[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Filipovic, A, Kleinöder, H, Plück, D, Hollmann, W, Bloch, W, and Grau, M. Influence of whole-body electrostimulation on human red blood cell deformability. J Strength Cond Res 29(9): 2570-2578, 2015-Red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS)-dependent NO production is essential for the maintenance of RBC deformability, which is known to improve oxygen supply to the working tissue. Electrostimulation of the whole body (WB-EMS) has been shown to improve maximal strength, springiness, and jumping power of trained and untrained athletes. To examine whether these 2 parameters are associated, this study, for the first time, aimed to investigate the effects of an 18-week dynamic WB-EMS program on RBC deformability in addition to maximal strength performance (1 repetition maximum [1RM]) in elite soccer players. Fifteen test persons were assigned in either WB-EMS group (EG, n = 10) or training group (TG, n = 5). Next to their weekly training sessions, EG performed 3 × 10 squat jumps under the influence of WB-EMS twice per week between weeks 1 and 14 and once per week between weeks 14 and 18. Training group only performed 3 × 10 squat jumps. Performance was assessed by a maximal strength test on the leg press machine (1RM). Subjects were tested at baseline and after weeks 7, 14, and 18 with blood sampling before (Pre), 15-30 minutes after (Post), and 24 hours after (24-hour Post) the training. The results showed that maximal strength was significantly improved in EG (p < 0.01). Maximum RBC deformability (EImax) increased on EMS stimulus in EG while it remained unaffected in the TG. Acute increase in EImax at baseline was explained by an increase in RBC-NOS activation while chronic increase of deformability must be caused by different, yet unknown, mechanisms. EImax decreased between weeks 14 and 18 suggesting that 1 WB-EMS session per week is not sufficient to alter deformability (EImax). In contrast, the deformability at low shear stress (EI 3 Pa), comparable with conditions found in the microcirculation, significantly increased in EG until week 14, whereas in TG deformability only, increased until week 7 due to increasing training volume after the winter break. The results indicate that WB-EMS represents a useful and time-saving addition to conventional training sessions to improve RBC deformability and possibly oxygen supply to the working tissue and thus promoting general force components in high performance sport.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 09/2015; 29(9):2570-8. DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000916 · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To provide initial information on the prevalence of physical activity levels in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases and identify associations with physical and mental health outcomes.
Methods: Self-reported physical activity levels (Modified Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire), physical and mental health outcomes (SF-36 Questionnaire), as well as objective physical performance measures (400m walk, 6m walk) were assessed in 48 prostate cancer survivors (mean age 70.7 ± 8.0; BMI 28.5 ± 4.2; PSA 52.7 ± 154.1) with bone metastases (58.8% > 2 regions affected) at baseline of a randomised controlled trial.
Results: Only 14 men (29.2%) met the current aerobic exercise guidelines (150 minutes of moderate intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous exercise per week or an equivalent combination), while 34 (70.8%) were insufficiently active. Men that were not meeting the aerobic exercise guidelines, had lower physical functioning (p<.01), role functioning (physical and emotional) (p<.05), and general health scores (p<.05). The 6m walk (fast pace) and 400m walk times were also slower, indicating reduced physical performance in men who were insufficiently active compared to those meeting aerobic exercise guidelines (p<.05).
Conclusions: Lower levels of aerobic exercise are associated with reduced physical and mental health outcomes in prostate cancer survivors with bone metastases. While previous research has focused primarily on non-metastatic cancer patients, our initial results suggest that meeting aerobic exercise guidelines may preserve health outcomes in prostate cancer patients with advanced bone metastatic disease. Further research is required to confirm and expand these findings.
