Wilhelm Bloch

Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln, Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (436)1554.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Improvements in survival rates in pediatric oncology have resulted in a growing need to identify adverse effects and improve rehabilitation in this population. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate active ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM), gait, walking efficiency, and motor performance in a mixed childhood cancer survivor population in comparison to healthy peers. Active ankle DF-ROM (goniometer), gait (Microgate Optogait 2D Gait Analysis), walking efficiency (6-minute walk test), and motor performance (German Motor Test 6-18) were assessed in a mixed childhood cancer survivor population after cessation of medical treatment (n = 13) in comparison to healthy children matched for age and gender (n = 13). Active ankle DF-ROM, gait (stance, swing, and preswing phase), and walking efficiency were significantly impaired in survivors compared with control subjects. No significant difference between groups was found in motor performance. Despite sufficient total motor performance levels, specific limitations in physical functioning were identified in a mixed childhood cancer survivor sample. This highlights the importance of the present findings. The results from this study highlight the potential significance of limited ankle DF function, inhibited gait, and reduced walking efficiency as adverse effects of various types of childhood cancer. It is hoped this enhanced recognition by pediatric cancer patients, parents, and exercise professionals will initiate specific supportive strategies and potentially prevent further limitations.
    Cancer nursing 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/NCC.0000000000000256 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionExercise has beneficial effects on cancer prevention as well as on cancer patients prognosis. To optimize the outcomes of exercise programs more knowledge about the underlying mechanisms is needed. This study investigates the short-term effects of a half marathon on immune cell proportions, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and recovery behavior of breast cancer patients in the aftercare compared to healthy controls.Methods9 breast cancer patients in the aftercare and 9 healthy age-matched controls participated in a half marathon. Blood samples were collected before, after and 24 hours after the run. Immune status was measured by flow-cytometer-analysis while serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and MIF were assessed using ELISA. Recovery behavior was determined by using an ADL-monitor.ResultsBoth groups showed a similar recovery behavior and time courses in changes of granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes and cytokine serum levels. Patients revealed increased proportions of cytotoxic- and memory T-cells, whereas helper- and naïve T-cells were decreased compared to healthy controls. Naïve- and memory T-cell proportions were not affected by the intervention.Conclusions Breast cancer patients in the aftercare and healthy subjects show a similarly recovery behavior and immune response to the intervention. The detected differences in T-cell subsets need further investigation. Based on the results of the study, we hypothesize that immune cell subsets with known relevance in cancer were mobilized through the intervention. We confirm that the hypothesis of a midterm anti-inflammatory effect of exercise is also valid for breast cancer patients in the aftercare.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    European Journal Of Haematology 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/ejh.12561 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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  • P Zimmer, W Bloch
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    ABSTRACT: During the last decade, epigenetics became one of the fastest growing research fields in numerous clinical and basic science disciplines. Evidence suggests that chromatin modifications (e.g., histone modifications and DNA methylation) as well as the expression of micro-RNA molecules play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. On the one hand, they are involved in the development of general risk factors like chronic inflammation, but on the other hand, epigenetic modifications are conducive to smooth muscle cell, cardiomyocyte, and endothelial progenitor cell proliferation/differentiation as well as to extracellular matrix processing and endothelial function (e.g., endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulation). Therefore, epigenetic medical drugs have gained increased attention and provided the first promising results in the context of cardiovascular malignancies. Beside other lifestyle factors, physical activity and sports essentially contribute to cardiovascular health and regeneration. In this review we focus on recent research proposing physical activity as a potent epigenetic regulator that has the potential to counteract pathophysiological alterations in almost all the aforementioned cardiovascular cells and tissues. As with epigenetic medical drugs, more knowledge about the molecular mechanisms and dose-response relationships of exercise is needed to optimize the outcome of preventive and rehabilitative exercise programs and recommendations.
