Yoichi Tamura

The University of Tokyo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (95)262.93 Total impact

  • Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 07/2015; 10(S309):283-284. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314009879
  • Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 07/2015; 10(S309):287-288. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314009892
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    ABSTRACT: We present a result of a blind search for [CII] 158 $\mu$m emitters at $z\sim 4.5$ using ALMA Cycle~0 archival data. We collected extra-galactic data covering at 330-360 GHz (band~7) from 8 Cycle~0 projects from which initial results have been already published. The total number of fields is 243 and the total on-source exposure time is 19.2 hours. We searched for line emitters in continuum-subtracted data cubes with spectral resolutions of 50, 100, 300 and 500 km/s. We could not detect any new line emitters above a 6-$\sigma$ significance level. This result provides upper limits to the [CII] luminosity function at $z\sim 4.5$ over $L_{\rm [CII]} \sim 10^8 - 10^{10} L_{\odot}$ or star formation rate, SFR $\sim$ 10-1000 M$_{^\odot}$/yr. These limits are at least 2 orders of magnitude larger than the [CII] luminosity functions expected from the $z \sim 4$ UV luminosity function or from numerical simulation. However, this study demonstrates that we would be able to better constrain the [CII] luminosity function and to investigate possible contributions from dusty galaxies to the cosmic star-formation rate density by collecting Cycle~1+2 archival data as the ALMA Patchy Deep Survey.
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    ABSTRACT: We present spatially-resolved properties of molecular gas and dust in a gravitationally-lensed submillimeter galaxy H-ATLAS J090311.6+003906 (SDP.81) at $z=3.042$ revealed by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We identified 14 molecular clumps in the CO(5-4) line data, all with a spatial scale of $\sim$50-300 pc in the source plane. The surface density of molecular gas ($\Sigma_{\rm H_2}$) and star-formation rate ($\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$) of the clumps are more than three orders of magnitude higher than those found in local spiral galaxies. The clumps are placed in the `burst' sequence in the $\Sigma_{\rm H_2}$-$\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ plane, suggesting that $z \sim 3$ molecular clumps follow the star-formation law derived for local starburst galaxies. With our gravitational lens model, the positions in the source plane are derived for the molecular clumps, dust clumps, and stellar components identified in the {\sl Hubble Space Telescope} image. The molecular and dust clumps coexist in a similar region over $\sim$2 kpc, while the stellar components are offset at most by $\sim$5 kpc. The molecular clumps have a systematic velocity gradient in the north-south direction, which may indicate a rotating gas disk. One possible scenario is that the components of molecular gas, dust, and stars are distributed in a several-kpc scale rotating disk, and the stellar emission is heavily obscured by dust in the central star-forming region. Alternatively, SDP.81 can be explained by a merging system, where dusty starbursts occur in the region where the two galaxies collide, surrounded by tidal features traced in the stellar components.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a detailed modeling of a mass profile of a $z = 0.2999$ massive elliptical galaxy using 30 milli-arcsecond resolution 1-mm Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) images of the galaxy-galaxy lensing system SDP.81. The detailed morphology of the lensed multiple images of the $z = 3.042$ infrared-luminous galaxy, which is found to consist of tens of $\lesssim 100$-pc-sized star-forming clumps embedded in a $\sim 2$ kpc disk, are well reproduced by a lensing galaxy modeled by an isothermal ellipsoid with a 400 pc core. The core radius is consistent with that of the visible stellar light, and the mass-to-light ratio of $\sim 2\,M_{\odot}\,L_{\odot}^{-1}$ is comparable to the locally measured value, suggesting that the inner 1 kpc region is dominated by luminous matter. The position of the predicted mass centroid is consistent to within $\simeq 30$ mas with that of a non-thermal source detected with ALMA, which likely traces an active