BJU International 08/2015; 116(Supplement 1):55. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) invades its human host via skin or mucosa. We aim to understand how HSV-1 overcomes the barrier function of the host epithelia, and for this reason established an ex vivo infection assay initially with murine skin samples. Here, we report how tissue has to be prepared to be susceptible to HSV-1 infection. Most efficient infection of the epidermis was achieved by removing the dermis. HSV-1 initially invaded the basal epidermal layer and from there spreading to the suprabasal layers was observed. Strikingly, in resting stage hair follicles, only the hair germ was infected, whereas the quiescent bulge stem cells (SC) were resistant to infection. However, during the growth phase, infected cells were also detected in the activated bulge SC. We demonstrated that cell proliferation was not a precondition for HSV-1 invasion but SC activation was required as shown by infection of aberrantly activated bulge SC in integrin-linked kinase (ILK)-deficient hair follicles. These results suggest that the status of the bulge SC determines whether HSV-1 can reach its receptors, while the receptors on basal keratinocytes are accessible irrespective of their proliferation status.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 23 July 2015. doi:10.1038/jid.2015.290.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/jid.2015.290 · 6.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myogenesis is defined as growth, differentiation and repair of muscles where cell fusion of myoblasts to multinucleated myofibers is one major characteristic. Other cell fusion events in humans are found with bone resorbing osteoclasts and placental syncytiotrophoblasts. No unifying gene regulation for natural cell fusions has been found. We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies of competitive cyclists for muscle-specific attributes and expression of human endogenous retrovirus (ERV) envelope genes due to their involvement in cell fusion of osteoclasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Comparing muscle biopsies from post- with the pre-competitive seasons a significant 2.25-fold increase of myonuclei/mm fiber, a 2.38-fold decrease of fiber area/nucleus and a 3.1-fold decrease of satellite cells (SCs) occurred. We propose that during the pre-competitive season SC proliferation occurred following with increased cell fusion during the competitive season. Expression of twenty-two envelope genes of muscle biopsies demonstrated a significant increase of putative muscle-cell fusogenic genes Syncytin-1 and Syncytin-3, but also for the non-fusogenic erv3. Immunohistochemistry analyses showed that Syncytin-1 mainly localized to the sarcolemma of myofibers positive for myosin heavy-chain isotypes. Cellular receptors SLC1A4 and SLC1A5 of Syncytin-1 showed significant decrease of expression in post-competitive muscles compared with the pre-competitive season, but only SLC1A4 protein expression localized throughout the myofiber. Erv3 protein was strongly expressed throughout the myofiber, whereas envK1-7 localized to SC nuclei and myonuclei. Syncytin-1 transcription factors, PPARγ and RXRα, showed no protein expression in the myofiber, whereas the pCREB-Ser133 activator of Syncytin-1 was enriched to SC nuclei and myonuclei. Syncytin-1, Syncytin-3, SLC1A4 and PAX7 gene regulations along with MyoD1 and myogenin were verified during proliferating or actively-fusing human primary myoblast cell cultures, resembling muscle biopsies of cyclists. Myoblast treatment with anti-Synycytin-1 abrogated cell fusion in vitro. Our findings support functional roles for ERV envelope proteins, especially Syncytin-1, contributing to cell fusion of myotubes.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0132099. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132099 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise therapy is an integral part of today’s oncological rehabilitation. In order to optimize the outcome of exercise programs in consideration of side effects of cancer and cancer therapies, further studies are necessary. Along with aerobic and coordination exercise, resistance training is an essential part of exercise therapy. Resistance training aids to combat side effects of lymphedema, antiandrogen therapy and cachexia among others. The present study investigated whether high load resistance training is superior to moderate resistance training regarding the increase of physical strength. For this purpose, 31 tumor patients without prior resistance training experience (different entities and therapeutic status) were randomized into either a moderate training group (n=17) or a hypertrophy training group (n=14). For the first 8 weeks, all patients trained in a muscular endurance circuit (2 rounds) consisting of 6 machines (20 repetitions on each), covering the big muscle groups. For the following 8 weeks the MT continued to lift at 20 repetitions, whereas the resistance for the HT was increased to a point where only 8–12 repetitions were possible. The maximum force was determined prior to the intervention (t0), after 8 weeks (t1), and after 16 weeks (t2), using a hypothetical one repetition maximum (h1RM) test. While both groups had comparable baseline levels, the results indicate that there was a significant increase in strength from t1 to t2 in the HT in almost all muscle groups. It can be concluded that a HT is vastly superior to MT regarding the increase of strength. When contraindications are absent, high load resistance training can be recommended, especially for increasing muscle mass. Whether solely the increase of strength plays a central or a peripheral role for the treatment of side effects, such as the fatigue syndrome, needs to be investigated by further studies.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für Onkologie 06/2015; 47(2):70-74. DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1547546
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is characterized by a positive energy balance and expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts energy to produce heat. Here we show that a small molecule stimulator (BAY 41-8543) of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP), protects against diet-induced weight gain, induces weight loss in established obesity, and also improves the diabetic phenotype. Mechanistically, the haeme-dependent sGC stimulator BAY 41-8543 enhances lipid uptake into BAT and increases whole-body energy expenditure, whereas ablation of the haeme-containing β1-subunit of sGC severely impairs BAT function. Notably, the sGC stimulator enhances differentiation of human brown adipocytes as well as induces 'browning' of primary white adipocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that sGC is a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate RBC-NOS dependent NO signaling during in vivo RBC aging in health and disease.
RBC from fifteen healthy volunteers (HC) and four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were separated in seven subpopulations by Percoll density gradient centrifugation.
The proportion of old RBC was significantly higher in DM compared to HC. In both groups, in vivo aging was marked by changes in RBC shape and decreased cell volume. RBC nitrite, as marker for NO, was higher in DM and increased in both HC and DM during aging. RBC deformability was lower in DM and significantly decreased in old compared to young RBC in both HC and DM. RBC-NOS Serine1177 phosphorylation, indicating enzyme activation, increased during aging in both HC and DM. Arginase I activity remained unchanged during aging in HC. In DM, arginase I activity was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC but decreased during aging. In HC, concentration of L-arginine, the substrate of RBC-NOS and arginase I, significantly dropped from young to old RBC. In DM, L-arginine concentration was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC and significantly decreased during aging. In blood from healthy subjects, RBC-NOS activation was additionally inhibited by N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-Ornithine dihydrochloride which decreased RBC nitrite, and impaired RBC deformability of all but the oldest RBC subpopulation.
This study first-time showed highest RBC-NOS activation and NO production in old RBC, possibly to counteract the negative impact of cell shrinkage on RBC deformability. This was even more pronounced in DM. It is further suggested that highly produced NO only insufficiently affects cell function of old RBC maybe because of isolated RBC-NOS in old RBC thus decreasing NO bioavailability. Thus, increasing NO availability may improve RBC function and may extend cell life span in old RBC.
PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0125206. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125206 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improvements in survival rates in pediatric oncology have resulted in a growing need to identify adverse effects and improve rehabilitation in this population.
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate active ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM), gait, walking efficiency, and motor performance in a mixed childhood cancer survivor population in comparison to healthy peers.
Active ankle DF-ROM (goniometer), gait (Microgate Optogait 2D Gait Analysis), walking efficiency (6-minute walk test), and motor performance (German Motor Test 6-18) were assessed in a mixed childhood cancer survivor population after cessation of medical treatment (n = 13) in comparison to healthy children matched for age and gender (n = 13).
Active ankle DF-ROM, gait (stance, swing, and preswing phase), and walking efficiency were significantly impaired in survivors compared with control subjects. No significant difference between groups was found in motor performance.
Despite sufficient total motor performance levels, specific limitations in physical functioning were identified in a mixed childhood cancer survivor sample. This highlights the importance of the present findings.
The results from this study highlight the potential significance of limited ankle DF function, inhibited gait, and reduced walking efficiency as adverse effects of various types of childhood cancer. It is hoped this enhanced recognition by pediatric cancer patients, parents, and exercise professionals will initiate specific supportive strategies and potentially prevent further limitations.
Cancer nursing 04/2015; Publish Ahead of Print. DOI:10.1097/NCC.0000000000000256 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionExercise has beneficial effects on cancer prevention as well as on cancer patients prognosis. To optimize the outcomes of exercise programs more knowledge about the underlying mechanisms is needed. This study investigates the short-term effects of a half marathon on immune cell proportions, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and recovery behavior of breast cancer patients in the aftercare compared to healthy controls.Methods9 breast cancer patients in the aftercare and 9 healthy age-matched controls participated in a half marathon. Blood samples were collected before, after and 24 hours after the run. Immune status was measured by flow-cytometer-analysis while serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and MIF were assessed using ELISA. Recovery behavior was determined by using an ADL-monitor.ResultsBoth groups showed a similar recovery behavior and time courses in changes of granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes and cytokine serum levels. Patients revealed increased proportions of cytotoxic- and memory T-cells, whereas helper- and naïve T-cells were decreased compared to healthy controls. Naïve- and memory T-cell proportions were not affected by the intervention.Conclusions
Breast cancer patients in the aftercare and healthy subjects show a similarly recovery behavior and immune response to the intervention. The detected differences in T-cell subsets need further investigation. Based on the results of the study, we hypothesize that immune cell subsets with known relevance in cancer were mobilized through the intervention. We confirm that the hypothesis of a midterm anti-inflammatory effect of exercise is also valid for breast cancer patients in the aftercare.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
European Journal Of Haematology 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/ejh.12561 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the last decade, epigenetics became one of the fastest growing research fields in numerous clinical and basic science disciplines. Evidence suggests that chromatin modifications (e.g., histone modifications and DNA methylation) as well as the expression of micro-RNA molecules play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. On the one hand, they are involved in the development of general risk factors like chronic inflammation, but on the other hand, epigenetic modifications are conducive to smooth muscle cell, cardiomyocyte, and endothelial progenitor cell proliferation/differentiation as well as to extracellular matrix processing and endothelial function (e.g., endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulation). Therefore, epigenetic medical drugs have gained increased attention and provided the first promising results in the context of cardiovascular malignancies. Beside other lifestyle factors, physical activity and sports essentially contribute to cardiovascular health and regeneration. In this review we focus on recent research proposing physical activity as a potent epigenetic regulator that has the potential to counteract pathophysiological alterations in almost all the aforementioned cardiovascular cells and tissues. As with epigenetic medical drugs, more knowledge about the molecular mechanisms and dose–response relationships of exercise is needed to optimize the outcome of preventive and rehabilitative exercise programs and recommendations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the last decade, epigenetics became one of the fastest growing research fields in numerous clinical and basic science disciplines. Evidence suggests that chromatin modifications (e.g., histone modifications and DNA methylation) as well as the expression of micro-RNA molecules play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. On the one hand, they are involved in the development of general risk factors like chronic inflammation, but on the other hand, epigenetic modifications are conducive to smooth muscle cell, cardiomyocyte, and endothelial progenitor cell proliferation/differentiation as well as to extracellular matrix processing and endothelial function (e.g., endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulation). Therefore, epigenetic medical drugs have gained increased attention and provided the first promising results in the context of cardiovascular malignancies. Beside other lifestyle factors, physical activity and sports essentially contribute to cardiovascular health and regeneration. In this review we focus on recent research proposing physical activity as a potent epigenetic regulator that has the potential to counteract pathophysiological alterations in almost all the aforementioned cardiovascular cells and tissues. As with epigenetic medical drugs, more knowledge about the molecular mechanisms and dose-response relationships of exercise is needed to optimize the outcome of preventive and rehabilitative exercise programs and recommendations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of superimposed electromyostimulation (E) during cycling on myokines and markers of muscle damage, as E might be a useful tool to induce a high local stimulus to skeletal muscle during endurance training without performing high external workloads. Methods: 13 subjects participated in three experimental trials each lasting 60 min in a randomized order. 1) Cycling (C), 2) Cycling with superimposed E (C+E) and 3) E. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin were determined before (pre) and 0', 30', 60', 240' and 24h after each intervention. Results: Only C+E caused significant increases in levels of CK and myoglobin. BDNF and IL-6 significantly increased after C and C+E, however increases for IL-6 were significantly higher after C+E compared to C. Conclusion: The present study showed that superimposed E during cycling might be a useful tool to induce a high local stimulus to skeletal muscle even when performing low to moderate external workloads. This effect might be due the activation of additional muscle fibers and mild eccentric work due to the concomitant activation of agonist and antagonist. However the higher load to skeletal muscle has to be taken into account.