Wilhelm Bloch

Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln, Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (504)1678.63 Total impact

  • S Mathes · J Mester · W Bloch · P Wahl ·
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    ABSTRACT: High-intensity training (HIT) can improve endurance performance and VO2max more effectively than high-volume training (HVT). Hence, the implementation of HIT protocols such as 4x30 s "all-out" and 4x4 min at 90-95% VO2max is currently existent in various sports. However, there is limited awareness of the acute changes in blood cell count following these protocols. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the acute effects on circulating leukocyte differential count (LDC) by comparing the two HIT interventions with a single HVT intervention. 12 healthy triathletes/cyclists (VO2peak: 64.3 ± 9.7 mL·kg-1·min-1) participated in the study. Subjects performed 1) a two-hours low- intensity exercise at an intensity of 55% peak power output (PPO); 2) 4x4 min interval bouts at an intensity of 90 - 95% PPO; 3) 4x30 s "all-out". Blood samples were taken immediately before exercise (pre) and 0', 30', 60' and 180' post-exercise. Biphasic leukocyte enumeration was different between both HIT protocols and nonexistent after high-volume exercise. Data revealed significant time and intervention effects for leukocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils. After 4x30 s lymphocytes were significantly higher 0 ́ post-intervention compared to 4x4 min and high-volume exercise. Furthermore, concentrations of leukocytes and neutrophils were significantly higher after the "all-out" protocol compared to 4x4 min at 180' post-exercise. The results suggest that 4x30 s result in larger short-term perturbations in the circulating fraction of leukocytes compared to 4x4 min, which might be associated with increased hormonal and metabolic stress responses after 4x30 s.
    The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 11/2015; · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Merkel cell-neurite complex initiates the perception of touch and mediates Aβ slowly adapting type I responses. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with T-cell-mediated inflammation, whereas hyperkeratosis is characterized with or without epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa. To determine the effects of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis on the Merkel cell-neurite complex, healthy oral mucosal epithelium and lesional oral mucosal epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients were stained by immunohistochemistry using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and double immunofluorescence using pan cytokeratin, cytokeratin 20 (K20, a Merkel cell marker), and neurofilament 200 (NF200, a myelinated Aβ- and Aδ-nerve fibre marker) antibodies. NF200-immunoreactive (ir) nerve fibres in healthy tissues and in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were counted and statistically analysed. In the healthy oral mucosa, K20-positive Merkel cells with and without close association to the intraepithelial NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected. In the lesional oral mucosa of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients, extremely rare NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected only in the lamina propria. Compared with healthy tissues, lichen planus and hyperkeratosis tissues had significantly decreased numbers of NF200-ir nerve fibres in the oral mucosal epithelium. Lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were associated with the absence of Aβ-nerve endings in the oral mucosal epithelium. Thus, we conclude that mechanosensation mediated by the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the oral mucosal epithelium is impaired in lichen planus and hyperkeratosis.
    International Journal of Oral Science 10/2015; DOI:10.1038/ijos.2015.31 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of the immune response during injury is a critical early event that determines whether the outcome of tissue restoration is regeneration or replacement of the damaged tissue with a scar. The mechanisms by which immune signals control these fundamentally different regenerative pathways are largely unknown. We have demonstrated that, during skin repair in mice, interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα)-dependent macrophage activation controlled collagen fibril assembly and that this process was important for effective repair while having adverse pro-fibrotic effects. We identified Relm-α as one important player in the pathway from IL-4Rα signaling in macrophages to the induction of lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), an enzyme that directs persistent pro-fibrotic collagen cross-links, in fibroblasts. Notably, Relm-β induced LH2 in human fibroblasts, and expression of both factors was increased in lipodermatosclerosis, a condition of excessive human skin fibrosis. Collectively, our findings provide mechanistic insights into the link between type 2 immunity and initiation of pro-fibrotic pathways.