galactic nucleus of the foreground elliptical galaxy. A point source mass of $> 3 \times 10^8\,M_{\odot}$ mimicking a supermassive black hole is required to explain the non-detection of a central image of the background galaxy, although the black hole mass degenerates with the core radius of the elliptical galaxy. The required mass is consistent with that predicted from the well-known correlation between black hole mass and host velocity dispersion. Our analysis demonstrates the power of ALMA imaging of strong gravitational lensing for studying the innermost mass profiles and the central supermassive black hole of distant elliptical galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a near-infrared camera called ANIR (Atacama Near-InfraRed camera) for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 1.0m telescope (miniTAO) installed at the summit of Cerro Chajnantor (5640 m above sea level) in northern Chile. The camera provides a field of view of 5'.1 $\times$ 5'.1 with a spatial resolution of 0".298 /pixel in the wavelength range of 0.95 to 2.4 $\mu$m. Taking advantage of the dry site, the camera is capable of hydrogen Paschen-$\alpha$ (Pa$\alpha$, $\lambda=$1.8751 $\mu$m in air) narrow-band imaging observations, at which wavelength ground-based observations have been quite difficult due to deep atmospheric absorption mainly from water vapor. We have been successfully obtaining Pa$\alpha$ images of Galactic objects and nearby galaxies since the first-light observation in 2009 with ANIR. The throughputs at the narrow-band filters ($N1875$, $N191$) including the atmospheric absorption show larger dispersion (~10%) than those at broad-band filters (a few %), indicating that they are affected by temporal fluctuations in Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) above the site. We evaluate the PWV content via the atmospheric transmittance at the narrow-band filters, and derive that the median and the dispersion of the distribution of the PWV are 0.40+/-0.30 mm for $N1875$ and 0.37+/-0.21 mm for $N191$, which are remarkably smaller (49+/-38% for $N1875$ and 59+/-26% for $N191$) than radiometry measurements at the base of Cerro Chajnantor (5100 m alt.). The decrease in PWV can be explained by the altitude of the site when we assume that the vertical distribution of the water vapor is approximated at an exponential profile with scale heights within 0.3-1.9 km (previously observed values at night). We thus conclude that miniTAO/ANIR at the summit of Cerro Chajnantor indeed provides us an excellent capability for a "ground-based" Pa$\alpha$ observation.
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    ABSTRACT: Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are enshrouded by a large amount of dust, produced by their active star formation, and it is difficult to measure their activity in the optical wavelength. We have carried out Pa$\alpha$ narrow-band imaging observations of 38 nearby star-forming galaxies including 33 LIRGs listed in $IRAS$ RBGS catalog with the Atacama Near InfraRed camera (ANIR) on the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 1.0 m telescope (miniTAO). Star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the Pa$\alpha$ fluxes, corrected for dust extinction using the Balmer Decrement Method (typically $A_V$ $\sim$ 4.3 mag), show a good correlation with those from the bolometric infrared luminosity of $IRAS$ data within a scatter of 0.27 dex. This suggests that the correction of dust extinction for Pa$\alpha$ flux is sufficient in our sample. We measure the physical sizes and the surface density of infrared luminosities ($\Sigma_{L(\mathrm{IR})}$) and $SFR$ ($\Sigma_{SFR}$) of star-forming region for individual galaxies, and find that most of the galaxies follow a sequence of local ultra luminous or luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) on the $L(\mathrm{IR})$-$\Sigma_{L(\mathrm{IR})}$ and $SFR$-$\Sigma_{SFR}$ plane. We confirm that a transition of the sequence from normal galaxies to U/LIRGs is seen at $L(\mathrm{IR})=8\times10^{10}$ $L_{\odot}$. Also, we find that there is a large scatter in physical size, different from those of normal galaxies or ULIRGs. Considering the fact that most of U/LIRGs are merging or interacting galaxies, this scatter may be caused by strong external factors or differences of their merging stage.