[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preliminary data show that endosonography guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) may be an accurate method for diagnosing sarcoidosis. However, these data were obtained in a small selected group of patients with a very high pretest probability of sarcoidosis. This retrospective study reports on the use of EUS-FNA in an unselected group of patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy of unknown origin.
The EUS database of a single tertiary referral centre was reviewed for patients who underwent EUS-FNA for mediastinal lymphadenopathy of unknown origin. Clinical presentation and imaging studies of each case were carefully reviewed and the diagnosis "sarcoidosis" or "no sarcoidosis" attributed if possible. The diagnoses were compared with the result of EUS-FNA.
One hundred and twenty four patients were investigated. In 35 cases EUS-FNA identified granulomas (group 1); in the other 89 cases (group 2) no granulomas were detected. The definite diagnoses in group 1 were sarcoidosis (n = 25), indefinite (n = 7), no sarcoidosis (n = 3). The definite diagnoses in group 2 were sarcoidosis (n = 3), indefinite (n = 9), no sarcoidosis (n = 77). Of the 77 cases with no sarcoidosis, 44 were diagnosed with other diseases. The other 33 showed non-specific changes in the FNA and sarcoidosis was excluded by negative non-EUS pathology (n = 17) and clinical presentation. The sensitivity and specificity for EUS-FNA were 89% (95% CI 82 to 94) and 96% (95% CI 91 to 98), respectively, after exclusion of the indefinite cases in both groups.
EUS-FNA is an accurate method for diagnosing sarcoidosis in an unselected group of patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The reported sensitivity and specificity must be appreciated in the context of the difficult and often incomplete clinical diagnosis of sarcoidosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a minimally invasive and highly accurate method of detecting mediastinal lymph-node metastases in gastrointestinal and lung cancer. Little information is available regarding the use of EUS-FNA to stage tumors in the head and neck region. This study reports experience with EUS in the diagnosis and staging of these tumors and their mediastinal spread.
The records of patients who underwent EUS for diagnosis and/or staging of head and neck tumors were reviewed. Referral criteria were suspected invasion of the esophagus by a lower-neck mass on cervical computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or mediastinal lymphadenopathy > 10 mm on a chest CT.
Thirty-two patients (23 men, nine women; mean age 65 years, range 44 - 80) were referred and underwent 35 EUS examinations. In one patient, EUS was not possible due to a benign esophageal stricture. In 17 patients with suspected esophageal invasion on CT scans, EUS demonstrated invasion of the esophagus in four cases and of the pleura in one; 12 tumors showed no visible invasion of adjacent structures. The other 17 examinations were carried out for suspected mediastinal metastatic disease. In eight cases, EUS-FNA confirmed metastatic disease, whereas only benign changes were shown in the other nine cases. EUS-FNA also provided the first tissue diagnosis in two primary tumors and identified malignancy in one patient with no CT suspicion of positive mediastinal lymph nodes. EUS avoided the need for more invasive investigations in all patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and it changed the management in 12 of the 17 patients (71 %) with suspected esophageal invasion and in eight of the 17 patients (47 %) with suspected mediastinal disease.
EUS with FNA provides a viable approach to the diagnosis and staging of tumors in the head and neck region when there is a suggestion of esophageal invasion on CT or MRI, or enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. EUS with FNA may avoid the need for mediastinoscopy or other more invasive techniques for staging of these neoplasms.