    Immunity 10/2015; 43(4). DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.09.005 · 21.56 Impact Factor
  • C Brinkmann · D A Bizjak · S Bischof · J Latsch · K Brixius · W Bloch · M Grau ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the effects of endurance training on red blood cells (RBC) in seventeen non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic men with a special focus on in vivo RBC aging. Venous blood was collected pre- and post-training at rest. RBC from whole blood and RBC separated according to cell age by density-gradient centrifugation were analyzed. RBC deformability was measured by ektacytometry. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to quantify the RBC-nitric oxide (NO) synthase activation (RBC-NOSSer1177) because RBC-NOS-produced NO can contribute to increased RBC deformability. The proportion of "young" RBC was significantly higher post-training. RBC deformability of all RBC (RBC of all ages) remained unaltered post-training. During RBC aging, RBC deformability decreased in both pre- and post-training. However, the training significantly increased RBC deformability in "young" and reduced their deformability in aging RBC. RBC-NOS activation remained unaltered in all RBC post-training. It tendentially increased in aging RBC pre-training, but did not change during aging post-training. The training significantly reduced RBC-NOS activation in "old" RBC. Endurance training may improve the RBC system (higher amount of "young" RBC which are more deformable). It remains speculative whether changes in older RBC (reduced RBC-NOS activation and deformability) could lead to more rapid elimination of aged RBC.
    Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 09/2015; DOI:10.3233/CH-151957 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oncological treatments can lead to acute and chronic cancer related toxicities. In recent years, a large number of clinical studies have reported positive effects of exercise to the bio-psycho-social regeneration of cancer patients. However, very few evidence-based programs have been implemented into practice with little opportunity for cancer patients to engage in such programs. Reviews and RCT studies on exercise and cancer are showing that specific exercise programs have a positive impact on fatigue syndrome, urinary incontinence, lymphedema, polyneuropathy, arthralgia, and androgen deprivation related toxicities. With the increasing evidence for exercise oncology interventions, recommendations arising from clinical trials should be translated into clinical practice and this should be viewed as an important next step in this fast moving field of exercise oncology. For that the personalized treatment concept "Oncologic clinical exercise" (OTT) was developed.
    DMW - Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 09/2015; 140(19):1457-1461. DOI:10.1055/s-0041-104465 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Victims that were exposed to the chemical warfare agent Sulfur mustard (SM) suffer from chronic dermal and ocular lesions, severe pulmonary problems and cancer development. It has been proposed that epigenetic perturbations might be involved in that process but this has not been investigated so far. In this study, we investigated epigenetic modulations in vitro using early endothelial cells (EEC) that were exposed to different SM concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 23.5 and 50μM). A comprehensive analysis of 78 genes related to epigenetic pathways (i.e. DNA-methylation and post-translational histone modifications) was performed. Moreover, we analyzed global DNA methylation in vitro in EEC after SM exposure as a maker for epigenetic modulations and in vivo using human skin samples that were obtained from a patient 1 year after an accidently exposure to pure SM. SM exposure resulted in a complex regulation pattern of epigenetic modulators which was accompanied by a global increase of DNA methylation in vitro. Examination of the SM exposed human skin samples also revealed a significant increase of global DNA methylation in vivo, underlining the biological relevance of our findings. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that SM affects epigenetic pathways and causes epigenetic modulations both in vivo and in vitro.