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) believed to lie at z_photo ~ 3-6. Their infrared luminosities and star-formation rates (SFR) are L_IR ~ 2-6 x 10^12 L_sun and ~ 200-500 M_sun yr-1, respectively. The size of z ~ 3-6 SMGs ranges from 0''.10 to 0''.38 with a median of 0''.22 (FWHM), corresponding to a median effective radius (Re) of ~ 0.8 kpc, comparable to the typical size of the stellar component measured in compact quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2 (cQGs) --- R ~ 1 kpc. The surface SFR density of our z ~ 3-6 SMGs is 160+610-82 M_sun yr-1 kpc-2, comparable to that seen in local merger-driven (U)LIRGs, which implies that these SMGs are also likely to be merger-driven. The discovery of compact starbursts in z >~ 3 SMGs strongly supports a massive galaxy formation scenario wherein z ~ 3-6 SMGs evolve into the compact stellar components of z ~ 2 cQGs. These cQGs are then thought to evolve into the most massive ellipticals in the local Universe, mostly via dry mergers. Our results thus suggest that z >~ 3 SMGs are the likely progenitors of massive local ellipticals, via cQGs, meaning that we can now trace the evolutionary path of the most massive galaxies over a period encompassing ~ 90% of the age of the Universe.
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated properties of interstellar medium in interacting galaxies in early and mid stages using mapping data of 12CO(J =1-0) and HI. Total gas mass (a sum of atomic and molecular gas mass) in interacting galaxies slightly reduced with large dispersion in the comparison with field galaxies. We found that molecular gas mass is enhanced in interacting galaxies assuming the standard CO-H2 conversion factor, while atomic gas mass is reduced. These results are reinforced by the fact that interacting galaxies have higher molecular gas fraction (fmol), a ratio of the surface density of molecular gas to that of total gas, (0.71 +- 0.15) than isolated galaxies (0.52 +- 0.18) and this indicates that an efficient transition from atomic gas to molecular gas is induced by the interaction. Isolated spiral galaxies show monotonically and gradually increase of fmol along the surface density of total gas. Contrary to isolated galaxies, interacting galaxies show high fmol (>0.8) even at low surface density of total gas of ~20 Msun pc^2. In most extreme case, NGC 5395 have a trend that fmol monotonically decreases as the surface density of total gas increases. To investigate the origin of high fmol in the interacting galaxies, we performed theoretical model fitting varying metallicity and external pressure. According to the model fitting, external pressure can explain high fmol in the interacting galaxies. We conclude that high external pressure which is occurred by the shock prevailing over whole galaxies even in the early stage of the interaction.
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    ABSTRACT: We present 0.8-mm band molecular images and spectra obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward one of the nearest galaxies with an active galactic nucleus (AGN), NGC 1068. Distributions of CO isotopic species ($^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O) $\it{J}$ = 3--2, CN $\it{N}$ = 3--2 and CS $\it{J}$ = 7--6 are observed toward the circumnuclear disk (CND) and a part of the starburst ring with an angular resolution of $\sim$1.$^{\prime\prime}$3 $\times$ 1.$^{\prime\prime}$2. The physical properties of these molecules and shock-related molecules such as HNCO, CH$_{3}$CN, SO, and CH$_{3}$OH detected in the 3-mm band were estimated using rotation diagrams under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The rotational temperatures of the CO isotopic species and the shock-related molecules in the CND are, respectively, 14--22 K and upper limits of 20--40 K. Although the column densities of the CO isotopic species in the CND are only from one-fifth to one-third of that in the starburst ring, those of the shock-related molecules are enhanced by a factor of 3--10 in the CND. We also discuss the chemistry of each species, and compare the fractional abundances in the CND and starburst ring with those of Galactic sources such as cold cores, hot cores, and shocked molecular clouds in order to study the overall characteristics. We find that the abundances of shock-related molecules are more similar to abundances in hot cores and/or shocked clouds than to cold cores. The CND hosts relatively complex molecules, which are often associated with shocked molecular clouds or hot cores. Because a high X-ray flux can dissociate these molecules, they must also reside in regions shielded from X-rays.