4, -2.5 to -0.3) and a lower rate of internalizing problems at 24 months (OR, 95% CI=0.51, 0.28-0.93) (all p<.05). The CBIP's effect on cognitive outcome was attenuated when maternal or dyadic interactive behavior was considered; whereas the HBIP's effect on sleep and internalizing behavior was attenuated when duration of orientation to a toy or object was considered. In conclusions, interventions enhanced the cognitive, motor, and behavioral outcomes of VLBW preterm infants. The effects on cognitive and behavioral outcomes might be mediated by early-improved mother-infant interaction and infant emotional regulation, respectively.
Research in Developmental Disabilities 06/2014; 35(10):2384-2393. · 3.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests a role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating various processes of mammalian postnatal development and aging. To investigate the changes in blood-based miRNA expression from preterm infants to adulthood, we compared 365 miRNA expression profiles in a screening set of preterm infants and adults. Approximately one-third of the miRNAs were constantly expressed from postnatal development to adulthood, another one-third were differentially expressed between preterm infants and adults, and the remaining one-third were not detectable in these two groups. Based on their expression in infants and adults, the miRNAs were categorized into five classes, and six of the seven miRNAs chosen from each class except one with age-constant expression were confirmed in a validation set containing infants, children, and adults. Comparing the chromosomal locations of the different miRNA classes revealed two hot spots: the miRNA cluster on 14q32.31 exhibited age-constant expression, and the one on 9q22.21 exhibited up-regulation in adults. Furthermore, six miRNAs detectable in adults were down-regulated in older adults, and four chosen for individual quantification were verified in the validation set. Analysis of the network functions revealed that differentially regulated miRNAs between infants and adults and miRNAs that decreased during aging shared two network functions: inflammatory disease and inflammatory response. Four expression patterns existed in the 11 miRNAs from infancy to adulthood, with a significant transition in ages 9–20 years. Our results provide an overview on the regulation pattern of blood miRNAs throughout life and the possible biological functions performed by different classes of miRNAs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the relations of adolescent sexual experiences (particularly early initiation) to a spectrum of emotional/behavioral problems and to probe possible gender difference in such relationships. The 10th (N = 8,842) and 12th (N = 10,083) grade students, aged 16-19 years, participating in national surveys in 2005 and 2006 in Taiwan were included for this study. A self-administered web-based questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual experience, substance use, and the Youth Self-Report Form. For the sexually experienced adolescents, their sexual initiation was classified as early initiation (<16 years) or non-early initiation (16-19 years). Gender-specific multivariate response profile regression was used to examine the relationship between sexual experience and the behavioral syndromes. Externalizing problems, including Rule-breaking Behavior and Aggressive Behavior, were strongly associated with sexual initiation in adolescence; the magnitude of the association increased for earlier sexual initiation, especially for females. As to internalizing problems, the connection was rather heterogeneous. The scores on some syndromes, such as Somatic Complaints and Anxious/Depressed, were higher only for females with early or non-early sexual initiation whereas the score on Withdrawn, along with Social Problems that is neither internalizing nor externalizing, was lower for the sexually experienced adolescents than for the sexually inexperienced ones. We concluded that earlier sexual initiation was associated with a wider range of behavioral problems in adolescents for both genders, yet the increased risk with emotional problems was predominately found in females.
Archives of Sexual Behavior 03/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The popularity of ketamine for recreational use among young people began to increase, particularly in Asia, in 2000. To gain more knowledge about the use of ketamine among high risk individuals, a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was implemented among regular alcohol and tobacco users in the Taipei metropolitan area from 2007 to 2010. The sampling was initiated in three different settings (i.e., two in the community and one in a clinic) to recruit seed individuals. Each participant was asked to refer one to five friends known to be regular tobacco smokers and alcohol drinkers to participate in the present study. Incentives were offered differentially upon the completion of an interview and successful referral. Information pertaining to drug use experience was collected by an audio computer-assisted self-interview instrument. Software built for RDS analyses was used for data analyses. Of the 1,115 subjects recruited, about 11.7% of the RDS respondents reported ever having used ketamine. Positive expectancy of ketamine use was positively associated with ketamine use; in contrast, negative expectancy inversely associated with ketamine use. Decision-making characteristics as measured on the Iowa Gambling Task using reinforcement learning models revealed that ketamine users learned less from the most recent event than both tobacco- and drug-naïve controls and regular tobacco and alcohol users. These findings about ketamine use among young people have implications for its prevention and intervention.
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 12/2013; 21(4):S102-S105. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: To examine the association between alcohol in school environments and adolescent alcohol use over the previous 6 months. DESIGNS: A multilevel logistic regression analysis of cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2004, 2005, and 2006 was performed. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: A total of 52,214 students aged 11 to 19 years from 387 middle or high schools were selected from a nationally representative, multistage, stratified probability sampling across Taiwan. MEASUREMENTS: Information on sociodemographic features and substance use experiences was collected using self-administered questionnaires. The alcohol in the environment was measured using the availability of convenience stores surrounding the schools. Using geographical information systems, the weighted numbers of convenience stores within 1 km, a 12-15 min walk, of a school were calculated. The schools were later categorized into three subgroups via the tertile of nearby convenience stores. FINDINGS: Considering the compositional characteristics, the availability of convenience stores was found to account for 1.5% of the school-level variance of youthful drinking. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of alcohol use over the previous 6 months among youth attending schools with medium and high availability were 1.04 (0.96-1.13) and 1.08 (1.00-1.17), respectively, with a p-value of 0.04 in the trend test. CONCLUSION: The greater availability of convenience stores near a school is associated with an increased risk of alcohol use among adolescents over the previous 6 months.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Because environmental insults and genetic factors account for the variance in the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight < 1,500 g) preterm infants, the search for BPD biomarkers has begun to focus on the regulators of non-coding RNA such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, this study aimed to identify potential miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of BPD in VLBW preterm infants.Methods:A case-control study (15 BPD cases and 15 sex-matched controls) was conducted to investigate the expression profiles of 365 miRNAs in the peripheral blood of VLBW preterm infants at 36 weeks post-menstrual age (called the older-aged set). The expression levels of identified miRNAs were further evaluated in a subsample of blood collected during the first two weeks postnatal age (called the younger-aged set). Possible biological functions and pathways implicated in the target genes regulated by the miRNAs were explored using database predictions.Results:A four-miRNA signature (miR-152, miR-30a-3p, miR-133b and miR-7) with aberrant expression levels at 36 weeks derived from a supervised classification with internal cross-validation discriminated the BPD cases from the controls with an accuracy of 0.91. The discriminative accuracy of the four miRNAs was supported by random permutations of either the disease status or the number of miRNAs selected (both p < 0.0001). A down-regulation change of miR-152 and miR-30a-3p expression levels and an up-regulation change of miR-133b and miR-7 expression levels were found in the older-aged set compared to the younger-aged set.Conclusions:This is the first study to identify blood-based miRNAs associated with BPD. The findings provide information regarding the roles of these biomarkers in the development of BPD in VLBW preterm infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of Doppler cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) asymmetry measures with developmental outcomes in term infants. Doppler CBFV parameters (peak systolic velocity [PSV] and mean velocity [MV]) of the bilateral middle cerebral arteries of 52 healthy term infants were prospectively examined on postnatal days 1-5, and then their motor, cognitive and language development was evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The left CBFV asymmetry measure (PSV or MV) was calculated by subtracting the right-side value from the left-side value. Left CBFV asymmetry measures were significantly positively related to motor scores at 6 (r = 0.3-0.32, p < 0.05) and 12 (r = 0.35, p < 0.05) months of age, but were not related to cognitive or language outcome. Thus, the leftward hemodynamic status of the middle cerebral arteries, as measured by cranial Doppler ultrasound in the neonatal period, predicts early motor outcome in term infants.
Ultrasound in medicine & biology 02/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CYP2D6 (cytochrome P450 2D6) is one of the most important enzymes involved in drug metabolism, and CYP2D6 gene variants may cause toxic effects of therapeutic drugs or treatment failure. In this research, a rapid and simple method for genotyping the most common mutant alleles in the Asian population (CYP2D6*1/*1, CYP2D6*1/*10, CYP2D6*10/*10, CYP2D6*1/*5, CYP2D6*5/*10, and CYP2D6*5/*5) was developed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) combined with capillary electrophoresis (CE). We designed a second mismatch nucleotide next to the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site in allele-specific primers to increase the difference in PCR amplification. Besides, we established simulation equations to predict the CYP2D6 genotypes by analyzing the DNA patterns in the CE chromatograms. The multiplex PCR combined with CE method was applied to test 50 patients, and all of the test results were compared with the DNA sequencing method, long-PCR method and real-time PCR method. The correlation of the analytical results between the proposed method and other methods were higher than 90%, and the proposed method is superior to other methods for being able to simultaneous detection of SNPs and copy number variations (CNV). Furthermore, we compared the plasma concentration of aripiprazole (a CYP2D6 substrate) and its major metabolites with the genotype of 25 patients. The results demonstrate the proposed genotyping method is effective for estimating the activity of the CYP2D6 enzyme and shows potential for application in personalized medicine. Similar approach can be applied to simultaneous detection of SNPs and CNVs of other genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is one of most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide and is associated with considerable mortality. In comparison to general population, schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia have poorer outcomes. We explored the risk factors of short-term mortality in this population because the information is lacking in the literature.