    Toxicology Letters 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2015.09.016 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Einleitung / Problemstellung: Die extrakorporale Stoßwellenbehandlung wird bei unterschiedlichen Erkrankungen und zur Regeneration verschiedener Gewebe eingesetzt. So zeigten sich bei Nierensteinen, Osteoarthritis, erektiler Dysfunktion und Verletzungen des Bewegungsapparates positive Ergebnisse, deren Ursachen bisher nur unzureichend geklärt sind. Um das adaptive Potential von Stoßwellen durch muskuläre Schädigung zu untersuchen, wurde in der vorliegenden Pilotstudie der Einfluss auf die Serumkonzentration der Creatinkinase (CK) und Laktatdehydrogenase (LDH) untersucht. Methodik: Vier gesunde, unverletzte, männliche Probanden zwischen 18 und 35 Jahren wurden einmalig mit fokussierten Stoßwellen behandelt, die auf dem M. quadriceps femoris appliziert wurden. Venöse Blutabnahmen erfolgten unmittelbar vor (Pre) und nach der Behandlung (Post), sowie 2, 6 und 24 Stunden im Anschluss. Die CK- und LDH-Konzentrationen wurden mittels antikörperbasierter Nachweisverfahren (ELISA) bestimmt, deren Veränderungen anschließend über Effektstärken (Cohen’s d) zum Ausgangswert verdeutlicht wurden. Ergebnisse: Die maximale CK-Konzentration lag bei 211 U∙l-1, was auf eine minimale Muskelschädigung hinweist. Zum Post-Wert ergab sich zunächst eine geringe bis mittlere Abnahme (dPost = -0,42), die sich durch den Anstieg bei 2 (d2h = 0,22) und 6h (d6h = 0,40) relativierte. Nach 24h wurde nahezu das Ausgangsniveau erreicht (d24h = -0,08). Während die CK-Werte nahezu konstant blieben, verlief die LDH inter-individuell sehr unterschiedlich. Trotz der höheren Effektstärken (dPost = -0,31; d2h = 0,42; d6h = 1,11; d24h = -0,48) lag die Differenz zwischen Pre und 24h lediglich bei 2,75 U∙l-1. Diskussion / Schlussfolgerungen: Anhand der Ergebnisse lässt sich vermuten, dass die einmalige Stoßwellenapplikation keinen bedeutsamen, mechanischen Stimulus für etwaige Adaptationen hervorruft. Allerdings können durch die geringe Fallzahl (n = 4) und die inter-individuelle Variabilität der Verläufe keine hinreichenden Aussagen getroffen werden. Weitere Studien mit einem größeren Stichprobenumfang und längerem Messzeitraum, erscheinen für die Untersuchung muskulärer Schädigungen durch Stoßwellen ratsam.
    Deutscher Sportärztekongress, Frankfurt am Main; 09/2015
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    ABSTRACT: Filipovic, A, Kleinöder, H, Plück, D, Hollmann, W, Bloch, W, and Grau, M. Influence of whole-body electrostimulation on human red blood cell deformability. J Strength Cond Res 29(9): 2570-2578, 2015-Red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS)-dependent NO production is essential for the maintenance of RBC deformability, which is known to improve oxygen supply to the working tissue. Electrostimulation of the whole body (WB-EMS) has been shown to improve maximal strength, springiness, and jumping power of trained and untrained athletes. To examine whether these 2 parameters are associated, this study, for the first time, aimed to investigate the effects of an 18-week dynamic WB-EMS program on RBC deformability in addition to maximal strength performance (1 repetition maximum [1RM]) in elite soccer players. Fifteen test persons were assigned in either WB-EMS group (EG, n = 10) or training group (TG, n = 5). Next to their weekly training sessions, EG performed 3 × 10 squat jumps under the influence of WB-EMS twice per week between weeks 1 and 14 and once per week between weeks 14 and 18. Training group only performed 3 × 10 squat jumps. Performance was assessed by a maximal strength test on the leg press machine (1RM). Subjects were tested at baseline and after weeks 7, 14, and 18 with blood sampling before (Pre), 15-30 minutes after (Post), and 24 hours after (24-hour Post) the training. The results showed that maximal strength was significantly improved in EG (p < 0.01). Maximum RBC deformability (EImax) increased on EMS stimulus in EG while it remained unaffected in the TG. Acute increase in EImax at baseline was explained by an increase in RBC-NOS activation while chronic increase of deformability must be caused by different, yet unknown, mechanisms. EImax decreased between weeks 14 and 18 suggesting that 1 WB-EMS session per week is not sufficient to alter deformability (EImax). In contrast, the deformability at low shear stress (EI 3 Pa), comparable with conditions found in the microcirculation, significantly increased in EG until week 14, whereas in TG deformability only, increased until week 7 due to increasing training volume after the winter break. The results indicate that WB-EMS represents a useful and time-saving addition to conventional training sessions to improve RBC deformability and possibly oxygen supply to the working tissue and thus promoting general force components in high performance sport.
    The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 09/2015; 29(9):2570-8. DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000916 · 2.08 Impact Factor

  • European Respiratory Journal 09/2015; 46(suppl 59):OA4974. DOI:10.1183/13993003.congress-2015.OA4974 · 7.64 Impact Factor
  • Anja Großek · Freerk T. Baumann · Wilhelm Bloch · Fiona Streckmann ·

    09/2015; 18(9):45-47. DOI:10.1007/s15015-015-2010-z
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To provide initial information on the prevalence of physical activity levels in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases and identify associations with physical and mental health outcomes. Methods: Self-reported physical activity levels (Modified Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire), physical and mental health outcomes (SF-36 Questionnaire), as well as objective physical performance measures (400m walk, 6m walk) were assessed in 48 prostate cancer survivors (mean age 70.7 ± 8.0; BMI 28.5 ± 4.2; PSA 52.7 ± 154.1) with bone metastases (58.8% > 2 regions affected) at baseline of a randomised controlled trial. Results: Only 14 men (29.2%) met the current aerobic exercise guidelines (150 minutes of moderate intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous exercise per week or an equivalent combination), while 34 (70.8%) were insufficiently active. Men that were not meeting the aerobic exercise guidelines, had lower physical functioning (p<.01), role functioning (physical and emotional) (p<.05), and general health scores (p<.05). The 6m walk (fast pace) and 400m walk times were also slower, indicating reduced physical performance in men who were insufficiently active compared to those meeting aerobic exercise guidelines (p<.05). Conclusions: Lower levels of aerobic exercise are associated with reduced physical and mental health outcomes in prostate cancer survivors with bone metastases. While previous research has focused primarily on non-metastatic cancer patients, our initial results suggest that meeting aerobic exercise guidelines may preserve health outcomes in prostate cancer patients with advanced bone metastatic disease. Further research is required to confirm and expand these findings.
    BJU International 08/2015; 116(Supplement 1):55. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) invades its human host via skin or mucosa. We aim to understand how HSV-1 overcomes the barrier function of the host epithelia, and for this reason established an ex vivo infection assay initially with murine skin samples. Here, we report how tissue has to be prepared to be susceptible to HSV-1 infection. Most efficient infection of the epidermis was achieved by removing the dermis. HSV-1 initially invaded the basal epidermal layer and from there spreading to the suprabasal layers was observed. Strikingly, in resting stage hair follicles, only the hair germ was infected, whereas the quiescent bulge stem cells (SC) were resistant to infection. However, during the growth phase, infected cells were also detected in the activated bulge SC. We demonstrated that cell proliferation was not a precondition for HSV-1 invasion but SC activation was required as shown by infection of aberrantly activated bulge SC in integrin-linked kinase (ILK)-deficient hair follicles. These results suggest that the status of the bulge SC determines whether HSV-1 can reach its receptors, while the receptors on basal keratinocytes are accessible irrespective of their proliferation status.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 23 July 2015. doi:10.1038/jid.2015.290.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 07/2015; 135(12). DOI:10.1038/jid.2015.290 · 7.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise interventions in pediatric oncology are feasible and safe. However, scarce data are available with regard to the effectiveness of outpatient, group-based exercise interventions. As well, the potential role of exercise to improve motor performance has not been adequately explored despite being a meaningful outcome during childhood with important implications for physical activity behavior. No study has yet demonstrated significant changes in motor performance after an exercise intervention. This explorative, prospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of a 6-month, group-based, therapeutic exercise program for a mixed childhood cancer population on motor performance, level of activity, and quality of life. After cessation of inpatient medical treatment, childhood cancer outpatients aged 4-17 years exercised once a week during a 6-month period (IG). Comparison groups included childhood cancer outpatients receiving care as usual (CG(1) ), as well as healthy peers (matched to IG by age and gender) (CG(2) ). Overall motor performance, various motor dimensions, activity in sport clubs and school sports, as well as physical and emotional well-being were significantly reduced in the IG at baseline. Significant differences between the IG and CG(1) and/or CG(2) were identified in the change of overall motor performance, single motor dimensions, overall level of activity, and emotional well-being from baseline to post-intervention. The exercise intervention was beneficial in terms of motor performance, level of activity, and emotional well-being. As such, this study provides support for group-based exercise as a potential strategy to improve these outcomes after inpatient medical treatment. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/pbc.25640 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to chemical substances (including alkylating chemical warfare agents like sulfur and nitrogen mustards) cause a plethora of clinical symptoms including wound healing disorder. The physiological process of wound healing is highly complex. The formation of granulation tissue is a key step in this process resulting in a preliminary wound closure and providing a network of new capillary blood vessels - either through vasculogenesis (novel formation) or angiogenesis (sprouting of existing vessels). Both vasculo- and angiogenesis require functional, directed migration of endothelial cells. Thus, investigation of early endothelial cell (EEC) migration is important to understand the pathophysiology of chemical induced wound healing disorders and to potentially identify novel strategies for therapeutic intervention. We assessed impaired wound healing after alkylating agent exposure and tested potential candidate compounds for treatment. We used a set of techniques outlined in this protocol. A modified Boyden chamber to quantitatively investigate chemokinesis of EEC is described. Moreover, the use of the wound healing assay in combination with track analysis to qualitatively assess migration is illustrated. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the fluorescent dye TMRM for the investigation of mitochondrial membrane potential to identify underlying mechanisms of disturbed cell migration. The following protocol describes basic techniques that have been adapted for the investigation of EEC.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 07/2015; 2015(101). DOI:10.3791/52768 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myogenesis is defined as growth, differentiation and repair of muscles where cell fusion of myoblasts to multinucleated myofibers is one major characteristic. Other cell fusion events in humans are found with bone resorbing osteoclasts and placental syncytiotrophoblasts. No unifying gene regulation for natural cell fusions has been found. We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies of competitive cyclists for muscle-specific attributes and expression of human endogenous retrovirus (ERV) envelope genes due to their involvement in cell fusion of osteoclasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Comparing muscle biopsies from post- with the pre-competitive seasons a significant 2.25-fold increase of myonuclei/mm fiber, a 2.38-fold decrease of fiber area/nucleus and a 3.1-fold decrease of satellite cells (SCs) occurred. We propose that during the pre-competitive season SC proliferation occurred following with increased cell fusion during the competitive season. Expression of twenty-two envelope genes of muscle biopsies demonstrated a significant increase of putative muscle-cell fusogenic genes Syncytin-1 and Syncytin-3, but also for the non-fusogenic erv3. Immunohistochemistry analyses showed that Syncytin-1 mainly localized to the sarcolemma of myofibers positive for myosin heavy-chain isotypes. Cellular receptors SLC1A4 and SLC1A5 of Syncytin-1 showed significant decrease of expression in post-competitive muscles compared with the pre-competitive season, but only SLC1A4 protein expression localized throughout the myofiber. Erv3 protein was strongly expressed throughout the myofiber, whereas envK1-7 localized to SC nuclei and myonuclei. Syncytin-1 transcription factors, PPARγ and RXRα, showed no protein expression in the myofiber, whereas the pCREB-Ser133 activator of Syncytin-1 was enriched to SC nuclei and myonuclei. Syncytin-1, Syncytin-3, SLC1A4 and PAX7 gene regulations along with MyoD1 and myogenin were verified during proliferating or actively-fusing human primary myoblast cell cultures, resembling muscle biopsies of cyclists. Myoblast treatment with anti-Synycytin-1 abrogated cell fusion in vitro. Our findings support functional roles for ERV envelope proteins, especially Syncytin-1, contributing to cell fusion of myotubes.
    PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0132099. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132099 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is commonly practiced and may enhance peripheral blood flow. Here, we investigated muscle morphology and acute microcirculatory responses before and after a 6-week resistive exercise training intervention without (RE) or with (RVE) simultaneous whole-body vibrations (20 Hz, 6 mm peak-to-peak amplitude) in 26 healthy men in a randomized, controlled parallel-design study. Total haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were measured in gastrocnemius muscle (GM) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured via spirometry, and skeletal muscle morphology was determined in soleus (SOL) muscle biopsies. Our data reveal that exercise-induced muscle deoxygenation both before and after 6 weeks training was similar in RE and RVE (P = 0·76), although VO2 was 20% higher in the RVE group (P<0·001). The RVE group showed a 14%-point increase in reactive hyperaemia (P = 0·007) and a 27% increase in blood volume (P<0·01) in GM after 6 weeks of training. The number of capillaries around fibres was increased by 15% after 6 weeks training in both groups (P<0·001) with no specific effect of superimposed WBV (P = 0·61). Neither of the training regimens induced fibre hypertrophy in SOL. The present findings suggest an increased blood volume and vasodilator response in GM as an adaptation to long-term RVE, which was not observed after RE alone. We conclude that RVE training enhances vasodilation of small arterioles and possibly capillaries. This effect might be advantageous for muscle thermoregulation and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to exercising muscle and removal of carbon dioxide and metabolites.
    Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 07/2015; 35(6):425-435. DOI:10.1111/cpf.12180 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been a growing interest in the use of B cells for cancer vaccines, since they have yielded promising results in preclinical animal models. Contrary to dendritic cells (DCs), we know little about the migration behavior of B cells in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the interactions between CD40-activated B (CD40B) cells and cytotoxic T cells in vitro and the migration behavior of CD40B cells in vivo. Dynamic interactions of human antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells were observed by time-lapse video microscopy. The migratory and chemoattractant potential of CD40B cells was analyzed in vitro and in vivo using flow cytometry, standard transwell migration assays, and imaging of fluorescently labeled murine CD40B cells. Murine CD40B cells show migratory features similar to human CD40B cells. They express important lymph node homing receptors which were functional and induced chemotaxis of T cells in vitro. Striking differences were observed with regard to interactions of human APCs with T cells. CD40B cells differ from DCs by displaying a rapid migratory pattern undergoing highly dynamic, short-lived and sequential interactions with T cells. In vivo, CD40B cells are home to the secondary lymphoid organs where they accumulate in the B cell zone before traveling to the B/T cell boundary. Moreover, intravenous (i.v.) administration of murine CD40B cells induced an antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell response. Taken together, this data show that CD40B cells home secondary lymphoid organs where they physically interact with T cells to induce antigen-specific T cell responses, thus underscoring their potential as cellular adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy.