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 10/2014; 67(1). DOI:10.1093/pasj/psu136 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present < 1 kpc resolution CO imaging study of 37 optically-selected local merger remnants using new and archival interferometric maps obtained with ALMA, CARMA, SMA and PdBI. We supplement a sub-sample with single-dish measurements obtained at the NRO 45 m telescope for estimating the molecular gas mass (10^7 - 10^11 M_sun), and evaluating the missing flux of the interferometric measurements. Among the sources with robust CO detections, we find that 80 % (24/30) of the sample show kinematical signatures of rotating molecular gas disks (including nuclear rings) in their velocity fields, and the sizes of these disks vary significantly from 1.1 kpc to 9.3 kpc. The size of the molecular gas disks in 54 % of the sources is more compact than the K-band effective radius. These small gas disks may have formed from a past gas inflow that was triggered by a dynamical instability during a potential merging event. On the other hand, the rest (46 %) of the sources have gas disks which are extended relative to the stellar component, possibly forming a late-type galaxy with a central stellar bulge. Our new compilation of observational data suggests that nuclear and extended molecular gas disks are common in the final stages of mergers. This finding is consistent with recent major-merger simulations of gas rich progenitor disks. Finally, we suggest that some of the rotation-supported turbulent disks observed at high redshifts may result from galaxies that have experienced a recent major merger.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 07/2014; 214(1). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/214/1/1 · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous Color Wide-field Infrared Multi-object Spectrograph, SWIMS, is one of the first generation in- struments for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 6.5m Telescope now under construction. A dichroic mirror being inserted in the collimated beam, it is capable of two-color simultaneous imaging with FoV of 9:16ϕ or R ∼ 1000 multi-object spectroscopy at 0.9–2.5μm wavelength range in one shot, and enables us to carry out efficient NIR imaging/spectroscopic survey of objects such as distant galaxies and young stellar objects. All the major components have been fabricated and we will start integration and laboratory cool-down test in the summer of 2014. After the engineering and initial science observations at the Subaru telescope, SWIMS will be transported to TAO telescope and see the first light in 2018.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The F/1.25 light-weighted borosilicate (Ohara E6) honeycomb primary mirror is adopted and being fabricated by the Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory. The primary mirror is supported by 104 loadspreaders bonded to the back surface of the mirror and 6 adjustable hardpoints. The mirror is actively controlled by adjusting the actuator forces based on the realtime wavefront measurement. The actuators are optimized for operation at high altitude of the site, 5640-m above the sea level, by considering the low temperature and low air pressure. The mirror is held in the primary mirror cell which is used as a part of the vacuum chamber when the mirror surface is aluminized without being detached from the cell. The pupil is set at the secondary mirror to minimize infrared radiation into instruments. The telescope has two Nasmyth foci for near-infrared and mid-infrared facility instruments (SWIMS and MIMIZUKU, respectively) and one folded-Caseggrain focus for carry-in instruments. At each focus, autoguider and wavefront measurement systems are attached to achieve seeing-limited image quality. The telescope mount is designed as a tripod-disk type alt-azimuth mount. Both the azimuthal and elevation axes are supported by and run on the hydrostatic bearings. Friction drives are selected for these axis drives. The telescope mount structure and primary mirror support as well as the mirrors are under thermal control and maintained at ambient air temperature to minimize the mirror seeing.