    Herz 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00059-015-4213-7 · 0.91 Impact Factor
  • Philipp Zimmer, Wilhelm Bloch
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    ABSTRACT: During the last decade, epigenetics became one of the fastest growing research fields in numerous clinical and basic science disciplines. Evidence suggests that chromatin modifications (e.g., histone modifications and DNA methylation) as well as the expression of micro-RNA molecules play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. On the one hand, they are involved in the development of general risk factors like chronic inflammation, but on the other hand, epigenetic modifications are conducive to smooth muscle cell, cardiomyocyte, and endothelial progenitor cell proliferation/differentiation as well as to extracellular matrix processing and endothelial function (e.g., endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulation). Therefore, epigenetic medical drugs have gained increased attention and provided the first promising results in the context of cardiovascular malignancies. Beside other lifestyle factors, physical activity and sports essentially contribute to cardiovascular health and regeneration. In this review we focus on recent research proposing physical activity as a potent epigenetic regulator that has the potential to counteract pathophysiological alterations in almost all the aforementioned cardiovascular cells and tissues. As with epigenetic medical drugs, more knowledge about the molecular mechanisms and dose-response relationships of exercise is needed to optimize the outcome of preventive and rehabilitative exercise programs and recommendations.
    Herz 03/2015; · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of superimposed electromyostimulation (E) during cycling on myokines and markers of muscle damage, as E might be a useful tool to induce a high local stimulus to skeletal muscle during endurance training without performing high external workloads. Methods: 13 subjects participated in three experimental trials each lasting 60 min in a randomized order. 1) Cycling (C), 2) Cycling with superimposed E (C+E) and 3) E. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin were determined before (pre) and 0', 30', 60', 240' and 24h after each intervention. Results: Only C+E caused significant increases in levels of CK and myoglobin. BDNF and IL-6 significantly increased after C and C+E, however increases for IL-6 were significantly higher after C+E compared to C. Conclusion: The present study showed that superimposed E during cycling might be a useful tool to induce a high local stimulus to skeletal muscle even when performing low to moderate external workloads. This effect might be due the activation of additional muscle fibers and mild eccentric work due to the concomitant activation of agonist and antagonist. However the higher load to skeletal muscle has to be taken into account.
    Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions 03/2015; 15(1):53-59. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Improved treatment protocols necessary for survival in pediatric oncology are associated with the development of serious late effects. Of particular importance, especially with regard to physical activity (PA), may be ankle dorsiflexion (DF). This review summarizes the results of observational and exercise intervention studies exploring ankle DF-range of motion (DF-ROM) and/or ankle DF strength in pediatric oncology. PUBMED, Medline, Cochrane library, and SportDiscus were searched by 2 researchers using predefined search terms. The reference lists of included papers and Google scholar were then searched to that ensure all appropriate articles were included. Twelve studies were identified and were observational (n = 8), providing information regarding the status of DF-ROM and/or DF strength, or intervention studies (n = 4) using exercise as a strategy to improve DF function. All observational studies reported some degree of impairment in ankle DF. Two intervention studies found a positive effect of exercise on ankle DF-ROM. The preliminary results suggest that pediatric cancer patients and survivors suffer from limitations in ankle DF with interventions varying in efficacy. It is hoped that this review will enhance the recognition of the limited ankle DF function in pediatric oncology and initiate further research programs focused on targeting and evaluating ankle DF.
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise has been proven to reduce the risk and progression of various diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that exercise affects the cytokine profile and changes distribution and function of tumor-competitive immune cells. Initial studies have shown that different exercise interventions are associated with epigenetic modifications in different tissues and cell types, such as muscle, fat, brain and blood. The present investigation examines the effect of an intense endurance run (half marathon) on global epigenetic modifications in natural killer (NK) cells in 14 cancer patients compared to 14 healthy controls. We were able to show that histone acetylation and NKG2D expression, a functional NK cell marker, were elevated for at least 24 h after the run. Thus, this is the first study to present a potential mechanism of how exercise may impact NK cell activity on the subcellular level. Further studies should focus on epigenetic mechanisms and dose-dependent effects of exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1398531 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA) is a tension-induced degradation pathway essential for muscle maintenance. Impairment of CASA causes childhood muscle dystrophy and cardiomyopathy. However, the importance of CASA for muscle function in healthy individuals has remained elusive so far. Here we describe the impact of strength training on CASA in a group of healthy and moderately trained men. We show that strenuous resistance exercise causes an acute induction of CASA in affected muscles to degrade mechanically damaged cytoskeleton proteins. Moreover, repeated resistance exercise during 4 wk of training led to an increased expression of CASA components. In human skeletal muscle, CASA apparently acts as a central adaptation mechanism that responds to acute physical exercise and to repeated mechanical stimulation.
    Autophagy 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/15548627.2015.1017186 · 11.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in energy metabolism have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. Mitochondrial fusion is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial function and requires the prohibitin ring complex subunit prohibitin-2 (PHB2) at the mitochondrial inner membrane. Here, we provide a link between PHB2 deficiency and hyperactive insulin/IGF-1 signaling. Deletion of PHB2 in podocytes of mice, terminally differentiated cells at the kidney filtration barrier, caused progressive proteinuria, kidney failure, and death of the animals and resulted in hyperphosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), a known mediator of the mTOR signaling pathway. Inhibition of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling system through genetic deletion of the insulin receptor alone or in combination with the IGF-1 receptor or treatment with rapamycin prevented hyperphosphorylation of S6RP without affecting the mitochondrial structural defect, alleviated renal disease, and delayed the onset of kidney failure in PHB2-deficient animals. Evidently, perturbation of insulin/IGF-1 receptor signaling contributes to tissue damage in mitochondrial disease, which may allow therapeutic intervention against a wide spectrum of diseases. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.
    EMBO Molecular Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.15252/emmm.201404916 · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Hematology 02/2015; 90(2). DOI:10.1002/ajh.23894 · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic elevated lactate levels are associated with insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, lactacidosis plays a role in limiting physical performance. Erythrocytes, which take up lactate via monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) proteins, may help transport lactate within the blood from lactate-producing to lactate-consuming organs. This study investigates whether cycling endurance training (3 times/week for 3 months) alters the basal erythrocyte content of MCT-1, and whether it affects lactate distribution kinetics in the blood of T2DM men (n = 10, years = 61 ± 9, body mass index = 31 ± 3 kg/m(2)) following maximal exercise (WHO step-incremental cycle ergometer test). Immunohistochemical staining indicated that basal erythrocyte contents of MCT-1 protein were up-regulated (+90%, P = 0.011) post-training. Erythrocyte and plasma lactate increased from before acute exercise (= resting values) to physical exhaustion pre- as well as post-training (pre-training: +309%, P = 0.004; +360%, P < 0.001; post-training: +318%, P = 0.008; +300%, P < 0.001), and did not significantly decrease during 5 min recovery. The lactate ratio (erythrocytes:plasma) remained unchanged after acute exercise pre-training, but was significantly increased after 5 min recovery post-training (compared with the resting value) (+22%, P = 0.022). The results suggest an increased time-delayed influx of lactate into erythrocytes following an acute bout of exercise in endurance-trained diabetic men.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 01/2015; DOI:10.1139/cjpp-2014-0467 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    Sebastian Gehlert, Wilhelm Bloch, Frank Suhr
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in almost all cellular processes and ensures the functionality of an organism. In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca2+ is critically involved in the innervation of skeletal muscle fibers that results in the exertion of an action potential along the muscle fiber membrane, the prerequisite for skeletal muscle contraction. Furthermore and among others, Ca2+ regulates also intracellular processes, such as myosin-actin cross bridging, protein synthesis, protein degradation and fiber type shifting by the control of Ca2+-sensitive proteases and transcription factors, as well as mitochondrial adaptations, plasticity and respiration. These data highlight the overwhelming significance of Ca2+ ions for the integrity of skeletal muscle tissue. In this review, we address the major functions of Ca2+ ions in adult muscle but also highlight recent findings of critical Ca2+-dependent mechanisms essential for skeletal muscle-regulation and maintenance.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2015; 16(1):1066-1095. DOI:10.3390/ijms16011066 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The therapeutic impact of exercise interventions in psychiatric diseases such as depression, anxiety and schizophrenia has already been proven through several reviews whereas substance use disorders such as alcohol use disorders (AUD) have so far less frequently been a matter of investigation. Although several publications have summarized studies focusing on physical activities in substance use disorders, no systematic review exists summarizing the evidence of exercise interventions in AUD. A total of 14 studies using the Medline Database, CCMed, Cochrane Library and PsychINFO were identified and met the inclusion criteria. In order to evaluate the evidence, we used the evaluation system of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (2011). Due to methodological flaws the overall evidence of the studies is rated level "3" but primarily findings confirm that exercise interventions as a complementary treatment component in AUD are feasible and safe. No adverse events were reported. This systematic review indicates that exercise may have beneficial effects on certain domains of physical functioning including VO2max, basal heart rate, physical activity level and strength. Inconsistent effects with a slight trend towards a positive effect on anxiety, mood management, craving, and drinking behavior have been shown and need to be verified. Results must be interpreted cautiously due to the numerous methodological flaws and the heterogeneity of the interventions and measures. However, according to preclinical studies several mechanisms of action are conceivable, especially as to alcohol-related outcomes and additionally seem to be promising. RCTs with high methodological quality are urgently needed in future research to establish evidence-based exercise recommendations for the treatment of AUD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Nitric Oxide 11/2014; 42C:122-123. DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2014.09.072 · 3.18 Impact Factor
  • Nitric Oxide 11/2014; 42C:123. DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2014.09.073 · 3.18 Impact Factor
  • Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry / official journal of the Nitric Oxide Society; 11/2014
  • Nitric Oxide 11/2014; 42C:123. DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2014.09.074 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skin keratinocytes represent a primary entry site for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vivo. The cellular proteins nectin-1 and HVEM act as efficient receptors for both serotypes of HSV and are sufficient for disease development mediated by HSV-2 in mice. How HSV-1 enters skin, and whether both nectin-1 and HVEM are involved, is not known. We addressed the impact of nectin-1 during entry of HSV-1 into murine epidermis and investigated the putative contribution of HVEM. Using ex vivo infection of murine epidermis we showed that HSV-1 entered the basal keratinocytes of the epidermis very efficiently. In nectin-1 deficient epidermis entry was strongly reduced. Almost no entry was observed, however, in nectin-1 deficient keratinocytes grown in culture. This observation correlated with the presence of HVEM on the keratinocyte surface in epidermis and with the lack of HVEM expression in nectin-1 deficient primary keratinocytes. Our results suggest that nectin-1 is the primary receptor in epidermis while HVEM has a more limited role. In primary murine keratinocytes where nectin-1 acts as single receptor, electron microscopy suggested that HSV-1 can enter both by direct fusion with the plasma membrane and via endocytic vesicles. Thus, we conclude that nectin-1 directs internalization into keratinocytes via alternative pathways. In summary, HSV-1 entry into epidermis was shown to strongly depend on the presence of nectin-1, however, the restricted presence of HVEM can potentially replace nectin-1 as receptor illustrating the flexibility employed by HSV-1 to efficiently invade tissue in vivo.
    Journal of Virology 10/2014; DOI:10.1128/JVI.02917-14 · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,554.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln
      • • Abteilung molekulare und zelluläre Sportmedizin
      • • Institut für Kreislaufforschung und Sportmedizin
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Shandong Cancer Hospital (Shandong Provincial Institute of Cancer Prevention and Treatment)
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2005–2012
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1994–2009
    • University of Cologne
      • • Center for Experimental Medicine
      • • Department of Paedatric Cardiology
      • • Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      • • Institute of Anatomy I
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2007–2008
    • University of Bonn
      • Institut für Physiologie I
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • University of Freiburg
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2006
    • Universitätsklinikum Münster
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Universität Ulm
      Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2002
    • University of Münster
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2001
    • Lund University
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2000
    • Nippon Medical School
      • Department of Otolaryngology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1999
    • University of Hamburg
      • Department of Neuroanatomy
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 1997
    • MediaPark Klinik Köln
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany