[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preliminary data show that endosonography guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) may be an accurate method for diagnosing sarcoidosis. However, these data were obtained in a small selected group of patients with a very high pretest probability of sarcoidosis. This retrospective study reports on the use of EUS-FNA in an unselected group of patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy of unknown origin.
The EUS database of a single tertiary referral centre was reviewed for patients who underwent EUS-FNA for mediastinal lymphadenopathy of unknown origin. Clinical presentation and imaging studies of each case were carefully reviewed and the diagnosis "sarcoidosis" or "no sarcoidosis" attributed if possible. The diagnoses were compared with the result of EUS-FNA.
One hundred and twenty four patients were investigated. In 35 cases EUS-FNA identified granulomas (group 1); in the other 89 cases (group 2) no granulomas were detected. The definite diagnoses in group 1 were sarcoidosis (n = 25), indefinite (n = 7), no sarcoidosis (n = 3). The definite diagnoses in group 2 were sarcoidosis (n = 3), indefinite (n = 9), no sarcoidosis (n = 77). Of the 77 cases with no sarcoidosis, 44 were diagnosed with other diseases. The other 33 showed non-specific changes in the FNA and sarcoidosis was excluded by negative non-EUS pathology (n = 17) and clinical presentation. The sensitivity and specificity for EUS-FNA were 89% (95% CI 82 to 94) and 96% (95% CI 91 to 98), respectively, after exclusion of the indefinite cases in both groups.
EUS-FNA is an accurate method for diagnosing sarcoidosis in an unselected group of patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The reported sensitivity and specificity must be appreciated in the context of the difficult and often incomplete clinical diagnosis of sarcoidosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a minimally invasive and highly accurate method of detecting mediastinal lymph-node metastases in gastrointestinal and lung cancer. Little information is available regarding the use of EUS-FNA to stage tumors in the head and neck region. This study reports experience with EUS in the diagnosis and staging of these tumors and their mediastinal spread.
The records of patients who underwent EUS for diagnosis and/or staging of head and neck tumors were reviewed. Referral criteria were suspected invasion of the esophagus by a lower-neck mass on cervical computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or mediastinal lymphadenopathy > 10 mm on a chest CT.
Thirty-two patients (23 men, nine women; mean age 65 years, range 44 - 80) were referred and underwent 35 EUS examinations. In one patient, EUS was not possible due to a benign esophageal stricture. In 17 patients with suspected esophageal invasion on CT scans, EUS demonstrated invasion of the esophagus in four cases and of the pleura in one; 12 tumors showed no visible invasion of adjacent structures. The other 17 examinations were carried out for suspected mediastinal metastatic disease. In eight cases, EUS-FNA confirmed metastatic disease, whereas only benign changes were shown in the other nine cases. EUS-FNA also provided the first tissue diagnosis in two primary tumors and identified malignancy in one patient with no CT suspicion of positive mediastinal lymph nodes. EUS avoided the need for more invasive investigations in all patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and it changed the management in 12 of the 17 patients (71 %) with suspected esophageal invasion and in eight of the 17 patients (47 %) with suspected mediastinal disease.
EUS with FNA provides a viable approach to the diagnosis and staging of tumors in the head and neck region when there is a suggestion of esophageal invasion on CT or MRI, or enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. EUS with FNA may avoid the need for mediastinoscopy or other more invasive techniques for staging of these neoplasms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benign mediastinal cysts, which account for approximately 20% of mediastinal masses, may be diagnostic challenges. Information regarding the use of EUS and EUS-guided FNA in this setting is limited. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the value and potential risks of EUS and EUS-FNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal foregut cysts.
The EUS database of a single tertiary referral center was reviewed for the diagnosis of benign mediastinal cysts. Twenty patients were identified who underwent 23 EUS examinations for suspected mediastinal cysts (n = 4), for follow-up of a known cyst (n = 3), or for a mediastinal mass of unknown origin (n = 16).
In 19 patients, the definite diagnosis of a mediastinal cyst was established by EUS. Twelve cysts appeared anechoic, 6 were hypoechoic, and one anechoic cyst contained small echoic foci. CT (n = 17) or magnetic resonance imaging (n = 1) was performed in 18 cases; only 4 of these were diagnostic of a cyst. In 3 cases, the cyst contents were aspirated by EUS-FNA. In a fourth case, a solid-appearing duplication cyst, misdiagnosed by EUS, was sampled with FNA and core biopsy. This patient developed severe sepsis secondary to mediastinitis 4 days later. Thoracotomy revealed an infected bronchogenic cyst.
EUS provides a minimally invasive approach to the diagnosis of benign mediastinal cysts and may be more accurate than CT or other imaging modalities. Aspiration of suspected cysts should be undertaken with caution, given the risk of infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Benign mediastinal cysts, which account for approximately 20% of mediastinal masses, may be diagnostic challenges. Information regarding the use of EUS and EUS-guided FNA in this setting is limited. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the value and potential risks of EUS and EUS-FNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal foregut cysts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) plays a vital role in management of upper gastrointestinal disorders, particularly cancer of the esophagus, pancreas, stomach, lung (via transesophageal mediastinal staging), and bile duct. Endoscopic ultrasound has also been valuable in detection of early chronic pancreatitis (CP). In cancer of the esophagus, the primary role of EUS is to determine whether disease is localized (T1-2, N0) and appropriate for surgery, locally advanced (T3-4, N1, M1a) (which may benefit from chemoradiation with or without surgery), or metastatic. Pancreatic and bile duct cancers are more complex given the controversy over portal vein resection. In centers that resect tumors invading the portal venous system, the role of EUS is limited to tissue confirmation or identification of metastases to the liver or distant lymph nodes. In centers that do not resect the portal vein invasion, EUS plays an important role in local staging. In lung cancer, EUS is emerging as an accurate, nonsurgical alternative to staging the mediastinum through EUS fine-needle aspiration. Endoscopic ultrasound has an important role in diagnosing CP because of its high degree of sensitivity. This has also led to controversy over whether EUS can overdiagnose CP. For these reasons, we recommend the use of a high threshold for EUS and that CP be diagnosed in conjunction with other standard tests (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, pancreatic function tests).