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) is a project to construct a 6.5-meter telescope optimized for infrared observations at the summit of Co. Chajnantor, 5,640 m altitude. The high altitude and low water vapor (0.5mm in 25% percentile) of the site provide wide wavelength coverage from 0.3 to 38 micron including continuous window from 0.9 to 2.5 micron and new windows at wavelength longer than 25 micron. We report on the design and the current status of the mirror, the telescope, the summit and the base facilities in this paper.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: A basic design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama observatory (TAO) 6.5-m telescope is described in this paper. The enclosure facility has a carousel shape with an open-space near the ground surface. The upper carousel rotates independently of the telescope. Horizontally opened slit doors, a dozen ventilation windows, wind and moon shields, and an overhead bridge-crane are equipped. For safety reasons, most of maintenance walkways are placed inside of the enclosure facility. An observation floor of the enclosure facility is connected to the support facility via a bridge for maintenance of observation instruments and a primary mirror of the telescope. Air inside of the enclosure and support facilities is exhausted to an underground tunnel.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Sensitive observations with ALMA allow astronomers to observe the detailed distributions of molecules with relatively weak intensity in nearby galaxies. In particular, we report distributions of several molecular transitions including shock and dust related species ($^{13}$CO $J$ = 1--0, C$^{18}$O $J$ = 1--0, $^{13}$CN $N$ = 1--0, CS $J$ = 2--1, SO $J_N$ = 3$_2$--2$_1$, HNCO $J_{Ka,Kc}$ = 5$_{0,5}$--4$_{0,4}$, HC$_3$N $J$ = 11--10, 12--11, CH$_3$OH $J_K$ = 2$_K$--1$_K$, and CH$_3$CN $J_K$ = 6$_K$--5$_K$) in the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 observed with the ALMA early science program. The central $\sim$1 arcmin ($\sim$4.3 kpc) of this galaxy was observed in the 100 GHz region covering $\sim$96--100 GHz and $\sim$108--111 GHz with an angular resolution of $\sim4"\times2"$ (290 pc$\times$140 pc) to study the effects of an active galactic nucleus and its surrounding starburst ring on molecular abundances. Here, we present images and report a classification of molecular distributions into three main categories: (1) Molecules concentrated in the circumnuclear disk (CND) (SO $J_N$ = 3$_2$--2$_1$, HC$_3$N $J$ = 11--10, 12--11, and CH$_3$CN $J_K$ = 6$_K$--5$_K$), (2) Molecules distributed both in the CND and the starburst ring (CS $J$ = 2--1 and CH$_3$OH $J_K$ = 2$_K$--1$_K$), (3) Molecules distributed mainly in the starburst ring ($^{13}$CO $J$ = 1--0 and C$^{18}$O $J$ = 1--0). Since most of the molecules such as HC$_3$N observed in the CND are easily dissociated by UV photons and X-rays, our results indicate that these molecules must be effectively shielded. In the starburst ring, the relative intensity of methanol at each clumpy region is not consistent with those of $^{13}$CO, C$^{18}$O, and CS. This difference is probably caused by the unique formation and destruction mechanisms of CH$_3$OH.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 07/2014; 66(4):id. 75. DOI:10.1093/pasj/psu052 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-duration γ-ray bursts are associated with the explosions of massive stars and are accordingly expected to reside in star-forming regions with molecular gas (the fuel for star formation). Previous searches for carbon monoxide (CO), a tracer of molecular gas, in burst host galaxies did not detect any emission. Molecules have been detected as absorption in the spectra of γ-ray burst afterglows, and the molecular gas is similar to the translucent or diffuse molecular clouds of the Milky Way. Absorption lines probe the interstellar medium only along the line of sight, so it is not clear whether the molecular gas represents the general properties of the regions where the bursts occur. Here we report spatially resolved observations of CO line emission and millimetre-wavelength continuum emission in two galaxies hosting γ-ray bursts. The bursts happened in regions rich in dust, but not particularly rich in molecular gas. The ratio of molecular gas to dust (<9-14) is significantly lower than in star-forming regions of the Milky Way and nearby star-forming galaxies, suggesting that much of the dense gas where stars form has been dissipated by other massive stars.
    Nature 06/2014; 510(7504):247-9. DOI:10.1038/nature13325 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results from a 1.1 mm imaging survey of the SSA22 field, known for having an overdensity of z=3.1 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs), taken with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We imaged a 950 arcmin$^2$ field down to a 1 sigma sensitivity of 0.7-1.3 mJy/beam to find 125 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with a signal to noise ratio >= 3.5. Counterpart identification using radio and near/mid-infrared data was performed and one or more counterpart candidates were found for 59 SMGs. Photometric redshifts based on optical to near-infrared images were evaluated for 45 SMGs of these SMGs with Spitzer/IRAC data, and the median value is found to be z=2.4. By combining these estimation with estimates from the literature we determined that 10 SMGs might lie within the large-scale structure at z=3.1. The two-point angular cross-correlation function between LAEs and SMGs indicates that the positions of the SMGs are correlated with the z=3.1 protocluster. These results suggest that the SMGs were formed and evolved selectively in the high dense environment of the high redshift universe. This picture is consistent with the predictions of the standard model of hierarchical structure formation.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2014; 440(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu447 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a deep Jansky Very Large Array observation of CO J=1-0 emission line in a proto-cluster at z=2.53, USS1558-003. The target field is an especially dense region, where 20 H-alpha emitters (HAEs) are clustering. We successfully detect CO emission lines from four HAEs and give an upper limit for 16 HAEs. Red, massive star-forming galaxies tend to be gas rich while blue less massive galaxies are faint in the CO emission. Given the close proximity (32 kpc), small velocity offset (130 km/s), and similar stellar masses of the two CO emitters, ID 191 and ID 193, they could be in the phase prior to a gas-rich major merger. ID 193 shows a red color in the rest-frame optical, suggesting the presence of dusty star-formation. Using MIPS 24 um and radio continuum images, we find a total infrared luminosity of L(IR)=5.1e12 Lsun for ID 193, corresponding to SFR~880 Msun/yr. The L(IR)/L'(CO) ratio is significantly enhanced compared to local spirals/high-redshift disks at a fixed CO luminosity, which is indicative of a starburst mode. Our results suggest that ID 193 lies in the late stage of merger where violent star formation is induced by a past interaction with a gas-rich galaxy but the neighboring blue HAE, ID 191. The most intriguing result is that such a system is discovered in an extremely dense region at z>2. The formation processes of slow rotators seen in local massive clusters may involve such multiple gas-rich mergers in proto-clusters at z>2.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 02/2014; 788(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/788/2/L23 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of a distant star-forming galaxy, ALMA J010748.3─173028, which is identified by a 13σ emission line at 99.75 GHz (SΔv = 3.1 Jy km s─1), behind the nearby merging galaxies VV114 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 3. We also find an 880 μm counterpart with ALMA Band 7 (S 880μm = 11.2 mJy). A careful comparison of the intensities of the line and the continuum suggests that the line is a redshifted 12CO transition. A photometric redshift analysis using the infrared to radio data favors a CO redshift of z = 2.467, although z = 3.622 is acceptable. We also find a hard X-ray counterpart, suggesting the presence of a luminous (L X ~ 1044 erg s─1) active galactic nucleus obscured by a large hydrogen column (N H ~ 2 × 1023 cm─2 if z = 2.47). A cosmological simulation shows that the chance detection rate of a CO-emitting galaxy at z > 1 with >=1 Jy km s─1 is ~10─3 per single ALMA field of view and 7.5 GHz bandwidth at 99.75 GHz. This demonstrates that ALMA has sufficient sensitivity to find an emission-line galaxy such as ALMA J010748.3─173028 even by chance, although the likelihood of stumbling across such a source is not high.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 01/2014; 781(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/781/2/L39 · 5.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

438 Citations
262.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2015
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2014
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      • Department of Astronomical Science
      Миура, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2010
    • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
      • Departamento de Anatomía
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
  • 2007–2010
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      • Astronomy Data Center
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan