[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study reported that retinoic acid induced 16 (RAI16) could enhance tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the cellular functions of RAI16 are still unclear. In this study, by immunoprecipitation and tandem (MS/MS) mass spectrometry analysis, we identified that RAI16 interacted with the type II regulatory subunit of PKA (PKA-RIIα), acting as a novel protein kinase A anchoring protein (AKAP). In addition, RAI16 also interacted with heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and 14-3-3θ. Further studies indicated that RAI16 mediated PKA phosphorylation of HSP70 at serine 486, resulting in anti-apoptosis events. RAI16 was also phosphorylated by the anchored PKA at serine 325, which promoted the recruitment of 14-3-3θ, which, in turn, inhibited RAI16 mediated PKA phosphorylation of HSP70. These findings offer mechanism insight into RAI16 mediated anti-apoptosis signaling in HCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis. The roles of small nucleolar RNA 113–1 (SNORD113-1) on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown.
The expression of SNORD113-1 was measured in 112 HCC tumor tissues using quantitative RT-PCR and compared with expression levels from with paired non-tumor tissues. The effects of SNORD113-1 on HCC tumorigenesis were investigated in HepG2 and Huh7 cells as well as a xenograft nude mouse model. CpG methylation within the promoter region of the SNORD113-1 gene was identified using Sodium bisulfite sequencing. Cancer pathway reporter investigate the mechanism by which SNORD113-1 suppressed tumorigenesis.
SNORD113-1 expression was significantly downregulated in HCC tumors compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues, and downregulation of SNORD113-1 in HCC tumors was significantly associated with worse survival of patients. In addition, CpG methylation at the promoter region of the SNORD113-1 gene was higher in HCC tumors than adjacent non-tumor tissues. Functionally, SNORD113-1 suppressed cancer cell growth in HepG2 and Huh7 cells and in a xenograft nude mouse model. Furthermore, SNORD113-1 inactivated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and SMAD2/3 in MAPK/ERK and TGF-β pathways.
SNORD113-1 functions as a tumor suppressor role in HCC and may be important as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for HCC.
Molecular Cancer 09/2014; 13(1):216. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-13-216 · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MiR-221 was reported to be upregulated and play roles in tumorigenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of miR-221 in HCV infection remains unknown. In this study, it was found that miR-221 was upregulated in serum of HCV chronic hepatitis patients and Huh7.5.1 cells infected with HCVcc. Further studies indicated that miR-221 mimic could accentuate anti-HCV effect of IFN-α in HCVcc model, miR-221 mimic could further repressed 10% HCV RNA expression and 35-42% HCV core or NS5A protein expression in HCVcc infected Huh7.5.1 cells treated with 100IU/mL IFN-α, and miR-221 inhibitor resulted in the reverse effects. Furthermore, two members of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family, SOCS1 and SOCS3, which are well established inhibitory factors on IFN/JAK/STAT pathway, were identified as the targets of miR-221 and were involved in the effect of miR-221. In conclusion, miR-221 could accentuate IFN׳s anti-HCV effect by targeting SOCS1 and SOCS3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MiR-221 was reported to be upregulated and play roles in tumorigenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of miR-221 in HCV infection remains unknown. In this study, it was found that miR-221 was upregulated in serum of HCV chronic hepatitis patients and Huh7.5.1 cells infected with HCVcc. Further studies indicated that miR-221 mimic could accentuate anti-HCV effect of IFN-α in HCVcc model, miR-221 mimic could further repressed 10% HCV RNA expression and 35–42% HCV core or NS5A protein expression in HCVcc infected Huh7.5.1 cells treated with 100 IU/mL IFN-α, and miR-221 inhibitor resulted in the reverse effects. Furthermore, two members of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family, SOCS1 and SOCS3, which are well established inhibitory factors on IFN/JAK/STAT pathway, were identified as the targets of miR-221 and were involved in the effect of miR-221. In conclusion, miR-221 could accentuate IFN׳s anti-HCV effect by targeting SOCS1 and SOCS3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signaling events triggered by interferon alpha (IFN-α) and ribavirin are involved in anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) action. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays an important role in HCV pathogenesis. Effects of IFN-α and ribavirin on p38 MAPK signaling were investigated in human hepatoma cells. Type I IFN receptor 2 (IFNAR2) mediated IFN-α-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Also, p38 MAPK phosphorylation was enhanced by ribavirin. Treatment for 48h with a combination of IFN-α and ribavirin increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation, whereas the treatment for 72h reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) infection dramatically increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation and such phosphorylation was inhibited by IFN-α or ribavirin. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK resulted in enhancement of ribavirin-dependent HCV RNA replication. These results suggest that regulation of p38 MAPK signaling by IFN-α and ribavirin might contribute to anti-HCV action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is a binding receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Binding of HCV envelope protein E2 to target cells is a prerequisite to DC-SIGN-mediated signaling. Using cell lines with stable or transient expression of DC-SIGN, we investigated effects of soluble HCV E2 protein on ERK pathway. MEK and ERK are activated by the E2 in NIH3T3 cells stably expressing DC-SIGN. Treatment of the cells with antibody to DC-SIGN results in inhibition of the E2 binding as well as the E2-induced MEK and ERK activation. In HEK293T cells transiently expressing DC-SIGN, activation of MEK and ERK is also induced by the E2. Activation of ERK pathway by HCV E2 through DC-SIGN provides useful information for understanding cellular receptor-mediated signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver/lymph node-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing integrin (L-SIGN) facilitates hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection through interaction with HCV envelope protein E2. Signaling events triggered by the E2 via L-SIGN are poorly understood. Here, kinase cascades of Raf-MEK-ERK pathway were defined upon the E2 treatment in NIH3T3 cells with stable expression of L-SIGN. The E2 bound to the cells through interaction with L-SIGN and such binding subsequently resulted in phosphorylation and activation of Raf, MEK, and ERK. Blockage of L-SIGN with antibody against L-SIGN reduced the E2-induced phosphorylation of Raf, MEK, and ERK. In the cells infected with cell culture-derived HCV, phosphorylation of these kinases was enhanced by the E2. Up-regulation of Raf-MEK-ERK pathway by HCV E2 via L-SIGN provides new insights into signaling cascade of L-SIGN, and might be a potential target for control and prevention of HCV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the differentially expressed miRNAs and their targets in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Six hundred and sixty seven human miRNAs were quantitatively analyzed by Taqman low-density miRNA array (TLDA) in HBV-HCC tissues. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were used to analyze the significant function and pathway of the differentially expressed miRNAs in HBV-HCC. TargetScan software was used to predict the targets of deregulated miRNAs. Western blotting and luciferase assay were performed to verify the targets of these miRNAs.
Ten up-regulated miRNAs (miR-217, miR-518b, miR-517c, miR-520g, miR-519a, miR-522, miR-518e, miR-525-3p, miR-512-3p, and miR-518a-3p) and 11 down-regulated miRNAs (miR-138, miR-214, miR-214#, miR-199a-5p, miR-433, miR-511, miR-592, miR-483-3p, miR-483-5p, miR-708 and miR-1275) were identified by Taqman miRNAs array and confirmed quantitatively by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in HCC and adjacent non-tumor tissues. GO and KEGG pathway analysis revealed that "regulation of actin cytoskeleton" and "pathway in cancer" are most likely to play critical roles in HCC tumorigenesis. MiR-519a and ribosomal protein S6 kinase polypeptide 3 (RPS6KA3) were predicted as the most significant candidates by miRNA-mRNA network. In addition, cyclin D3 (CCND3) and clathrin heavy chain (CHC), usually up-regulated in HCC tissues, were validated as the direct target of miR-138 and miR-199a-5p, respectively.
Our data suggest an importance of miR-138 and miR-199a-5p as well as their targets CCND3 and CHC in HCC tumorigenesis, and may provide more evidence for reliability of integrative bioinformatics analysis.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2012; 18(38):5442-53. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v18.i38.5442 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ribavirin in combination with interferon (IFN)-α is the approved treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Interference of ribavirin with signaling events is involved in its biological activities. However, little is known of signaling pathways induced by ribavirin following HCV infection. In human hepatoma cells, effects of ribavirin on ERK and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathways, HCV replication, and antiviral gene expression were evaluated before and after cell culture-derived HCV infection. Ribavirin reduced phosphorylation of Raf, MEK, ERK, Tyk2, and STAT1, but selectively increased STAT3 phosphorylation. IFN-α synergistically regulated ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation with ribavirin, and up-regulated expression and phosphorylation of STAT1. Ribavirin dose-dependently decreased HCV RNA replication and HCV protein expression, with slight induction of IFN regulatory factor 9 and IFN-stimulated gene 15. Ribavirin and IFN-α exerted a synergetic inhibitory effect on HCV. ERK and STAT pathways were down-regulated by ribavirin following HCV infection. These results suggest that ribavirin may mediate anti-HCV activity through interference with ERK and STAT pathways.
Antiviral research 09/2012; 96(2):260-268. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.09.002 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous work identified downregulated miR-483-5p in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aims to identify the target of miR-483-5p, evaluate the potential value of this target as a tumor marker for HCC and explore the role of this target in HCC tumorigenesis. Upregulated retinoic acid induced 16 (RAI16) (17/18 cases) was negatively correlated with downregulated miR-483-5p (14/18 cases) in HCC tissues. The dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that RAI16 is a target of miR-483-5p. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed RAI16 was moderate or strong staining in tumor tissues but negative or weak staining in adjacent non-tumor tissues. The sensitivity and speciﬁcity of RAI16 for HCC diagnosis were 70.6 and 93.6%, respectively, and increased to 80.9 and 92.0% when combined with glypican-3. Finally, overexpression or knockdown of RAI16 increased or decreased cell viability and colony formation in HCC cell lines and enhanced or inhibited tumor cell growth in xenograft nude mice. Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and transforming growth factor-β pathways were mostly affected by RAI16. RAI16 could activate the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and SMAD2/3. In conclusion, RAI16 may serve as a useful therapeutic agent for HCC gene therapy and tumor marker for HCC diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD81, a co-receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV), is a member of the tetraspanin superfamily and is heavily palmitoylated in the juxtamembrane cysteine residues. Palmitoylation plays an important role in protein-protein interactions and association with cholesterol-rich domains of membranes. In this study, Huh7 cells expressing wild-type or palmitoylation-defective CD81 were generated to analyze whether palmitoylation of CD81 is involved in HCV cell entry. Our data showed that de-palmitoylation of CD81 dramatically reduced its association with tetraspanin CD151, but did not influence CD81 partition in detergent-resistant membranes. Moreover, de-palmitoylated CD81 decreased the host cell susceptibility to HCV. Notably, CD151-specific antibodies and siRNA inhibited HCV cell entry, and detachment of CD81 with CD151 decreased the lateral movement of virus particle/CD81 complex to areas of cell-cell contact. These results suggest that palmitoylation of CD81 should facilitate HCV entry, at least in part, by regulating the association of CD81 with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) is frequently associated with a variety of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we identified 10 upregulated miRNAs (miR-217, miR-518b, miR-517c, miR-520g, miR-519a, miR-522, miR-518e, miR-525-3p, miR-512-3p and miR-518a-3p) and 10 downregulated miRNAs (miR-138, miR-214, miR-214#, miR-27a#, miR-199a-5p, miR-433, miR-511, miR-592, miR-483-5p and miR-483-3p) by Taqman miRNAs array and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmation. Additionally, we investigated the expression and possible role of miR-138 in HCC. qRT-PCR results showed that miR-138 was downregulated in 77.8%(14/18) of HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Overexpression of miR-138 reduced cell viability and colony formation by induction of cell arrest in HCC cell lines and inhibited tumor cell growth in xenograft nude mice. The use of miR-138 inhibitor increased cell viability and colony formation in HCC cell lines and tumor cell growth in xenograft nude mice. Using TargetScan predictions, CCND3 was defined as a potential direct target of miR-138. Furthermore, CCND3 protein expression was observed to be negatively correlated with miR-138 expression in HCC tissues. The dual-luciferase reporter gene assay results showed that CCND3 was a direct target of miR-138. The use of miR-138 mimic or inhibitor could decrease or increase CCND3 protein levels in HCC cell lines. We conclude that the frequently downregulated miR-138 can regulate CCND3 and function as a tumor suppressor in HCC. Therefore, miR-138 may serve as a useful therapeutic agent for miRNA-based HCC therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an enveloped flavivirus and the most common agent of viral encephalitis. It enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and low pH-triggered membrane fusion. Although lipid rafts, cholesterol-enriched lipid-ordered membrane domains, have been shown to participate in JEV entry, the mechanisms of the early events of JEV infection, including the cellular receptors of JEV, remain largely unknown. In the current study, it was demonstrated that heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70), rather than other members of the HSP70 family, was required for JEV entry into a human cell line. Cell-surface expression of HSP70 and a direct interaction between JEV envelope (E) protein and HSP70 were observed. Biochemical fractionation showed that HSP70 clearly migrated into the raft fraction after virus infection and co-fractioned with E protein. Depletion of cholesterol shifted the E protein and HSP70 to a non-raft membrane and decreased JEV entry without affecting virus binding to host cells. Notably, recruitment of HSP70 into lipid rafts was required for activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling pathway in the early stage of JEV infection. These results indicate that lipid rafts facilitate JEV entry, possibly by providing a convenient platform to concentrate JEV and its receptors on the host-cell membrane.
Journal of General Virology 09/2011; 93(Pt 1):61-71. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.034637-0 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the function of Nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein of genotype 2a (JFH1) in the replication and infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV).
Intergenotypic chimera FL-J6JFH/J4NS5A was constructed by inserting NS5A gene from 1b stain HC-J4 by the overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and the restriction enzyme reaction. In vitro RNA transcripts of chimera, prototype J6JFH and negative control J6JFH1 (GND) were prepared and transfected into Huh-7.5 cells with liposomes. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA), fluorescence quantitative PCR and infection assay were performed to determine the protein expression and gene replication in Huh-7.5 cells.
The HCV RNA levels in FL-J6JFH/J4NS5A chimera RNA transfected cells were significantly lower than the wild type at any indicated time point (2.58 ± 5.97 × 10(6) vs 4.27 ± 1.72 × 10(4), P = 0.032). The maximal level of HCV RNA in chimera was 5.6 ± 1.8 × 10(4) GE/μg RNA at day 34 after transfection, while the wild type reached a peak level at day 13 which was 126 folds higher (70.65 ± 14.11 × 10(5) vs 0.56 ± 0.90 × 10(5), P = 0.028). HCV proteins could also be detected by IFA in chimera-transfected cells with an obviously low level. Infection assay showed that FL-J6JFH/J4NS5A chimera could produce infectious virus particles, ranging from 10 ± 5 ffu/mL to 78.3 ± 23.6 ffu/mL, while that of FL-J6JFH1 ranged from 5.8 ± 1.5 × 10(2) ffu/mL to 2.5 ± 1.4 × 10(4) ffu/mL.
JFH1 NS5A might play an important role in the robust replication of J6JFH1. The establishment of FL-J6JFH/J4NS5A provided a useful platform for studying the function of other proteins of HCV.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2011; 17(29):3398-406. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v17.i29.3398 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers are at high risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but there are no reliable markers that will identify such high-risk patients. HBV up-regulates the expression of selected genes (URGs) in the liver during chronic infection. These aberrantly expressed proteins trigger corresponding antibodies (anti-URGs) that appear prior to the detection of HCC. This study was undertaken to see if the anti-URGs could be used as early warning biomarker of HBV-induced liver cirrhosis and HCC.
A cross sectional study using a total of 625 serum samples from HBV infected and uninfected controls were tested for the anti-URGs using specific ELISAs.
The number and specificity of anti-URGs correlated with the severity of liver disease Anti-URGs were predominantly present among patients with HBV-associated HCC (55.2%) and cirrhosis (60.7%), and at a lower frequency among patients with chronic hepatitis (35.8%), and at still lower frequencies in most asymptomatic carriers (12.3%) with normal ALT, among patients with chronic hepatitis C (38.5%) and blood donors (0.9%). These anti-URGs were rarely detected in sera from those with tumors other than HCC, except among HBV infected patients with cholangioicarcinoma and in some patients with drug induced hepatitis. 3 or more anti-URGs could precede the diagnosis of cirrhosis or HCC 11.8 months on average, and HBV hepatitis patients with 3 or more anti-URGs have much higher risk (5/20 vs 0/30) to develop cirrhosis and HCC than those patients with less anti-URGs. As the early warning biomarker, 3 or more anti-URGs were served as the threshold to separate the cirrhosis and HCC from others with a moderate sensitivity (58.3%) and specificity (80.0%), which was better than other biomarkers (AFP, AFP-L3, GPC3 and GP73) and would improve up to 70.3% when combined with another biomarker.
The results of this clinical validation study suggest that the anti-URGs might have diagnostic/prognostic utility among patients at high risk for the development of cirrhosis and HCC.
Cancer biomarkers: section A of Disease markers 01/2011; 11(1):29-39. DOI:10.3233/CBM-2012-0261 · 1.72 Impact Factor