In a nationwide schizophrenia cohort, derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, that was hospitalized for pneumonia between 2000 and 2008 (n = 1,741), we identified 141 subjects who died during their hospitalizations or shortly after their discharges. Based on risk-set sampling in a 1∶4 ratio, 468 matched controls were selected from the study cohort (i.e., schizophrenia cohort with pneumonia). Physical illnesses were categorized as pre-existing and incident illnesses that developed after pneumonia respectively. Exposures to medications were categorized by type, duration, and defined daily dose. We used stepwise conditional logistic regression to explore the risk factors for short-term mortality.
Pre-existing arrhythmia was associated with short-term mortality (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 4.99, p<0.01). Several variables during hospitalization were associated with increased mortality risk, including incident arrhythmia (RR = 7.44, p<0.01), incident heart failure (RR = 5.49, p = 0.0183) and the use of hypoglycemic drugs (RR = 2.32, p<0.01). Furthermore, individual antipsychotic drugs (such as clozapine) known to induce pneumonia were not significantly associated with the risk.
Incident cardiac complications following pneumonia are associated with increased short-term mortality. These findings have broad implications for clinical intervention and future studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of the risk factors.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e70142. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Like mood stabilizers, most second-generation antipsychotics are widely used to treat patients with bipolar disorder, yet their safety is still a concern. This study explored the association between antipsychotics and mood stabilizers and the risk of pneumonia, and it provides evidence-based information for clinical practice.
In a nationwide cohort of bipolar patients (ICD-9 codes 296.0 to 296.16, 296.4 to 296.81, and 296.89) derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, who were admitted between July 1, 1998, and December 31, 2006 (N = 9,999), we identified 571 patients who developed pneumonia (ICD-9 codes 480 to 486 and 507) requiring hospitalization defined as cases. On the basis of risk-set sampling in a 1:4 ratio, 2,277 matched controls were selected from the same cohort. We used conditional logistic regression to assess the association between drug exposure and pneumonia and sensitivity analyses to validate the association.
Current use of several antipsychotics separately, including olanzapine (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 2.97, P < .001), clozapine (RR = 2.59, P < .01), and haloperidol (RR = 3.68, P < .001), is associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of pneumonia. Interestingly, lithium has a dose-dependent protective effect from pneumonia. Among certain drug combinations, olanzapine plus carbamazepine had the highest risk (RR = 11.88, P < .01), followed by clozapine plus valproic acid (RR = 4.80, P < .001).
Several antipsychotics, but not mood stabilizers, were associated with the risk of pneumonia, which deserves our concern regarding patient safety. Some of the combinations of therapy resulted in synergy of risk.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 01/2013; 74(1):e79-86. · 5.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genes, environment, and the interaction between them are each known to play an important role in the risk for developing complex diseases such as metabolic syndrome. For environmental factors, most studies focused on the measurements observed at the individual level, and therefore can only consider the gene-environment interaction at the same individual scale. Indeed the group-level (called contextual) environmental variables, such as community factors and the degree of local area development, may modify the genetic effect as well. To examine such cross-level interaction between genes and contextual factors, a flexible statistical model quantifying the variability of the genetic effects across different categories of the contextual variable is in need. With a Bayesian generalized linear mixed-effects model with an unconditional likelihood, we investigate whether the individual genetic effect is modified by the group-level residential environment factor in a matched case-control metabolic syndrome study. Such cross-level interaction is evaluated by examining the heterogeneity in allelic effects under various contextual categories, based on posterior samples from Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The Bayesian analysis indicates that the effect of rs1801282 on metabolic syndrome development is modified by the contextual environmental factor. That is, even among individuals with the same genetic component of PPARG_Pro12Ala, living in a residential area with low availability of exercise facilities may result in higher risk. The modification of the group-level environment factors on the individual genetic attributes can be essential, and this Bayesian model is able to provide a quantitative assessment for such cross-level interaction. The Bayesian inference based on the full likelihood is flexible with any phenotype, and easy to implement computationally. This model has a wide applicability and may help unravel the complexity in development of complex diseases.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56693. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The copy number variation (CNV) is a type of genetic variation in the genome. It is measured based on signal intensity measures and can be assessed repeatedly to reduce the uncertainty in PCR-based typing. Studies have shown that CNVs may lead to phenotypic variation and modification of disease expression. Various challenges exist, however, in the exploration of CNV-disease association. Here we construct latent variables to infer the discrete CNV values and to estimate the probability of mutations. In addition, we propose to pool rare variants to increase the statistical power and we conduct family studies to mitigate the computational burden in determining the composition of CNVs on each chromosome. To explore in a stochastic sense the association between the collapsing CNV variants and disease status, we utilize a Bayesian hierarchical model incorporating the mutation parameters. This model assigns integers in a probabilistic sense to the quantitatively measured copy numbers, and is able to test simultaneously the association for all variants of interest in a regression framework. This integrative model can account for the uncertainty in copy number assignment and differentiate if the variation was de novo or inherited on the basis of posterior probabilities. For family studies, this model can accommodate the dependence within family members and among repeated CNV data. Moreover, the Mendelian rule can be assumed under this model and yet the genetic variation, including de novo and inherited variation, can still be included and quantified directly for each individual. Finally, simulation studies show that this model has high true positive and low false positive rates in the detection of de novo mutation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the consistent presence of performance deficits on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in schizophrenia patients, whether poorer performance is also present in their nonpsychotic relatives is not certain. This study aimed to estimate both the recurrence risk ratio (λs) and the heritability of WCST scores in simplex and multiplex families, respectively, and to examine the influence of familial loading on these estimates. Participants were patients with schizophrenia and their nonpsychotic first-degree relatives from 168 simplex families and 653 multiplex families as well as 440 normal comparisons. On the basis of adjusted z scores, both the λs at a series of cutoff points and heritability estimates based on variance component modeling in the nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenia patients were estimated. The WCST deficits in schizophrenia patients were more prominent in multiplex families than in simplex ones. Among relatives, WCST deficits were limited to parents of multiplex families for most WCST scores and siblings from multiplex families for total errors, perseverative responses, and perseverative errors. Pertaining to λs, the estimates for multiplex families (highest estimates ranging from 7.9 to 11.0) were greater than those for simplex ones (<2.5). Nevertheless, the heritability estimates were very similar between simplex (ranging from 0% to 17%) and multiplex (ranging from 0% to 21%) families, with the latter having slightly greater values than the former. There is only a small-to-modest familial aggregation on part of WCST scores in families of schizophrenia patients, and this may limit its use as endophenotypic markers to schizophrenia susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Intervention studies of developmental care for preterm infants in Western societies have shown early but unsustainable effects on child outcomes, however only a limited of studies have examined if developmental care interventions produce similar effects in Eastern cultural contexts. AIMS: To examine the effectiveness of in-hospital developmental care on neonatal morbidity, growth and development of preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight<1500g) in Taiwan. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-eight VLBW preterm infants were randomly assigned to the clinical trial during hospitalization at three hospitals in Taiwan; the control group received five sessions of standard child-focused developmental care and the intervention group received five sessions of child- and parent-focused developmental care. Sixty-two normal term infants were also included as a comparison group. Infants were examined for morbidity, growth and developmental outcomes at term age. RESULTS: At study entry, more infants in the intervention group were twins or multiples than those in the control group (29% vs. 16%, p=0.05). After adjusting for birth set, the intervention group had lower incidences of stage II-III retinopathy (odds ratio [OR]=0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15-0.79]; p=0.01) and feeding desaturation (OR=0.32 [95% CI: 0.10-1.00]; p=0.05) and had greater daily weight gains (difference=2.0g/day [95% CI: 0-4.0g/day]; p=0.05) as compared with the control group. However, the intervention and control groups did not differ in any of the neurodevelopmental measures. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital developmental care has short-term benefits for Taiwanese VLBW preterm infants in reducing the risk of retinopathy and feeding desaturation as well as in enhancing weight gains at term age.
Early human development 11/2012; · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Cumulative evidence indicates the risk of alcohol initiation escalates in adolescence. In the present study, we examine potential contribution of predispositional and contextual factors on cognitive process toward alcohol effects and alcohol drinking behaviors during the transition from late childhood into adolescence.
Method: Data were obtained from the on-going longitudinal study of 928 school-attending children in the Northern metropolitan region of Taiwan. Information concerning sociodemographic background, personality traits of sensation seeking , alcohol outcome expectancy, alcohol drinking, and parental drinking were collected via self-administered questionnaires on four occasions during the period of from 6th to 8th grade. Generalized linear regression model was carried out to evaluate strength of association estimates.
Results: Yougsters with greater sensation seeking were more likely to endorse higher levels of positive alcohol expectancies (i.e., enhanced social behaviors, global positive transformation, and promoting relaxation or tension reduction; beta=0.03~0.05, p<0.01). With adjustment for sociodemographic background, parental drinking, having drinking friends, and having friends with higher levels of positive alcohol expectancies, endorsing higher sensation seeking was significantly related with increased risk of alcohol drinking (Adjusted Odds Ratio=1.1, p<0.05). Slight moderational effect of personality and parental drinking appear on positive alcohol expectaction and continued drinking during the transition from primary- into middle school.
Conclusion: Contextual and personality traits contribute significantly to the endorsement of positive alcohol expectation and the risk of alcohol initiation/continuation. Intervention programs reducing underage drinking problems should integrate cognitive process toward alcohol effects and target both individual predisposition and contextual background.
140st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2012; 10/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Easy access to alcoholic beverages has been independently linked with alcohol initiation and problematic drinking in underage population. We examined how parenting practices may influence the trajectory of alcohol purchasing behaviors during the transition from childhood to early adolescence.
Methods: A total of 836 4th-graders, ascertained via multistage probability sampling from 16 public elementary schools in the northern Taiwan in 2006 (T0, mean age=10 years), were followed up on three waves (T1-T3) during 2006-2008. Data concerning sociodemographic background, parenting practices, alcohol purchase and drinking were collected via paper-and-pencil self-administered questionnaires. Group-based trajectory analyses were performed to identify trajectory groups of past-year alcohol purchasers between 4th and 6th grade, and the association with multidimensional parenting practices was determined by logistic regression.
Results: The prevalence of recent alcohol purchase is 4.3% at 4th, 6.1% at 5th, and 7.6% at 6th grade, respectively. Three major groups of alcohol purchasers were identified: never (85.5%wt), emerging (6.4%wt), and persistent (10.8%wt). Children with higher levels of parental coercive discipline were at 3-fold risk to be an emerging alcohol purchaser, and the risk for those with parental involvement/reinforcement was lowered by 44%. With adjustment for individual and family characteristics, coercive discipline appeared as a salient predictor of emerging alcohol purchase (adjusted odds ratio=2.6~3.3).
Conclusions: Parenting practices in childhood likely affect the chance to access alcoholic beverages during the transition to early adolescencea period for the escalation of alcohol initiation. This study may provide implications for family-centered preventive programs targeting at reducing underage drinking problems.
140st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2012; 10/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positive schizotypy is associated with non-right-handedness, which includes left- and mixed-handedness. However, because the underlying mechanisms might be different, it is important to examine whether both left- and mixed-handedness are associated with a high incidence of schizotypy. During 2009-2010, we used both the Perceptual Aberration Scale and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire to assess 1315 undergraduate students in Taiwan for schizotypy and the Annett handedness questionnaire to assess handedness. Among the three-way classifications based on Annett's grouping, the fully left-handed group appeared to have the lowest score of positive schizotypy; next was the fully right-handed group and then the mixed-handed. Among the three-way classifications driven from cluster analysis, mixed-handers showed highest score of positive schizotypy. When handedness was treated continuously, both direction (e.g., Hand Preference Index) and consistency (e.g., Either hand use score) indicators were significantly correlated with schizotypy. The results of regression analyses showed that the quadratic handedness measure were negatively associated with schizotypy. The results remained similar after correcting for social pressure on left-handedness. In conclusion, the relationship between schizotypy and mixed-handedness appears to be cross-cultural. The dichotomous classification of handedness, right- vs. non-right-handedness, appears to be insufficient. Additional studies on the distinct mechanisms of mixed- and left-handedness are warranted.