Wilhelm Bloch

Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln, Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Are you Wilhelm Bloch?

Claim your profile

Publications (410)1424.12 Total impact

  • Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry / official journal of the Nitric Oxide Society; 11/2014
  • Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry / official journal of the Nitric Oxide Society. 11/2014; 42C:122-123.
  • Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry / official journal of the Nitric Oxide Society. 11/2014; 42C:123.
  • Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry / official journal of the Nitric Oxide Society. 11/2014; 42C:123.
  • American Journal of Hematology 11/2014; · 4.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human red blood cells (RBC) express an active and functional endothelial-like nitric oxide (NO) synthase (RBC-NOS). We report studies on RBC-NOS activity in sickle cell anemia (SCA), a genetic disease characterized by decreased RBC deformability and vascular dysfunction. Total RBC-NOS content was not significantly different in SCA patients compared to healthy controls; however, using phosphorylated RBC-NOS-Ser1177 as a marker, RBC-NOS activation was higher in SCA patients as a consequence of the greater activation of Akt (phosphorylated Akt-Ser473). The higher RBC-NOS activation in SCA led to higher levels of S-nitrosylated α- and β-spectrins, and greater RBC nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels compared to healthy controls. Plasma nitrite content was not different between the two groups. Laser Doppler flowmeter experiments demonstrated blunted microcirculatory NO-dependent response under hyperthermia in SCA patients. RBC deformability, measured by ektacytometry, was reduced in SCA in contrast to healthy individuals, and pre-shearing RBC in vitro did not improve deformability despite an increase of RBC-NOS activation. RBC-NOS activation is high in fresh blood from SCA patients, resulting in high amounts of NO produced by RBC. However, this does not result in improved RBC deformability and vascular function: higher RBC-NO is not sufficient to counterbalance the enhanced oxidative stress in SCA.
    British Journal of Haematology 09/2014; · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alkylating agents (e.g. sulfur and nitrogen mustards) cause a variety of cell and tissue damage including wound healing disorder. Migration of endothelial cells is of utmost importance for effective wound healing. In this study we investigated the effects of chlorambucil (a nitrogen mustard) on early endothelial cells (EEC) with special focus on cell migration. Chlorambucil significantly inhibited migration of EEC in Boyden chamber and wound healing experiments. Cell migration is linked to cytoskeletal organization. We therefore investigated the distribution pattern of the Golgi apparatus as a marker of cell polarity. Cells are polarized under control conditions, whereas chlorambucil caused an encircling perinuclear position of the Golgi apparatus, indicating non-polarized cells. ROS are discussed to be involved in the pathophysiology of alkylating substances and are linked to cell migration and cell polarity. Therefore we investigated the influence of ROS-scavengers (α-linolenic acid (ALA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC)) on the impaired EEC migration. Both substances, in particular ALA, improved EEC migration. Notably ALA restored cell polarity. Remarkably, investigations of ROS and RNS biomarkers (8-isoprostane and nitrotyrosine) did not reveal a significant increase after chlorambucil exposure when assessed 24 h post exposure. A distinct breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by TMRM) that recovered under ALA treatment was observed. In conclusion our results provide compelling evidence that the alkylating agent chlorambucil dramatically impairs directed cellular migration, which is accompanied by perturbations of cell polarity and mitochondrial membrane potential. ALA treatment was able to reconstitute cell polarity and to stabilize mitochondrial potential resulting in improved cell migration.
    Chemico-Biological Interactions 08/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: How force development and time under tension (TUT) during resistance exercise (RE) influence anabolic signalling of skeletal muscle is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that high force development during RE is more important for post-exercise-induced signalling than submaximal and fatiguing RE with lower force development but similar TUT. Twenty-two male subjects (24±6 years, 181±9 cm, 79±2 kg) performed three distinct RE modes in the fed state with equal TUT but distinct force output: (i) maximal eccentric RE (ECC, n=7) three sets, eight reps, 100 % eccentric dynamic force; (ii) standard RE (STD, n=7), three sets, 10 reps, 75 % dynamic force; and (iii) high fatiguing single-set RE (HIT, n=8), 20 reps, 100 % eccentric-concentric force; vastus lateralis biopsies were collected at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 240 min and 24 h after RE, and the signalling of mechanosensitive and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-related proteins was determined. The phosphorylation levels of pFAKTyr397, pJNKThr183/Tyr185, pAKTThr308/Ser473, pmTORSer2448, p4E-BP1Thr37/46, p70s6kThr389/Ser421/Thr424 and pS6Ser235/236 were significantly higher in ECC than those in STD and HITat several time points (P<0.01). pJNKThr183/Tyr185 and pS6Ser235/236 levels were significantly higher in type II myofibres in ECC compared with STD and HIT. HIT exerted throughout the weakest signaling response. We conclude that high force development during acute RE is superior for anabolic skeletal muscle signaling than fatiguing RE with lower force output but similar TUT. Our results suggest that this response is substantially driven by the higher activation of type II myofibres during RE.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 07/2014; · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of superimposed electromyostimulation (E) during cycling on the acute hormonal and metabolic response, as E might be a useful tool to intensify endurance training without performing high external workloads. METHODS: Thirteen subjects participated in three experimental trials each lasting 60 min in a randomized order. (1) Cycling (C), (2) cycling with superimposed E (C + E) and (3) E. Human growth hormone (hGH), testosterone and cortisol were determined before (pre) and 0', 30', 60', 240' and 24 h after each intervention. Metabolic stimuli and perturbations were characterized by lactate and blood gas analysis (pH, base excess, bicarbonate, partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of carbon dioxide). Furthermore, changes of the person's perceived physical state were determined. RESULTS: C + E caused the highest increases in cortisol and hGH, followed by C and E. Testosterone levels showed no significant differences between C + E and C. Metabolic stress was highest during C + E, followed by C and E. C + E was also the most demanding intervention from an athlete's point of view. CONCLUSION: As cortisol and hGH are known to react in an intensity dependent manner, the present study showed that superimposed E is a useful method to intensify endurance training, even when performing low to moderate external workloads. Even at lower exercise intensities, additional E may allow one to induce a high (local) stimulus. It can be speculated, that these acute hormonal increases and metabolic perturbations, might play a positive role in optimizing long-term training adaptations, similar to those of intense training protocols.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 07/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often exhibit chronic elevated lactate levels which can promote peripheral insulin resistance by disturbing skeletal muscle insulin-signaling. Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) proteins transfer lactate molecules through cellular membranes. MCT-1 and MCT-4 are the main protein isoforms expressed in human skeletal muscle, with MCT-1 showing a higher affinity (lower Km) for lactate than MCT-4. T2DM patients have reduced membranous MCT-1 proteins. Consequently, the lactate transport between muscle cells and the circulation as well as within an intracellular lactate shuttle, involving mitochondria (where lactate can be further metabolized), can be negatively affected. This study investigates whether moderate cycling endurance training (3 times per week for 3 months) can change skele-tal muscle MCT contents in T2DM men (n=8, years=56±9, body mass index (BMI)=32±4 kg/m(2)). Protein content analyses (immuno-histochemical stainings) were performed in bio-psies taken from the vastus lateralis muscle. Intracellular MCT-1 proteins were up-regulated (relative increase+89%), while intracellular MCT-4 contents were down-regulated (relative decrease - 41%) following endurance training. Sarcolemmal MCT-1 and MCT-4 did not change. The question of whether the training-induced up-regulation of intracellular MCT-1 leads to an improved lactate transport (and clearance) in T2DM patients requires further research.
    International journal of sports medicine. 07/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is commonly practiced and may enhance peripheral blood flow. Here, we investigated muscle morphology and acute microcirculatory responses before and after a 6-week resistive exercise training intervention without (RE) or with (RVE) simultaneous whole-body vibrations (20 Hz, 6 mm peak-to-peak amplitude) in 26 healthy men in a randomized, controlled parallel-design study. Total haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were measured in gastrocnemius muscle (GM) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured via spirometry, and skeletal muscle morphology was determined in soleus (SOL) muscle biopsies. Our data reveal that exercise-induced muscle deoxygenation both before and after 6 weeks training was similar in RE and RVE (P = 0·76), although VO2 was 20% higher in the RVE group (P<0·001). The RVE group showed a 14%-point increase in reactive hyperaemia (P = 0·007) and a 27% increase in blood volume (P<0·01) in GM after 6 weeks of training. The number of capillaries around fibres was increased by 15% after 6 weeks training in both groups (P<0·001) with no specific effect of superimposed WBV (P = 0·61). Neither of the training regimens induced fibre hypertrophy in SOL. The present findings suggest an increased blood volume and vasodilator response in GM as an adaptation to long-term RVE, which was not observed after RE alone. We conclude that RVE training enhances vasodilation of small arterioles and possibly capillaries. This effect might be advantageous for muscle thermoregulation and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to exercising muscle and removal of carbon dioxide and metabolites.
    Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 07/2014; · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peripheral neuropathies (PNPs) encompass a large group of disorders of heterogeneous origin which can manifest themselves with sensory and/or motor deficits depending on the predominantly affected nerve fiber modality. It represents a highly prevalent disease group which can be associated with significant disability and poor recovery. Exercise has the potential to improve side effects of PNP.
    Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.). 06/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During storage, red blood cells (RBC) become more susceptible to hemolysis and it has also been shown that RBC deformability, which is influenced by RBC nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activity, decreases during blood storage while a correlation between these two parameters under storage conditions has not been investigated so far. Therefore, blood from 15 male volunteers was anticoagulated, leuko-reduced and stored as either concentrated RBC or RBC diluted in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) for eight weeks at 4°C and results were compared to data obtained from freshly drawn blood. During storage, decrease of RBC deformability was related to increased mean cellular volume and increased cell lysis but also to a decrease in RBC-NOS activation. The changes were more pronounced in concentrated RBC than in RBC diluted in SAGM suggesting that the storage method affects the quality of blood. These data shed new light on mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of storage lesion and reveal that RBC-NOS activation and possibly nitric oxide production in RBC are key elements that are influenced by storage and in turn alter deformability. Further studies should therefore also focus on improving these parameters during storage to improve the quality of stored blood with respect to blood transfusion.
    Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 06/2014; · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physical activity is associated with decreased cancer (recurrence) risk and a reduction of treatment specific side effects. Exercise modulates cytokine-expression and shows beneficial effects on cancer patients` immune system. We investigated (i) if Non-Hodgkin-Lymphoma patients have elevated serum macrophage migration inhibiting factor (MIF) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels after immunochemotherapy, (ii) if physical activity influences cytokine serum levels and (iii) if serum cytokine levels are associated with histone modifications in tumor-competitive immune cells.
    European Journal Of Haematology 06/2014; · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increasing physical activity and reduction of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. However, the question of how much physical activity is useful for which target group is still a matter of debate. International guidelines (World Health Organization; European Association for the Study of Obesity), which are mainly based on expert opinions, recommend 60 min of physical activity every day. Age- and sex-specific features and regional differences are not taken into account. Therefore, expert consensus recommendations for promoting physical activity of children and adolescents in Germany were developed with special respect to national data, but also with respect to aspects of specific target groups, e.g., children with a lower socio-economic status (SES) or with migration background. They propose 90 min/day of physical activity, or at least 12,000 steps daily. Additionally, lifestyle factors, especially restriction of media consumption, were integrated. The recommendations provide orientation for parents and caregivers, for institutions such as schools and kindergartens as well as for communities and stakeholders. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
    Obesity Facts 05/2014; 7(3):178-190. · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT To assess the effects of chemoimmunotherapy on post chemotherapy cognitive impairments (PCCI) in B-cell Non-Hodgkin-Lymphoma (NHL) patients, we used objective and subjective measures of cognitive functions in combination with serum parameters and neuroelectric recordings. Self-perceived status of cognition, fatigue and emotional functioning were reduced in patients (n=30) compared to healthy controls (n=10). Cognitive performance was impaired in NHL patients compared to the controls and a norm sample (n=1179). PCCI was more severe in patients treated with Rituximab and Bendamustine (BR) than in patients who received Rituximab in combination with the CHOP-polychemotherapy (R-CHOP). NHL patients` individual alpha peak frequency and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels correlated with accuracy in the objective cognition test. Higher serum IL-6 concentrations were associated with higher fatigue levels. NHL patients and especially those who were treated with BR are affected by PCCI. BDNF and IL-6 might be involved in the pathogenesis of PCCI and fatigue.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 04/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Satellite cells (SCs) are the resident stem cells of skeletal muscle tissue which play a major role in muscle adaptation, e.g. as a response to physical training. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an intermittent lactate (La) treatment on the proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts, simulating a microcycle of high intensity endurance training. Furthermore, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this context was examined. C2C12 myoblasts were therefore repeatedly incubated for 2h each day with 10mM or 20mM La differentiation medium (DM) and in some cases 20mM La DM plus different antioxidative substances for up to 5days. La free (0mM) DM served as a control. Immunocytochemical staining, Western blot analysis and colorimetric assays were used to assess oxidative stress, proliferation, and differentiation. Results show that La induces oxidative stress, enhances cell-cycle withdrawal, and initiates early differentiation but delays late differentiation in a timely and dose-dependent manner. These effects can be reversed by the addition of antioxidants to the La DM. We therefore conclude that La has a regulatory role in C2C12 myogenesis via a ROS-sensitive mechanism which elicits implications for reassessing some aspects of training and the use of nutritional supplements.
    Stem Cell Research 04/2014; 12(3):742-753. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are complex vesicular structures shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells. As endurance exercise affects the endothelium, the objective of the study was to examine levels of EMP and angiogenic growth factors following different endurance exercise protocols. 12 subjects performed 3 different endurance exercise protocols: 1. High volume training (HVT; 130 min at 55% peak power output (PPO); 2. 4×4 min at 95% PPO; 3. 4×30 sec all-out. EMPs were quantified using flow cytometry after staining platelet-poor-plasma. Events positive for Annexin-V and CD31, and negative for CD42b, were classified as EMPs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), migratory inhibiting factor (MIF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were determined by ELISA technique. For all these measurements venous blood samples were taken pre, 0', 30', 60' and 180' after each intervention. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were performed to explore the effect of collected sera on target endothelial functions and MP uptake capacities. VEGF and HGF significantly increased after HIT interventions. All three interventions caused a significant decrease in EMP levels post exercise compared to pre values. The sera taken after exercise increased the uptake of EMP in target endothelial cells compared to sera taken under resting conditions, which was shown to be phosphatidylserin-dependent. Increased EMP uptake was associated with an improved protection of target cells against apoptosis. Sera taken prior and after exercise promoted target endothelial cell migration, which was abrogated after inhibition of VEGF. Physical exercise leads to decreased EMP levels and promotes a phosphatidylserin-dependent uptake of EMP into target endothelial cells, which is associated with a protection of target cells against apoptosis.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e96024. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a known carcinogenic and cell damaging agent. The underlying cell damaging pathomechanisms have not been totally revealed. Especially BaP-related induction of oxidative and nitrosative stress has not been previously investigated in detail. The presented study investigated these effects in order to elucidate the pathomechanism and as well to identify potential biological markers that may indicate a BaP exposure. Human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were exposed to BaP (1 μM) for either 5 minutes or 6 hours, respectively. BaP-induced cellular damage was evaluated by immunocytochemistry analysis of multiple signaling cascades (e.g. apoptosis, Akt, MAPK, NOS, nitrotyrosine and 8-isoprostane formation), detection of nitrosative stress using diaminofluorescein (DAF-FM) and oxidative stress using 3'-(p aminophenyl)fluorescein (APF). Our results show that BaP exposure significantly enhanced NO and ROS productions in HaCaT cells. BaP led to eNOS-phosphorylation at Ser(1177), Thr(495) and Ser(116) residues. Using specific inhibitors, we found that the Erk1/2 pathways seemed to have strong impact on eNOS phosphorylation. In addition, BaP-induced apoptosis was observed by caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Our results suggest that BaP mediates its toxic effect in keratinocytes through oxidative and nitrosative stress which is accompanied by complex changes of eNOS phosphorylation and changes of Akt and MAPK pathways.
    Toxicology in Vitro 03/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,424.12 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2014
    • Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln
      • • Abteilung molekulare und zelluläre Sportmedizin
      • • Institut für Trainingswissenschaft und Sportinformatik
      • • Institut für Kreislaufforschung und Sportmedizin
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2006–2013
    • University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
      • Department of Urology
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • Universitätsklinikum Münster
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2002–2013
    • University of Bonn
      • Institut für Physiologie I
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • University of Münster
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2012
    • German Aerospace Center (DLR)
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2005–2012
    • Universität Ulm
      • Clinic of Dermatology and Allergology
      Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2004–2012
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2002–2012
    • ETH Zurich
      • Department of Biology
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland
  • 2000–2012
    • Nippon Medical School
      • Department of Otolaryngology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2007–2010
    • Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
      • Department of Molecular Medicine
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2009
    • University of Texas Medical School
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
    • RWTH Aachen University
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1995–2009
    • University of Cologne
      • • Institute of Neurophysiology
      • • Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      • • Institute of Anatomy I
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Neurology
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Institut für klinische Forschung und Entwicklung
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2008
    • Texas A&M University
      College Station, Texas, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Axiogenesis AG
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1999–2001
    • Lund University
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 1997
    • MediaPark Klinik Köln
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany