[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is reported in 30 to 60% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) but shared genetic mechanisms that exist between TSC-associated ASD and idiopathic ASD have yet to be determined. Through the small G-protein Rheb, the TSC proteins, hamartin and tuberin, negatively regulate mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. It is well established that mTORC1 plays a pivotal role in neuronal translation and connectivity, so dysregulation of mTORC1 signaling could be a common feature in many ASDs. Pam, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, binds to TSC proteins and regulates mTORC1 signaling in the CNS, and the FBXO45-Pam ubiquitin ligase complex plays an essential role in neurodevelopment by regulating synapse formation and growth. Since mounting evidence has established autism as a disorder of the synapses, we tested whether rare genetic variants in TSC1, TSC2, MYCBP2, RHEB and FBXO45, genes that regulate mTORC1 signaling and/or play a role in synapse development and function, contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic ASD. METHODS: Exons and splice junctions of TSC1, TSC2, MYCBP2, RHEB and FBXO45 were resequenced for 300 ASD trios from the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) using a pooled PCR amplification and next-generation sequencing strategy, targeted to the discovery of deleterious coding variation. These detected, potentially functional, variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing of the individual samples comprising the pools in which they were identified. RESULTS: We identified a total of 23 missense variants in MYCBP2, TSC1 and TSC2. These variants exhibited a near equal distribution between the proband and parental pools, with no statistical excess in ASD cases (P > 0.05). All proband variants were inherited. No putative deleterious variants were confirmed in RHEB and FBXO45. Three intronic variants, identified as potential splice defects in MYCBP2 did not show aberrant splicing upon RNA assay. Overall, we did not find an over-representation of ASD causal variants in the genes studied to support them as contributors to autism susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe an enrichment of rare functional variants in TSC1 and TSC2 genes in our sample set of 300 trios.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pam and its homologs (the PHR protein family) are large E3 ubiquitin ligases that function to regulate synapse formation and growth in mammals, zebrafish, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Phr1-deficient mouse models (Phr1(Δ8,9) and Phr1(Magellan), with deletions in the N-terminal putative guanine exchange factor region and the C-terminal ubiquitin ligase region, respectively) exhibit axon guidance/outgrowth defects and striking defects of major axon tracts in the CNS. Our earlier studies identified Pam to be associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) proteins, ubiquitinating TSC2 and regulating mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Here, we examine the potential involvement of the TSC/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) signaling pathway in Phr1-deficient mouse models. We observed attenuation of mTORC1 signaling in the brains of both Phr1(Δ8,9) and Phr1(Magellan) mouse models. Our results establish that Pam regulates TSC/mTOR signaling in vitro and in vivo through two distinct domains. To further address whether Pam regulates mTORC1 through two functionally independent domains, we undertook heterozygous mutant crossing between Phr1(Δ8,9) and Phr1(Magellan) mice to generate a compound heterozygous model to determine whether these two domains can complement each other. mTORC1 signaling was not attenuated in the brains of double mutants (Phr1(Δ8,9/Mag)), confirming that Pam displays dual regulation of the mTORC1 pathway through two functional domains. Our results also suggest that although dysregulation of mTORC1 signaling may be responsible for the corpus callosum defects, other neurodevelopmental defects observed with Phr1 deficiency are independent of mTORC1 signaling. The ubiquitin ligase complex containing Pam-Fbxo45 likely targets additional synaptic and axonal proteins, which may explain the overlapping neurodevelopmental defects observed in Phr1 and Fbxo45 deficiency.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2012; 287(36):30063-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inactivating mutations in the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene results in the development of schwannomas and meningiomas. Using NF2-deficient meningioma cells and tumors, together with the normal cellular counterparts that meningiomas derive, arachnoid cells, we identified merlin as a novel negative regulator of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). We now show that merlin positively regulates the kinase activity of mTORC2, a second functionally distinct mTOR complex, and that downstream phosphorylation of mTORC2 substrates, including Akt, is reduced upon acute merlin deficiency in cells. In response to general growth factor stimulation, Akt signaling is attenuated in merlin RNA interference-suppressed human arachnoid and Schwann cells by mechanisms mediated by hyperactive mTORC1 and impaired mTORC2. Moreover, Akt signaling is impaired differentially in a cell type-dependent manner in response to distinct growth factor stimuli. However, contrary to activation of mTORC1, the attenuated mTORC2 signaling profiles exhibited by normal arachnoid and Schwann cells in response to acute merlin loss were not consistently reflected in NF2-deficient meningiomas and schwannomas, suggesting additional genetic events may have been acquired in tumors after initial merlin loss. This finding contrasts with another benign tumor disorder, tuberous sclerosis complex, which exhibits attenuated mTORC2 signaling profiles in both cells and tumors. Finally, we examined rapamycin, as well as the mTOR kinase inhibitor, Torin1, targeting both mTOR complexes to identify the most efficacious class of compounds for blocking mTOR-mediated signaling and proliferation in merlin-deficient meningioma cells. These studies may ultimately aid in the development of suitable therapeutics for NF2-associated tumors.
Molecular Cancer Research 03/2012; 10(5):649-59. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inactivating mutations of the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene, NF2, result predominantly in benign neurological tumors, schwannomas and meningiomas, in humans; however, mutations in murine Nf2 lead to a broad spectrum of cancerous tumors. The tumor-suppressive function of the NF2 protein, merlin, a membrane-cytoskeleton linker, remains unclear. Here, we identify the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) as a novel mediator of merlin's tumor suppressor activity. Merlin-deficient human meningioma cells and merlin knockdown arachnoidal cells, the nonneoplastic cell counterparts of meningiomas, exhibit rapamycin-sensitive constitutive mTORC1 activation and increased growth. NF2 patient tumors and Nf2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts demonstrate elevated mTORC1 signaling. Conversely, the exogenous expression of wild-type merlin isoforms, but not a patient-derived L64P mutant, suppresses mTORC1 signaling. Merlin does not regulate mTORC1 via the established mechanism of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt or mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated TSC2 inactivation and may instead regulate TSC/mTOR signaling in a novel fashion. In conclusion, the deregulation of mTORC1 activation underlies the aberrant growth and proliferation of NF2-associated tumors and may restrain the growth of these lesions through negative feedback mechanisms, suggesting that rapamycin in combination with phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors may be therapeutic for NF2.
Molecular and cellular biology 06/2009; 29(15):4250-61. · 6.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chordomas are rare, malignant bone neoplasms in which the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. Interestingly, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is the only syndrome in which the incidence of chordomas has been described. We previously reported the pathogenic role of the TSC genes in TSC-associated chordomas. In this study, we investigated whether aberrant TSC/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway is associated with sporadic chordomas.
We assessed the status of mTORC1 signaling in primary tumors/cell lines of sacral chordomas and further examined upstream of mTORC1 signaling, including the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) tumor suppressor. We also tested the efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin on signaling and growth of chordoma cell lines.
Sporadic sacral chordoma tumors and cell lines examined commonly displayed hyperactivated Akt and mTORC1 signaling. Strikingly, expression of PTEN, a negative regulator of mTORC1 signaling, was not detected or significantly reduced in chordoma-derived cell lines and primary tumors. Furthermore, rapamycin inhibited mTORC1 activation and suppressed proliferation of chordoma-derived cell line.
Our results suggest that loss of PTEN as well as other genetic alterations that result in constitutive activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling may contribute to the development of sporadic chordomas. More importantly, a combination of Akt and mTORC1 inhibition may provide clinical benefits to chordoma patients.
Clinical Cancer Research 04/2009; 15(6):1940-6. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meningiomas may occur either as familial tumors in two distinct disorders, familial multiple meningioma and neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), or sporadically, as either single or multiple tumors in individuals with no family history. Meningiomas in NF2 and approximately 60% of sporadic meningiomas involve inactivation of the NF2 locus, encoding the tumor suppressor merlin on chromosome 22q. This study was undertaken to establish whether genomic profiling could distinguish familial multiple meningiomas from sporadic solitary and sporadic multiple meningiomas.
We compared 73 meningiomas presenting as sporadic solitary (64), sporadic multiple (5) and familial multiple (4) tumors using genomic profiling by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH).
Sporadic solitary meningiomas revealed genomic rearrangements consistent with at least two mechanisms of tumor initiation, as unsupervised cluster analysis readily distinguished tumors with chromosome 22 deletion (associated with loss of the NF2 tumor suppressor) from those without chromosome 22 deletion. Whereas sporadic meningiomas without chromosome 22 loss exhibited fewer chromosomal imbalance events overall, tumors with chromosome 22 deletion further clustered into two major groups that largely, though not perfectly, matched with their benign (WHO Grade I) or advanced (WHO Grades II and III) histological grade, with the latter exhibiting a significantly greater degree of genomic imbalance (P < 0.001). Sporadic multiple meningiomas showed a frequency of genomic imbalance events comparable to the atypical grade solitary tumors. By contrast, familial multiple meningiomas displayed no imbalances, supporting a distinct mechanism for the origin for these tumors.
Genomic profiling can provide an unbiased adjunct to traditional meningioma classification and provides a basis for exploring the different genetic underpinnings of tumor initiation and progression. Most importantly, the striking difference observed between sporadic and familial multiple meningiomas indicates that genomic profiling can provide valuable information for differential diagnosis of subjects with multiple meningiomas and for considering the risk for tumor occurrence in their family members.
BMC Medical Genomics 01/2009; 2:42. · 3.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis is a single-gene disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the TSC1 (9q34) or TSC2 (16p13.3) gene and is frequently associated with mental retardation, autism and epilepsy. Even individuals with tuberous sclerosis and a normal intelligence quotient (approximately 50%) are commonly affected with specific neuropsychological problems, including long-term and working memory deficits. Here we report that mice with a heterozygous, inactivating mutation in the Tsc2 gene (Tsc2(+/-) mice) show deficits in learning and memory. Cognitive deficits in Tsc2(+/-) mice emerged in the absence of neuropathology and seizures, demonstrating that other disease mechanisms are involved. We show that hyperactive hippocampal mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling led to abnormal long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and consequently to deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning. These deficits included impairments in two spatial learning tasks and in contextual discrimination. Notably, we show that a brief treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in adult mice rescues not only the synaptic plasticity, but also the behavioral deficits in this animal model of tuberous sclerosis. The results presented here reveal a biological basis for some of the cognitive deficits associated with tuberous sclerosis, and they show that treatment with mTOR antagonists ameliorates cognitive dysfunction in a mouse model of this disorder.
Nature medicine 07/2008; 14(8):843-8. · 27.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor tuberin, encoded by the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) gene TSC2, negatively regulates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which plays a key role in the control of cell growth and proliferation. In addition to naturally occurring mutations, several kinases including Akt, RSK1, and ERK are known to phosphorylate and inactivate tuberin. We demonstrate a novel mechanism of tuberin inactivation through ubiquitination by Pam, a putative RING finger-containing E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase in mammalian cells. We show that Pam associates with E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and tuberin can be ubiquitinated by Pam through its RING finger domain. Tuberin ubiquitination is independent of its phosphorylation by Akt, RSK1, and ERK kinases. Pam is also self-ubiquitinated through its RING finger domain. Moreover, the TSC1 protein hamartin, which forms a heterodimer with tuberin, protects tuberin from ubiquitination by Pam. However, TSC1 fails to protect a disease-associated missense mutant of TSC2 from ubiquitination by Pam. Furthermore, Pam knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) in rat primary neurons elevates the level of tuberin, and subsequently inhibits the mTOR pathway. Our results provide novel evidence that Pam can function as an E3 Ub ligase toward tuberin and regulate mTOR signaling, suggesting that Pam can in turn regulate cell growth and proliferation as well as neuronal function through the TSC/mTOR pathway in mammalian cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water and solute transport across the plasma membrane of cells is a crucial biological function that is mediated mainly by aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. The regulation of these membrane proteins is still incompletely understood. Using the male reproductive tract as a model system in which water and glycerol transport are critical for the establishment of fertility, we now report a novel pathway for the regulation of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) permeability. AQP9 is the major aquaglyceroporin of the epididymis, liver, and peripheral leukocytes, and its COOH-terminal portion contains a putative PDZ binding motif (SVIM). Here we show that NHERF1, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and AQP9 co-localize in the apical membrane of principal cells of the epididymis and the vas deferens, and that both NHERF1 and CFTR co-immunoprecipitate with AQP9. Overlay assays revealed that AQP9 binds to both the PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of NHERF1, with an apparently higher affinity for PDZ1 versus PDZ2. Pull-down assays showed that the AQP9 COOH-terminal SVIM motif is essential for interaction with NHERF1. Functional assays on isolated tubules perfused in vitro showed a high permeability of the apical membrane to glycerol, which is inhibited by the AQP9 inhibitor, phloretin, and is markedly activated by cAMP. The CFTR inhibitors DPC, GlyH-101 and CFTRinh-172 all significantly reduced the cAMP-activated glycerol-induced cell swelling. We propose that CFTR is an important regulator of AQP9 and that the interaction between AQP9, NHERF1, and CFTR may facilitate the activation of AQP9 by cAMP.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2008; 283(5):2986-96. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meningiomas, common tumors arising from arachnoidal cells of the meninges, may occur sporadically, or in association with the inherited disorder, neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2). Most sporadic meningiomas result from NF2 inactivation, resulting in loss of tumor suppressor merlin, implicated in regulating membrane-cytoskeletal organization. To investigate merlin function in an authentic target cell type for NF2 tumor formation, we established primary cultures from genetically-matched meningioma and normal arachnoidal tissues. Our studies revealed novel and distinct cell biological and biochemical properties unique to merlin-deficient meningioma cells compared to merlin-expressing arachnoidal and meningioma cells, and other NF2-deficient cell types. Merlin-deficient meningioma cells displayed cytoskeletal and cell contact defects, altered cell morphology and growth properties, most notably cell senescence, implicating the activation of senescence pathways in limiting benign meningioma growth. Merlin suppression by RNAi in arachnoidal cells replicated merlin-deficient meningioma features, thus establishing these cell systems as disease-relevant models for studying NF2 tumorigenesis.
Neurobiology of Disease 03/2008; 29(2):278-92. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magicin, a protein that we isolated earlier as an interactor of the neurofibromatosis 2 protein merlin, was independently identified as MED28, a subunit of the mammalian Mediator complex. Mediator complex is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional cofactor, which plays an essential role in positive and negative gene regulation. Distinct Mediator subunit composition is thought to contribute to gene regulation specificity based on the interaction of specific subunits with subsets of transcription factors. Here we report that down-regulation of Med28 expression in NIH3T3 cells results in a significant induction of several genes associated with smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. Conversely, overexpression of MED28 represses expression of SMC genes, in concordance with our knockdown data. More importantly, multipotent mesenchymal-derived murine precursors can transdifferentiate into SMCs when Med28 is down-regulated. Our data also show that Med28 functions as a negative regulator of SMC differentiation in concert with other Mediator subunits including Med6, Med8, and Med18 within the Mediator head module. Our results provide strong evidence that MED28 may function as a scaffolding protein by maintaining the stability of a submodule within the head module and that components of this submodule act together in a gene regulatory program to suppress SMC differentiation. The results presented here demonstrate for the first time that the mammalian Mediator subunit MED28 functions as a repressor of SMC differentiation, which could have implications for disorders associated with abnormalities in SMC growth and differentiation, including atherosclerosis, asthma, hypertension, and smooth muscle tumors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2007; 282(44):32152-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently identified a novel actin cytoskeleton-associated protein magicin, for merlin and Grb2 interacting cytoskeletal protein. To unravel the cellular functions of magicin, we used a yeast two-hybrid system and identified Fyn tyrosine kinase as a specific binding partner for magicin. Fyn phosphorylates magicin in vitro. In addition to Fyn, Src and Lck also interact with magicin. Upon stimulation with anti-CD3 antibody, magicin is phosphorylated in the T lymphocyte leukemia Jurkat cell line. Magicin phosphorylation is not observed in an Lck-deficient line, J.CaM1.6, indicating that Lck is the major Src family kinase for phosphorylating magicin in Jurkat cells. Employing site-directed mutagenesis along with in vitro kinase assays, we found that Y64 of magicin is phosphorylated by Lck creating a SH2-Grb2 binding motif. Magicin has also been identified as a Mediator subunit (MED28) in the nucleus involved in transcriptional regulation, therefore we propose that magicin may serve as a multi-faceted adaptor/scaffold to relay cellular signaling to the cytoskeleton and from the cytoskeleton to the nucleus.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2006; 348(3):826-31. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently identified Pam (for protein associated with c-Myc), as a binding partner for the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) protein tuberin in brain. The highly conserved Pam homologs in Drosophila and C. elegans are neuron-specific proteins that regulate synaptic growth. The Pam gene contains 83 exons and encodes a 4,641-amino-acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of approximately 510 kDa. In a previous study, we demonstrated that Pam is expressed as two forms, approximately 450 kDa in rat embryonic and a approximately 350 kDa in rat adult brain. Here we have extended that work to show the approximately 450 kDa form is expressed in rat embryonic kidney, heart, and lung and in rat cell lines, and the approximately 350 kDa form is expressed in adult rat tissues as well as in human and mouse brain and human and mouse cell lines. To understand the size difference, we investigated alternative splicing of Pam in brain and detected six isoforms in the Myc-binding region resulting from splicing of exon 53, and three new exons, 52A, 56, and 56A. We also demonstrate that the presence of exon 52A in Pam significantly enhances binding to Myc, suggesting functional importance of this alternative splicing. The presence of Pam in many cellular compartments, its spliced variants, as well as its multiple binding partners, including tuberin, make it a complex, yet intriguing protein in the nervous system.
Journal of Neuroscience Research 03/2006; 83(2):222-32. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular basis of tumorigenesis and tumor progression in meningiomas is not fully understood. The neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) locus is inactivated in 50-60% of sporadic meningiomas, but the genetic basis of sporadic meningiomas not inactivated at the NF2 locus remains unclear. Specifically, there is conflicting data regarding the role of the tumor suppressor gene DAL-1/4.1B. Using microsatellite markers, we studied 63 sporadic meningiomas to determine loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the NF2 and DAL-1/4.1B loci. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of 52 of these tumors was performed to determine copy number changes on chromosomes 18 and 22. Forty-one of 62 informative tumors showed LOH at the NF2 locus (66%) while only 12 of 62 informative tumors (19%) showed LOH of DAL-1/4.1B. Eleven of 12 (92%) tumors with DAL-1/4.1B LOH also had NF2 LOH. Monosomy or large deletions of chromosomes 18 and 22 were the main mechanism for LOH in these tumors. These studies implicate the DAL-1/4.1B locus in sporadic meningiomas less commonly than reported previously, and suggest that it is a progression rather than an initiation locus. Furthermore, we found the majority of meningiomas developed monosomy rather than isodisomy at the NF2 and DAL-1/4.1B loci as the mechanism for LOH.
Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 11/2005; 162(2):135-9. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The function of the NF2 tumor suppressor merlin has remained elusive despite increasing evidence for its role in actin cytoskeleton reorganization. The closely related ERM proteins (ezrin, radixin, and moesin) act as linkers between the cell membrane and cytoskeleton, and have also been implicated as active actin reorganizers. We report here that merlin and the ERMs can interact with and regulate N-WASP, a critical regulator of actin dynamics. Merlin and moesin were found to inhibit N-WASP-mediated actin assembly in vitro, a function that appears independent of their ability to bind actin. Furthermore, exogenous expression of a constitutively active ERM inhibits N-WASP-dependent Shigella tail formation, suggesting that the ERMs may function as inhibitors of N-WASP function in vivo. This novel function of merlin and the ERMs illustrates a mechanism by which these proteins directly exert their effects on actin reorganization and also provides new insight into N-WASP regulation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2005; 280(13):12517-22. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by bilateral vestibular schwannomas and meningiomas. Merlin, the neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor protein, is related to the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) proteins and, like its family members, is thought to play a role in plasma membrane-cytoskeletal interactions. We report a novel protein as a merlin-specific binding partner that we have named magicin (merlin and Grb2 interacting cytoskeletal protein) and show that the two proteins interact in vitro and in vivo as well as colocalize beneath the plasma membrane. Magicin is a 24 kDa protein that is expressed in many cell lines and tissues. Magicin, similar to merlin, associates with the actin cytoskeleton as determined by cofractionation, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Analysis of the magicin sequence reveals binding motifs for the adaptor protein Grb2. Employing affinity binding, blot overlay and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate an interaction between Grb2 and magicin. In addition, merlin is capable of forming a ternary complex with magicin and Grb2. These results support a role for merlin in receptor-mediated signaling at the cell surface, and may have implications in the regulation of cytoskeletal reorganization.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chordomas are rare sacrococcygeal/sacral, sphenooccipital/clivus, and spinal tumors whose molecular etiology remains relatively understudied. As several anecdotal reports had described chordomas in individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a multisystem hamartoma syndrome, we hypothesized that the genes that cause TSC may have an etiological role in chordomas. In two cases of sacrococcygeal chordomas in individuals with TSC, one with a germ-line TSC2 mutation and the other with a germ-line TSC1 mutation, we confirmed somatic inactivation of the corresponding wild-type allele by loss of heterozygosity analysis and immunohistochemistry. These data provide the first evidence of a pathogenic role by TSC genes in sacrococcygeal chordomas.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 10/2004; 41(1):80-5. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The torsins comprise a four-member family of AAA+ chaperone proteins, including torsinA, torsinB, torp2A and torp3A in humans. Mutations in torsinA underlie early onset torsion dystonia, an autosomal dominant, neurologically based movement disorder. TorsinB is highly homologous to torsinA with its gene adjacent to that for torsinA on human chromosome 9q34. Antibodies have been generated which can distinguish torsinA and torsinB from each other, and from the torps in human and rodent cells. TorsinB (approximately MW 38 kDa), like torsinA ( approximately MW 37 kDa), is an N-glycosylated protein and both reside primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope in cultured cells. Immunoprecipitation studies in cultured cells and human brain tissue indicate that torsinA and torsinB are associated with each other in cells. Overexpression of both wild-type torsinB and mutant torsinA lead to enrichment of the protein in the nuclear envelope and formation of large cytoplasmic inclusions. We conclude that torsinB and torsinA are localized in overlapping cell compartments within the same protein complex, and thus may carry out related functions in vivo.
Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2004; 89(5):1186-94. · 3.97 Impact Factor