    OncoImmunology 06/2015; 4(9):00-00. DOI:10.1080/2162402X.2015.1038684 · 6.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise therapy is an integral part of today’s oncological rehabilitation. In order to optimize the outcome of exercise programs in consideration of side effects of cancer and cancer therapies, further studies are necessary. Along with aerobic and coordination exercise, resistance training is an essential part of exercise therapy. Resistance training aids to combat side effects of lymphedema, antiandrogen therapy and cachexia among others. The present study investigated whether high load resistance training is superior to moderate resistance training regarding the increase of physical strength. For this purpose, 31 tumor patients without prior resistance training experience (different entities and therapeutic status) were randomized into either a moderate training group (n=17) or a hypertrophy training group (n=14). For the first 8 weeks, all patients trained in a muscular endurance circuit (2 rounds) consisting of 6 machines (20 repetitions on each), covering the big muscle groups. For the following 8 weeks the MT continued to lift at 20 repetitions, whereas the resistance for the HT was increased to a point where only 8–12 repetitions were possible. The maximum force was determined prior to the intervention (t0), after 8 weeks (t1), and after 16 weeks (t2), using a hypothetical one repetition maximum (h1RM) test. While both groups had comparable baseline levels, the results indicate that there was a significant increase in strength from t1 to t2 in the HT in almost all muscle groups. It can be concluded that a HT is vastly superior to MT regarding the increase of strength. When contraindications are absent, high load resistance training can be recommended, especially for increasing muscle mass. Whether solely the increase of strength plays a central or a peripheral role for the treatment of side effects, such as the fatigue syndrome, needs to be investigated by further studies.
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für Onkologie 06/2015; 47(2):70-74. DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1547546
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    ABSTRACT: Background Moderate joint loading is essential to maintain cartilage health and function but the impact of immobilization on articular cartilage in healthy individuals is not well understood. One established biomarker for monitoring cartilage metabolism in relation to joint degeneration is cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)1 which is sensitive to physiological loading2-4 and 14-days of immobilization5. Objectives To analyze the effect of 21-days of head down tilt bed rest (HDT-BR) (Study1) and 5.5 months of microgravity (Study 2) on serum COMP concentration. Methods Study 1: Twelve healthy male subjects (34±8 yrs) participated in a 21-days HDT-BR study performed in a cross-over design. HDT-BR-only was the control (CON) condition. The intervention was resistive vibration exercise (RVE) alone or in combination with a nutrition intervention (NEX). 11 blood samples were collected before, during and after HDT-BR. Study 2: preliminary results of two astronauts will be presented. Blood samples were collected before and after 5.5 months on the International Space Station. Blood samples for both studies were taken in the morning after overnight-fast and 30 minutes supine rest. Biomarker concentrations were analyzed using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis (IBM SPSS Statistics, 19.01) was performed using repeated measures ANOVA (p<0.05). Results Study 1: Serum COMP concentration decreased with the first day of HDT (-24.7±12.5%; p<0.05). Concentrations returned to baseline levels after subjects were mobile again. RVE and NEX interventions did not affect this result (NEX: - 14.3±16.7%; RVE: -15.7±9.2%). Study 2: Preliminary results (n=2) indicate a high increase (+39.9%; + 13.3%) in serum COMP concentration 7 days after return to gravity. Levels remain elevated until 30 days after landing. Conclusions These results suggest that cartilage ECM is sensitive to unloading and immobilization may initiate catabolic processes in cartilage metabolism. Investigating cartilage health in response to a stay in microgravity is a unique model and will broaden the understanding of cartilage metabolism. Future research should investigate sufficient exercise countermeasures in order to minimize negative effects of immobilization on cartilage health. References Disclosure of Interest None declared
    Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 06/2015; 74(Suppl 2):919.1-919. DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-eular.6311 · 10.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,678.63 Total Impact Points


  • 2004-2015
    • Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln
      • • Abteilung molekulare und zelluläre Sportmedizin
      • • Institut für Kreislaufforschung und Sportmedizin
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2011
    • Klinikum Weiden
      Weyden, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1994-2011
    • University of Cologne
      • • Center for Experimental Medicine
      • • Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      • • Institute of Neurophysiology
      • • Institute of Anatomy I
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2002-2010
    • University of Münster
      • Department of Cardiology and Angiology
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2006
    • Universitätsklinikum Münster
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2005
    • Shandong Cancer Hospital (Shandong Provincial Institute of Cancer Prevention and Treatment)
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2001
    • Lund University
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 1997
    • MediaPark Klinik Köln
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany